Self Help

Art of Reading People How to Deal with Toxic People and Manipulation to Avoid (or End) an Abusive Relation (Positive Psychology Coaching Series Book 19), The - Ian Tuhovsky

Author Photo

Matheus Puppe

· 25 min read

“If you liked the book, you can purchase it using the links in the description below. By buying through these links, you contribute to the blog without paying any extra, as we receive a small commission. This helps us bring more quality content to you!”



Here is a summary of the key points from “The Art of Reading People: How to Deal with Toxic People and Manipulation to Avoid (or End) an Abusive Relation”:

  • It is important to learn how to accurately read people in order to avoid toxic or abusive relationships. Most people think they can read others well but are often just guessing or relying on empathy.

  • True social intelligence and reading people involves looking beyond surface level behaviors and identifying the deeper meanings and motivations. It requires stepping outside of one’s own perspective.

  • Empathy is useful in certain contexts like parenting but fails when dealing with deceitful people who intentionally manipulate others. Empathy assumes others feel the same way we would.

  • Successfully reading others means unraveling any lies or fake behaviors to identify the real reasons and intentions behind a person’s words and actions.

  • The book will cover different types of toxic personality traits like narcissism, Machiavellianism, solipsism, antisocial behavior, and how to spot manipulation tactics like pathological lying.

  • Later chapters discuss why people stay in toxic relationships, cultivating independence, and mental health factors that can contribute to abusive dynamics. The overall goal is to help readers avoid or exit such relationships by improving their ability to accurately assess other people.

  • People often lie with their words, facial expressions, and actions. It’s important to be able to read people and detect lies because lies can mislead us or harm us.

  • Categorizing people simply as “good guys” or “bad guys” is an oversimplification. Most people are complicated and have both good and bad qualities. We tend to view exes or people we dislike as “bad guys” when really they are just complex human beings.

  • To read people objectively, we need to set aside our emotions and personal biases. We should see people as neutral forces rather than villains. Labeling others as villains does not help us understand their behaviors and intentions.

  • The goal of reading people is to gain insight into their true nature and motivations so we can protect ourselves if needed, rather than making emotional judgments of “good” vs “bad.” Seeing people accurately helps us respond appropriately in different situations.

  • There is a difference between objective morality/goodness based on harming others, and subjective views of people based on our relationships and experiences with them. We need to distinguish these to read people impartially.

So in summary, the key message is that accurately reading people requires looking at them objectively rather than through the lens of personal biases, staying aware of lies and deception, and focusing on understanding motives rather than making “good vs bad” character judgments. This allows for a clearer interpretation of people’s behaviors.

Here are the key differences between the two people described:

  • The person who demands money because she thinks it’s okay is motivated by her own belief that taking money is acceptable or reasonable. She does not consider how it may hurt the giver.

  • The person who demands money despite it hurting the giver is aware that taking the money would negatively impact the giver. However, they prioritize getting the money over avoiding harming the other person.

  • The first person is self-justified and does not factor in the giver’s perspective or feelings. The second person acknowledges it may hurt the giver but demands it anyway.

  • The first person’s actions are based on her own perception/judgment of what is okay, without regard for others. The second person knows their actions would hurt someone else but does it anyway, disregarding others’ welfare.

  • In summary, the first is self-focused and lacks empathy, while the second is aware of harm but prioritizes their own wants over avoiding hurting others. The second person’s actions could be described as more objectively “bad” as they involve intentional disregard for another’s well-being.

Based on the information provided:

  • The person seems to have initially hurt or manipulated the writer by convincing them to invest a significant amount of time, energy and money into a business venture that ultimately failed, wasting those resources. However, it’s unclear if this was intentional manipulation or due to exaggerated claims and unrealistic expectations on the person’s part.

  • The person does not seem aware that their behavior hurt the writer, as they continued reassuring the writer the venture would succeed even as it failed. So they may have been operating based on their own delusions rather than maliciously.

  • When the venture failed, the writer immediately cut off contact with the person, so it’s unknown if the person would have changed their behavior or been remorseful if given a chance to correct it.

  • The person’s actions seemed primarily focused on convincing the writer the venture would succeed, potentially to continue getting the writer’s resources/investment, rather than deliberately trying to hurt the writer. So their behavior seemed more self-centered and unrealistic than malicious.

  • The key lessons seem to be not to make rash judgments based on a single negative experience, to try to understand others’ motivations before labeling them as “bad,” and to have varied levels of social connections beyond just “friends” or “avoid.” Most people are mixed and relationships evolve over time.

So in summary, this particular person’s behavior harmed the writer but their intentions and ability to change are unclear based on the limited information provided. A devil’s advocate approach of trying to understand their motivations could provide more insight before making determinations.

  • People want others to see them as friends because it gives them access to time, energy, and money. Brands and influencers do this to engage customers and followers.

  • However, everyone’s time and resources are limited. It’s not possible to be meaningful friends with everyone. Quality of relationships is more important than quantity.

  • True friends are those who know your authentic self and you can share intimate moments with without hiding. These close relationships should get priority over superficial connections.

  • Research shows most people can only maintain 5 very close relationships and 15 close family members. Widening circles up to 150 acquaintances. Others are just passing contacts.

  • It’s important to identify inner and outer circles to prevent undesirable people from infiltrating the inner circle and potentially hurting close friends and family.

  • Bad people get into social circles because humans are social and seek survival benefits and emotional fulfillment from relationships. Bad people do this too but don’t value closeness and will use and dispose of others. Proper caution is needed.

  • Bad Guys do not value others intrinsically, they are willing to harm others, and they try to collect social circles.

  • Bad Guys use strategies like recruiting, applying, trauma bonding, and love bombing to infiltrate social circles and manipulate people.

  • Recruiting involves persuading someone to rely heavily on the Bad Guy and separating them from other relationships. Applying involves slowly pushing others out of the social circle.

  • Trauma bonding happens when a Bad Guy causes trauma but also provides relief, making the victim dependent.

  • Love bombing involves showering someone with intense affection upfront to gain trust, then abruptly withdrawing it once the Bad Guy’s goals are achieved.

  • These strategies work because they appeal to human desires for relationships, support and affection. Victims may not realize they are being manipulated until it is too late. The examples show how these strategies can play out in real social situations.

Here are the key reasons people may stay in toxic relationships according to the passage:

  1. Fallacy of sunk costs - The psychological bias where we feel more compelled to continue an endeavor due to the time, money or effort already invested in it, even when it may no longer make rational sense to do so. This keeps people gambling and staying in failed relationships past their expiration.

  2. Insecure future - We stay because we don’t feel we have another viable option or support system to turn to if we leave the relationship. Leaving means facing an insecure future alone.

  3. Extreme attraction - On some level, we may still feel deeply attached or attracted to our partner, even if the relationship has become toxic. This powerful emotional bond makes leaving very difficult.

  4. Fear - We stay out of fear of retaliation, abandonment, being alone, or other fears of what may happen if we do leave the relationship. The toxic relationship becomes familiar despite the abuse.

In summary, the sunk cost fallacy, insecurity about our future without the person, lingering deep attraction, and underlying fears all contribute to why people find it so difficult to terminate toxic relationships, even when the disadvantages far outweigh the advantages of staying. A sense of lack of options and emotional dependence on the other person are particularly important drivers.

  • Excuses explain our actions in toxic relationships and allow us to avoid facing the real core reasons for staying.

  • The three core reasons are insecurity, extreme attraction, and fear. Euphemisms and excuses are like bandages that prevent us from assessing the true damage.

  • Insecurity stems from a desire for validation, uncertainty about the future alone, and our innate preference for comfort and routine (even if it’s unhealthy).

  • Extreme attraction blinds us to flaws and makes us vulnerable to manipulation. It evolved to help form connections despite imperfections but can be exploited.

  • Fear of the other person, social stigma, sunk costs, losing connections, and uncertainty all keep people stuck in toxic relationships.

  • It’s difficult to identify our own excuses because the core reasons manifest differently based on our unique situations. But excuses ultimately come back to insecurity, attraction, and fear of change or unknown outcomes. We need to acknowledge the real reasons to make progress in ending unhealthy relationships.

  • Narcissism involves seeing oneself as more important and special than others. The DSM lists criteria for narcissistic personality disorder.

  • Having a grandiose sense of self-importance means narcissists see themselves on a pedestal above others, like royalty. This can lead to mistreatment of others seen as beneath them.

  • Being preoccupied with fantasies of success/power/beauty involves living in one’s own fantasies rather than reality. Narcissists need constant validation and perfection to not feel like failures. This makes reality dissatisfying.

  • Believing one is only understood by/should associate with other special people leads to categorizing others based on perceived importance and only associating with those seen as most important. While people tend to flock to similar others, narcissists take this to an extreme.

  • Requiring constant admiration from others stems from a fragile self-esteem beneath the grandiose exterior. Narcissists envy others’ successes and see others as extensions to boost their own ego.

  • Lacking empathy is a key trait, as narcissists cannot see others’ perspectives or appreciate their feelings as distinct from their own. This facilitates mistreatment and manipulation of others.

In summary, narcissism revolves around an inflated, grandiose self-image combined with a lack of empathy that enables narcissists to view and treat others as mere objects for boosting their fragile ego.

  • Narcissists tend to only associate with people they see as perfect, hoping their perfection will rub off on them. However, this sets those people up for disappointment and anger once the narcissist’s rose-colored glasses come off.

  • They require excessive admiration, even for minor things. Continually massaging someone’s ego is not a healthy basis for a relationship.

  • They have a sense of entitlement and expect to be admired, rewarded, praised excessively without needing to earn it. This leads to rage and denial when they fail or lose.

  • They are interpersonally exploitative, treating others as means to an end or objects rather than fully empathizing with their feelings and needs.

  • They lack empathy and are unwilling to recognize or care about how their actions affect others. This reduces people to tools.

  • They are often envious of others’ successes and assume others are envious of them, keeping their defenses constantly heightened.

  • They show arrogant, haughty behaviors and attitudes, thinking they are above others and rules. This leads to bullying behaviors.

In summary, narcissistic behaviors harm relationships and interpersonal interactions by objectifying others, requiring excessive admiration, having unrealistic expectations of perfection, and lacking empathy - all of which can damage trust and care between people.

Here is a summary of the key points about means from the passage:

  • Means refers to the actions or methods used to achieve an end or goal, regardless of ethics. The Machiavellian view is that the ends justify the means.

  • Under Machiavellianism, there is no consideration of the big picture or long term effects. The sole focus is on achieving the desired end result by any means necessary.

  • A Machiavellian person sees their ideal goal as the only good outcome and will lie, cheat, or do anything to achieve it, even if they are not ready for the goal. They have no pragmatic considerations.

  • Machiavellianism allows people to manipulate others into doing their bidding by convincing others that their goal is also the goal of others.

  • A Machiavellian always tries to get what they want from people, no matter the cost to others. They need to convince others that helping them is in their own self-interest too.

  • Machiavellianism is characterized by a lack of morality - a Machiavellian will stop at nothing to achieve their ends. They know they need others’ help so they promise benefits to others to gain their compliance.

Here are the key points about interacting with someone who assumes other people are just like themselves without internal experiences:

  • It can become pathological if they are completely unable to consider other perspectives and see others as autonomous beings with their own thoughts and feelings. This goes beyond a philosophical thought experiment.

  • It has similarities to narcissism in prioritizing one’s own perspective, but solipsism involves a deeper inability to comprehend other minds rather than just a strong self-focus.

  • In close relationships, it can negatively impact the other person by violating their autonomy and individuality in interactions. The solipsist may get angry when others don’t conform to their expectations.

  • However, not all selfish or disconnected behavior indicates true solipsism. Some people have autism, lack of social experience, or narcissistic traits without the deeper deficit in perspective-taking that solipsism involves.

  • When dealing with a solipsist in daily life, it’s best to put one’s own needs first, maintain low emotions, use simple direct communication, and change topics when they focus only on themselves. The goal is a brief, positive interaction rather than an in-depth relationship.

  • Avoiding them if possible is healthier than engaging, as they are literally unable to see the other perspective in a relationship. But polite, low-key interactions may be necessary in close contexts like family or work.

The key is not taking their behavior personally, prioritizing one’s own needs, and keeping interactions brief, positive and focused outward rather than engaging with their solipsistic worldview. True understanding of their condition is unlikely.

Here is a summary while keeping in mind this is for a toddler:

Some people have trouble following rules and caring about others. It can be hard for them to stop and think before acting. While most people are nice, these people may accidentally hurt friends if they don’t slow down. It’s important for grownups to keep kids safe. Remember your mom and dad love you very much! Let’s find what we need and get back home for cookies.

  • Psychopaths tend to have shallow affect, meaning they experience emotions to a lesser depth and range than most people. They may be missing certain emotions entirely or feel them only faintly.

  • Shallow affect makes it difficult for psychopaths to feel emotions like guilt, shame, empathy, fear, and anger that normally guide moral behavior and allow people to relate to others’ suffering.

  • Without these emotions to self-correct, psychopaths are more likely to repeatedly engage in harmful behaviors without concern for how it affects others.

  • They may seek thrills, indulgence, or manipulate others to enhance their dull emotional experiences since emotions are an integral part of human nature.

  • Identifying people with psychopathic tendencies who have shallow affect is important for personal safety, as their lack of normal emotional responses makes their actions unpredictable and potentially dangerous.

  • However, not all those with shallow affect are psychopaths - it does not necessarily mean harm on its own, as people can adapt. The key risks arise when shallow affect is combined with other psychopathic traits like narcissism.

  • Sadism refers to taking sexual pleasure from causing others pain. True sadists who harm others without consent are considered toxic, while those who engage in consensual BDSM relationships can be described as practicing healthy sadism.

  • Schadenfreude is taking pleasure or amusement from others’ misfortunes. In small, harmless ways this is natural (like laughing when a friend falls in the pool), but actively harming others for one’s own amusement crosses into bullying and toxicity.

  • Both sadism and schadenfreude involve deriving pleasure specifically from others’ suffering or pain. When combined with other harmful behaviors, this can make individuals much more dangerous, as they may seek to prolong others’ distress for their own gratification rather than stopping once their needs are met.

  • Identifying shallow affect, or lack of deep emotions, can help recognize potentially problematic individuals, though it is not in itself a sign of danger. Many factors would need to be considered to evaluate someone’s character and behaviors fully.

  • The person described living with someone who initially seemed to enjoy her company but then began bullying her over time. The bullying escalated and caused her significant harm.

  • Masochism can play a role in how abuse victims interact with their abusers. Some find a sense of power in masochistic behaviors, but this is only healthy in a consensual relationship with boundaries. Some masochists end up in unsafe, non-consensual relationships which allow abusers to stay.

  • It can be difficult to spot sadism and deriving pleasure from others’ suffering (schadenfreude) in potential abusers, as they will offer excuses for their behavior. truly determining underlying motivations is important before making judgments.

  • Sadomasochistic acts between consenting partners can be healthy, but abusers may try to blur boundaries over time. Maintaining clear boundaries and the ability to withdraw consent are important for safety.

  • Pathological lying is characterized by compulsive, frequent lying without a clear goal even when it harms the liar. It may indicate an underlying psychological problem. Pathological liars make relationships difficult due to the inability to trust what they say.

Gaslighting is a form of psychological manipulation where someone tries to convince another person that their perception of reality is incorrect. The goal is to make the victim doubt their own memory, perception and sanity. Some techniques gaslighters use are denying things they said, claiming the victim is imagining things, or acting patronizingly to undermine the victim’s sense of judgment.

Living with a pathological liar who gaslights can cause constant self-doubt or chaos as the liar uses manipulation to control the victim or causes consequences through out-of-control lying.

There are verbal and physical signs that can indicate when someone is lying. Verbally, liars may speak faster, use more words (verbal diarrhea) or speak in the third person more. Physically, liars may display twitches, look to the right when answering, flush or lick their lips due to increased physiological arousal from fabricating responses.

Confronting a pathological liar is difficult as they may find the truth uncomfortable or be ashamed of lying. They will likely deny or explain away the lies rather than admit to manipulating. The best approach is to calmly correct the record and then disengage without getting into an argument. It’s important to also address any aftermath or unresolved issues caused by the uncorrected lies.

  • Many bad guys are thrill-seekers who chase adrenaline rushes through risky and harmful behaviors like drugs, gambling, extreme sports, unprotected sex, etc.

  • They may seek thrills at the expense of others by hurting, robbing, or putting people in dangerous situations without caring about the consequences.

  • Some thrill-seek past the point of considering even their own well-being, putting themselves at risk of serious harm physically, legally, or financially.

  • As a result, being connected to a thrill-seeker can indirectly put you at risk if their behaviors backfire in a way that impacts your life, such as medical bills, needing care, debt, etc.

  • In rare cases, some victims become conditioned to seek out risky relationships themselves because the thrills and dangers make them feel alive in an empty way after past abuse. This can lead them into further harmful cycles.

  • The key lesson is that thrill-seekers often fail to consider how their behaviors impact others, so connecting to one opens you up to potential indirect risks if their actions have ramifications beyond just themselves. It’s best to avoid dependencies on thrill-seekers if possible.

This section discusses the relationship between mental illness and toxic behaviors. While it can be comforting to attribute bad behaviors solely to mental illness, the reality is more complex. Not all toxic people have a diagnosable illness, and having symptoms of a disorder does not necessarily mean one has the full condition.

However, certain mental illnesses do commonly coincide with toxic behaviors. Psychopathy and narcissistic personality disorder are highlighted as disorders where sufferers often act in dangerous and harmful ways due to traits like lack of empathy and concern only for themselves.

Borderline personality disorder is also linked to impulsive behaviors that endanger oneself and others. Codependency predisposes people to toxic relationships whether the other party has issues or not. Schizoid and histrionic personality disorders can also damage relationships through emotional detachment or attention-seeking at others’ expense.

In summary, while mental illness does not fully explain bad behavior, recognizing the traits common to certain disorders can provide insights into understanding and avoiding toxic individuals. But diagnosis is not destiny - behaviors are the priority in determining who poses a risk.

  • Some people are extreme solipsists who live in their own bubble where only their popularity matters. To gain attention, they may hurt others unless shown that being good gets them more attention.

  • Conditions like bipolar disorder, Asperger’s syndrome, schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, and PTSD do not automatically make someone a “bad guy.” People with these conditions can often lead normal, functional lives with treatment.

  • The six conditions more likely to lead to “bad guy” behavior are narcissism, antisocial personality disorder, borderline personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder, dependent personality disorder, and schizoid personality disorder. This is because their core symptoms involve traits like impulsivity, self-obsession, and paranoia that can cause harm.

  • However, not all people with these six conditions will be harmful. Some are able to manage their conditions. And having one condition does not preclude also having another that increases risk of bad behavior.

  • When learning about someone’s diagnosed mental health condition, it’s important not to make assumptions. Understand the person and condition individually through open communication with them. Look out for concerning attitudes or past behaviors that indicate they may be a “bad guy” or harmful to your safety. But also realize most people with diagnoses are not inherently dangerous.

  • Taking care of yourself is important so that you can properly care for others. If you neglect your own needs, you won’t be able to help others effectively.

  • You are the only one who can always look out for yourself. While others may help protect you at times, you need to be able to defend yourself from “bad guys” and negative influences.

  • Having low self-esteem, especially after experiences with abusive or manipulative people, can make it difficult to properly care for yourself. Abusers often try to undermine a victim’s self-worth.

  • Developing self-love and healthier self-esteem is important. This involves balancing caring for yourself with caring for others, and valuing your own well-being.

  • Cultivating “outcome independence” - not basing your self-worth on others’ reactions - can help you establish boundaries and prioritize self-care, even if others try to discourage it or make you feel guilty. Taking care of yourself empowers you to care for others from a place of strength.

  • Bad guys often feel intense vindictiveness and desire for revenge when rejected. This can lead them to bully, torment, damage property, spread rumors, or physically attack the person who rejected them, in order to assert control.

  • The only way to effectively deal with this is to achieve outcome independence - not letting another person control your life or have power to seriously hurt you. This requires ensuring physical and emotional independence.

  • Physically, do not put others in control of your life through things like having them live with you or manage your business/money. Protect yourself legally through leases, restraining orders if needed.

  • Emotionally, establish healthy boundaries in all relationships from the start and defend them. Do not become “lovesick” and let others disregard your comfort. Respect others’ boundaries as well.

  • When relationships end, clearly define new boundaries to protect yourself emotionally and physically from potential vindictiveness. Maintain independence and do not fear losing the relationship.

  • Ongoing self-reflection is needed to identify potential “bad guys” in one’s own life who are harmful drains of time, energy or pose risks, and set appropriate boundaries with them or end toxic relationships if needed to care for oneself. This can be difficult but is important for well-being and safety.

  • We should remember the good times with people we cut ties with, but also accept that maintaining the relationship may not always be possible or healthy.

  • People who are cut off may react angrily or threaten retaliation in an attempt to get the relationship back. The more emotionally or financially invested they were, the stronger the reaction could be.

  • Safety should be the top priority. Contact relevant authorities if there are credible threats of harm. Get a restraining order for abusive relationships.

  • Do not give in to attempts to get back together. There was a reason for ending the relationship, so remaining no contact is important. Do not be fooled by nostalgia or manipulation.

  • Looking after oneself and loved ones should be the focus going forward, not appeasing the other person’s emotions or threats.

  • Victim blaming is unhelpful - it can be hard to realize a relationship is unhealthy, especially when care and dependence has developed over time. The skills learned from this experience will help avoid similar situations in the future.

  • The book provides practical advice and instructions on developing powerful listening skills, public speaking skills, ways to mend relationships, getting your views heard respectfully, and thriving in job interviews.

  • It offers immediate, actionable tips and techniques to transform communication and build better relationships with anyone. This includes tips for overcoming social anxiety, keeping conversations flowing, strengthening long-distance relationships, and benefits of digital detox.

  • Readers will learn exclusive listening skills, public speaking techniques to make their voice more attractive, and methods for mending broken relationships with family, partners, colleagues through effective communication.

  • The book serves as a comprehensive guide to better communication, providing exclusive tips and strategies to build rapport with anyone, make friends, handle social situations, and build prosperous long-distance relationships.

  • It frames effective communication as a true superpower that can help readers achieve more in their personal and professional lives through better relationships. Overall, the book promises practical and research-backed advice for developing powerful communication skills.

This book covers various goals and life improvements including financial, sports, relationships, and habit changes. It provides science-based insights and field-tested methods to help the reader change their life and become more successful. Specific topics covered include:

  • Understanding the limits of positive thinking and how to use positivity effectively
  • Discovering what truly makes people happy and the underlying factor that drives success
  • Why Western views of happiness and success are sometimes misguided
  • Learning that willpower alone is not enough, and what is really needed to achieve goals
  • Understanding what highly successful people have in common across different fields
  • Viewing one’s life as a form of training with certain rules to follow
  • Learning from Russian and Japanese thinkers about the importance of emotions
  • Using modern science to overcome temptation and boost willpower
  • How sometimes failing or giving up certain goals can paradoxically help achieve other goals
  • Identifying how we can become our own biggest obstacles and how to change that
  • Maintaining long-term success once goals are achieved

The book provides actionable advice and real-world examples to help the reader make positive changes in different areas of life through applying science-backed insights and techniques.

  • The book discusses mindfulness and its benefits such as increased focus, calmness, discipline and happiness. It claims mindfulness can transform one’s life.

  • It promises to explain what mindfulness means, how only 5 minutes a day can impact success, effective mindfulness techniques and how to slowly get started.

  • The scientifically proven benefits of daily mindfulness practice are covered, along with how to develop non-judgmental awareness and overcome common meditation problems.

  • Tips are provided on how to meditate easily and avoid common mistakes. Real-life steps show how to apply mindfulness to daily life for greater happiness and success.

  • The relation between mindfulness and life success is explored, and how mindfulness can help achieve goals more effectively. Advice is given on what to do when things go wrong.

  • Readers will learn how to become more patient and disciplined individuals through mindfulness.

  • The book encourages readers to start changing their lives for the better through mindfulness practices.

  • The author provides background on his experience with mindfulness and credentials, inviting readers to contact him.

So in summary, the text promotes mindfulness and its benefits for success, happiness and positive life transformation, while offering explanation, techniques and practical advice for incorporating mindfulness into daily life.

Here are summaries of a few of the sources provided:

[43]Machluf and Bjorklund (2015) discuss insights from evolutionary psychology into understanding risk-taking behavior. They explore how evolution has shaped tendencies for risk-taking in contexts like mate selection, search for resources, and status/dominance competition.

[44]Laurene (2010) compares criminal risk-taking and risk perception in adolescent/young adult offenders and non-offenders. The study found offenders engaged in more risk behaviors and underestimated risks compared to non-offenders.

[46]Machluf and Bjorklund (2015) again provides insights from evolutionary psychology, discussing how risk-taking can confer advantages like access to mating opportunities or acquiring status/dominance but also brings costs like injuries or death that are selected against evolutionarily. They analyze contextual factors in risk-taking.

[62] Abuse Hurts (2009) discusses various barriers that make it difficult for women to leave abusive relationships, such as financial dependence, threats of increased violence if she leaves, emotional manipulation, lack of social support, and not recognizing the relationship as abusive.

Author Photo

About Matheus Puppe