Self Help

Dare to Speak - Suzanne Nossel

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Matheus Puppe

· 55 min read

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Here is a summary of the Dedication section:

  • The dedication simply states “To my family”. It does not provide any further context or explanation.

  • The Contents section then lists the title of each chapter/part of the book. There are 4 Parts total, each containing several chapters on different principles related to speaking, listening, debating free speech issues, and considering speech-related policies.

  • The Introduction provides some context for the book. It discusses current controversies around free speech and notes tensions between free speech and other issues like diversity, inclusion and equality. It argues that as discourse becomes more global, principles are needed to govern conversations in a way that avoids conflict and censorship while promoting open debate. The book aims to offer individual-level principles to achieve this.

So in summary, the Dedication is short and simply dedicated to the author’s family. The Contents and Introduction give an overview of the structure and goal of the book, which is to propose principles for individuals to follow in debates around free speech issues.

  • The First Amendment protects freedom of speech from government infringement, but does not address many modern free speech issues involving private institutions and platforms. It does not tell us how to deal with hate speech, online mobs, or content policies of private companies.

  • Free speech is important for truth, democracy, and creativity. But open discourse requires more than just freedom from censorship - it requires protecting people from harassment, disinformation, denigration of truth, and other forces that undermine reasoned debate.

  • Many current free speech controversies involve private entities rather than clear legal issues. Society needs to thoughtfully address these issues without government intervention.

  • Both sides in debates often take extreme positions that fail to recognize the complexities. Free speech champions need to defend even unpopular speech while also showing understanding for how some speech can marginalize groups.

  • The meaning of free speech is being obscured as norms change rapidly. Defenders of open discourse and truth-seeking need to thoughtfully engage in debates to ensure free speech principles remain important and applicable to all.

  • Training “free speech defenders” is important to equip people to argue for open debate in a nuanced, principled way rather than simply fueling further controversy or accusations. Principles are outlined for how to thoughtfully engage when speaking, listening, debating policies, and considering one’s own responsibilities in a diverse society.

Here is a summary of the key principles:

  • Speakers should be conscientious with their language and consider how different audiences may interpret their words. This means avoiding assumptions and being mindful of unintended implications or insensitivities.

  • Context and intent are important to understand speech, but cannot always be fully conveyed, especially online. Speakers must consider how their words could be received out of context.

  • Public speakers should presume their audience is heterodox and includes diverse perspectives in terms of demographics.

  • While speech can cause harms like emotional pain or falsehoods, it should not be equated with actual violence. Reactions to speech need to be proportional and avoid calls to censor or physically retaliate.

  • Free speech debates must acknowledge both the value of open discussion but also societal inequalities that can distort public discourse. Policies should aim to make speech open to all.

  • Before advocating new speech restrictions, existing legal exceptions should be considered. Controls on speech by governments and companies also carry risks that need consideration.

  • Overall the principles argue for an inclusive yet robust approach to free expression that balances harms against censorship, recognizes context, and aims to govern speech through informal norms rather than just laws or bans.

  • Comedians and other public figures who gain popularity through public exposure have to accept the risk of potentially offending someone with their remarks. However, it is still important to consider one’s wide digital audience before speaking and avoid hurtful or offensive language.

  • Taking offense is subjective. While some terms are clearly objectionable, others depend on who you ask. Language that some find offensive changes over time as social norms evolve. Writers need to stay aware of sensitivities and avoid potentially problematic language to the best of their ability.

  • In the past, published work would go through editors who screened for potential issues. Now, individuals publish directly without vetting. So writers must internalize editorial scrutiny themselves by understanding social trends, identity groups, and alternative perspectives.

  • To avoid offense, one should talk to diverse groups, read widely on issues, consider self-descriptions, verify questionable terms, and use inclusive language guidelines. But complete avoidance of offense is impossible due to subjectivity and changing standards.

  • Retiring outdated terms through “euphemism treadmills” may not fully erase stigma, but listening to impacted groups encourages more respectful language over time through evolving social norms. Old terms that were meant neutrally can still become tainted through negative associations.

  • The word “niggardly” is unrelated etymologically to the racial slur but sounds similar, so some who have used it have faced backlash, even being fired in one case.

  • Alternative words should be considered to avoid potential misunderstandings, but banning words entirely due to multiple meanings would limit language. Offense should not silence speakers if a word is used innocently.

  • When words can be mistaken as slurs due to similarity in sound, it is worth choosing an alternative to avoid distraction, but inadvertent offense should not censor a speaker as long as the intent is benign.

  • Certain questions posed to people of color, like “Where are you from?” may feel like they assume the person does not belong, so alternatives like “Tell me about your background” allow more choice in answering.

  • Words like “Oriental” and “Slants” that were once derogatory can be reclaimed empoweringly by the groups they target, like “queer.” But outsiders using such terms may still offend.

  • Vigilance against bias should not veer into censoring those with the greatest right to determine appropriate usage of terms regarding their communities.

  • New pronouns and terms should not be rejected simply for being new, as language evolves, but using them is a personal choice. The freedom to choose one’s designation should be accepted.

  • Linguistic conscientiousness means avoiding unintended offense through word choice but not censoring one’s opinions or parsing every utterance - it becomes a habit over time like other considerate behaviors.

  • Those in positions of leadership or influence have a heightened responsibility to be conscientious in their speech compared to ordinary individuals. This is because their words carry more weight and can be construed as reflecting on their institution.

  • Context matters - more care is needed when speaking in public forums versus private conversations. But social media discourages careful consideration due to its emphasis on speed.

  • High-profile individuals like celebrities and journalists who have large audiences also have a greater duty of care since they are held to a higher standard. A single insensitive remark can cost them their jobs.

  • Institutional leaders especially have an obligation not to make statements that call into question groups within their community or reinforce biases. Academic freedom does not protect reckless speech from consequences.

  • One needs to exercise caution when commenting on sensitive issues outside their expertise, as mistaken or careless statements could still seriously offend. The duty of care increases with platform size and influence.

  • The passage discusses the concept of a “duty of care” in one’s public speech and online presence, especially for those in leadership roles. It argues that lines have blurred between private and public statements due to social media.

  • It examines controversies involving professors and administrators who faced backlash or discipline over controversial or offensive private comments. In some cases, like the Rutgers professor, disciplinary action was avoided. In other cases like the Harvard dean, the individuals faced consequences over representing controversial clients.

  • It acknowledges that some duty of care is reasonable, but argues it cannot dictate avoidance of all controversy. Leaders still need space for candor, humor, and unorthodox views. Lapses can foster discussion if not habitual patterns of prejudice.

  • It says those with institutional protections like tenure should speak freely to enrich discussion. Effort toward inclusivity deserves benefit of doubt over unintended slips. Discouraging all errors risks less understanding and change in attitudes.

  • Finally, it discusses how sensitivity readers are increasingly used in publishing to screen for controversial issues, reflecting struggles to address industry’s prejudiced legacy in a sensitive cultural climate.

  • There has been a lack of diversity in children’s book publishing, with glaring underrepresentation of authors from minority groups. Organizations like We Need Diverse Books have worked to increase equity and representation.

  • A debate has emerged around cultural appropriation and who has the right to tell stories about groups they don’t belong to. Some argue only those with lived experiences of a group should tell their stories.

  • Author Kosoko Jackson advocated this view that stories about marginalized groups should be told by authors of the same identity. But after he published a book set in Kosovo, which he had researched but didn’t have personal ties to, it was attacked and withdrawn.

  • Publishers are increasingly using sensitivity readers, but this can have a chilling effect on creativity. Fixed rules around who can tell what stories can limit opportunities, including for authors facing their own barriers.

  • There are arguments that literary freedom allows authors to imagine perspectives unlike their own, which expands creative possibilities and promotes empathy and understanding between groups. Care and research should be taken, but mistakes will still happen even with due diligence.

  • The debate raises issues around balancing duties of care, cultural appropriation, creative freedom, and representation in publishing. There are good arguments on both sides without a clear consensus.

The passage discusses the importance of being able to engage in discussion about controversial or difficult topics, even if they are touchy or unpopular. It argues that allowing governments to restrict certain types of speech could pave the way for broader censorship. It also notes that taboos, counterspeech, social norms and facts can help address harmful speech without censorship.

Some key points for having productive discussions on tough issues include: telling compelling stories to make arguments more persuasive, doing rigorous research and making well-supported arguments, anticipating counterpoints from others and addressing them respectfully rather than ignoring them. Building credibility through facts and expertise is also important. While discussions may be uncomfortable, they are necessary to broaden debate, change views and have impact. With care and openness, even sensitive topics like genetics and identity can be engaged with responsibly.

  • The passage discusses the debate around defending unpopular or offensive speech. It cites the famous Voltaire quote about defending speech even if one disapproves of it.

  • While offensive speech is legal and protected, certain speech like threats or intimidation are not. Offensiveness is also subjective.

  • John Stuart Mill and others argue that free speech allows for finding truth, dissenting voices, and as a safety valve against violence. Restricting it could stifle minority voices.

  • Examples are given where restrictions backfired, like blasphemy laws used against minorities in Pakistan. Restrictions are also more likely imposed by those in power to silence others.

  • Prominent figures like author Salman Rushdie exemplify defending the right to offend through his experience with death threats over his book.

  • In summary, the passage discusses the arguments for defending even offensive speech under the principle of free expression, though certain speech like threats are not protected. It cautions that restrictions can backfire and be used against minority groups.

The passage discusses balancing free speech with preventing offense and harm. It cites President Obama saying societies require judgment, civility and restraint, and an obligation to condemn insults to religions while defending free speech.

Salman Rushdie argues you can criticize ideas but not discriminate against people. If any idea is made sacred or immune from criticism, freedom of thought is impossible.

Having allies who back you up reduces the risk of speaking on controversial issues, even if they disagree. The NBA commissioner stood up for a GM who tweeted support for Hong Kong protests, saying the league won’t fire or discipline him despite China’s demands.

Universities have a special duty to protect dissenting views through tenure and academic freedom. However, many waver today. At Yale, a residential dean was harassed for questioning guidance on offensive Halloween costumes, with few defending her. The administration affirmed free speech but failed to clearly support her against calls for punishment.

Boldly defending controversial speech, while condemning harm, allows disagreement and robust debate. A university backtracked after threatening a professor’s tenure for insulting Barbara Bush, after groups reminded them of obligations to protect faculty speech.

  • The passage discussed several cases where a speaker or writer was accused of offensive speech and the organization they were affiliated with had to decide whether to stand by them or retract support.

  • When The Atlantic hired Kevin Williamson, who had made controversial comments, the editor initially defended the decision but later fired Williamson after more backlash, citing “new information” though this evidence was not really new.

  • The New York Times stood by Sarah Jeong after old tweets of hers that mirrored attacks against her came to light, as she provided context and the paper said her rhetoric was not acceptable going forward.

  • In campus speaking controversies, administrators should not usually override speaking invitations issued properly by authorized campus groups, even if the speaker is controversial or provocative, to avoid viewpoint discrimination. But invitations should have a cognizable rationale beyond provocation.

  • In some cases, like with Milo Yiannopoulos at Berkeley, allowing the event to go forward rather than preemptively canceling it due to protests may be preferable to giving the speaker a censorship claim. Providing alternative events and support for those with objections can also help address tensions.

So in summary, the passage discussed different approaches organizations and universities have taken when facing pressure over supporting or standing by speakers with offensive or controversial past statements, and some factors they consider in making these decisions.

  • The Arendt Center at Bard College invited an AfD politician named Björn Höcke to discuss rising authoritarianism in Europe. The AfD is a right-wing populist party that has taken anti-immigrant positions.

  • Critics argued that inviting Höcke legitimized his views and the AfD’s agenda. They said Bard should have publicly distanced itself from Höcke and the AfD.

  • The Arendt Center director said the purpose was to critically engage with and reject Höcke’s arguments, not endorse him. Bard’s president likened the criticism to Soviet-era censorship.

  • The incident showed the challenge of hosting problematic speakers without lending them legitimacy. Simply giving someone a platform can enhance their prestige to some degree.

  • However, a conference with experts critiquing the speaker is different than a high-profile campus event without context. One Bard professor said hearing Höcke furthered her students’ education.

  • In some cases, critically engaging a controversial speaker through interviews or discussions can reveal flaws in their arguments or produce newsworthy admissions, as with Rudy Giuliani on Ukraine.

  • Defenders of free expression like PEN America will both affirm objectionable speakers’ rights and disavow the hateful content of what they say. But context matters in these difficult cases.

Here are some key principles for listening described in the passage:

  1. Consider intent and context when reacting to speech. The meaning and impact of words depends on who said it, in what context, and with what intended message. Decoupling speech from intent and context scrambles discourse.

  2. To understand a word’s meaning, you need to know who is saying it and what message they intended to convey. Words have different meanings based on context and speaker.

  3. In the fast-moving digital world, speech can often be taken out of context as it is shared and spread online without the original context and intent. This complicates understanding the true meaning and impact.

  4. Even when speech causes unintentional harm or offense, intent still matters when determining an appropriate response. Calling for apologies or consequence may not always be warranted if no harm was meant.

  5. Having thoughtful conversations to understand different perspectives can help defuse tensions, as in the case of the University of Chicago professor listening to students’ concerns and reconsidering his use of certain language. Listening is key to finding common ground.

  6. Empathy and attentiveness to how speech lands and affects others is important, even if an apology is not warranted. Showing concern for others’ feelings can calm discourse when offense is taken, unintentionally or not.

So in summary, key principles of listening described are considering intent, context, different perspectives, and showing empathy rather than just focusing on perceived harms alone when reacting to speech. Understanding various viewpoints is important for productive discussions.

The passage discusses the importance of understanding context and intent when evaluating speech, as quotes, videos, or images spread online can lack important context. It notes research showing how outrageous content spreads farther and faster online. Several examples are given of incidents where people’s words were misunderstood or misrepresented when taken out of context:

  • Shirley Sherrod’s speech about overcoming racism was incorrectly portrayed as racist due to lack of full context.

  • Author Chimamanda Adichie discusses an acquaintance mistakenly calling her “chimichanga” due to nerves, not malice.

  • Two cases where Twitter users wrongly accused others (of sexism, of having a Nazi tattoo) and faced backlash after failing to verify facts or understand context first.

The passage argues understanding context involves understanding both the speaker’s intent as well as deeper cultural issues in some cases. It stresses how media have a responsibility to verify information rather than spread misinformation. Overall it advocates understanding context, intent, and all facets of a situation before making judgments about speech.

  • A 2014 Charlie Hebdo cover depicted a black woman as a gorilla, which is a racist trope, but it was actually satirizing the far-right National Front party in France that had used racist imagery. The woman depicted, Christiane Taubira, understood the satirical intent.

  • Effective satire must push boundaries, and looking only at images out of context can lead to misunderstanding of the intent. Context and interpretation are important.

  • Saying things like the n-word or displaying Nazi imagery are understandably seen as inherently offensive by some, but imposing “strict liability” without considering context or intent can penalize unintentional incidents and thwart open discussion.

  • An example given was of a teacher who accidentally said “Heil Hitler” while giving a geometry lesson and was fired, though all evidence showed he meant no offense or support of Nazis. Context was not fully considered.

  • There is debate around use of the n-word in educational/scholarly contexts, with some arguing it can be used when directly relevant and not as an epithet, while many students say it should never be uttered by white people. Intent and context can be difficult to fully recognize.

  • There is debate around narrowing the boundaries of acceptable speech and whether popular attitudes should outweigh questions of intent and meaning. Academia aims to allow open examination of ideas.

  • When considering using words that may cause offense, factors like likelihood of offense, ability to clarify context/intent, ability to mitigate risk, and alternatives should be weighed.

  • Not saying the n-word explicitly does not necessarily exclude discussion of its meaning and history. Context still matters more than shock value alone.

  • Intent and context are important to consider when judging speech, rather than just outcomes. Ambiguity requires investigation before criticism.

  • “Calling out” can signal support for marginalized groups but online callout culture also has toxic aspects and risks disproportionate punishment. Privately “calling in” may be preferable in some cases.

  • Calling in is better when offense seems inadvertent, speaker is open to correction, harm can be prevented, and a trusted relationship exists. Calling out may be needed if behind-the-scenes efforts fail or offense is deliberate, public, and impactful.

  • Responsibility and solidarity should be weighed against risk of censoriousness or disproportionate punishment when deciding to call in or call out.

  • Lawrence Summers questioned whether women face significant discrimination in science and math fields. This understandably caused doubts among female faculty at Harvard about whether they could be treated fairly.

  • Rather than a private conversation, Summers deserved public criticism for promoting an unacceptable view that perpetuates harmful stereotypes.

  • Criticism came from various groups including Harvard faculty, administration, and other university presidents, showing the view was widely rejected.

  • Effective call-outs acknowledge no offense was intended, explain the potential impact and why it caused offense, reassure the speaker of good intentions, and anticipate changed language going forward.

  • Call-outs work best done privately at first to allow reflection without reaction, and should focus on impact rather than wrongfulness to encourage learning from criticism.

  • “Cancel culture” refers to removing support for public figures due to objectionable opinions or actions, including boycotts. While individual choices are free, pressuring all outlets to shun someone restricts freedom.

  • Cancellations based on isolated speech can be an overblown response, but some infractions like racial comments warrant consequences. Overall it is a blunt tool with risks for free speech.

This passage discusses hateful speech and hate crimes in the context of the debate around censorship and free speech. Some key points:

  • There is no universally agreed upon definition of “hate speech.” It is an elastic term that gets applied to a wide range of issues.

  • Hateful speech can be divided into categories: speech illegal everywhere like direct calls to violence; legal speech like insults; and speech illegal in some places like Holocaust denial.

  • Intent and effect must be distinguished - not all offensive speech is intended as hate speech.

  • While most hateful speech does not directly cause criminal acts, it can promote a culture where hate crimes are more likely to occur. Hateful ideologies spread through speech can provide motivation or justification for hate crimes.

  • However, the legal distinction between protected hateful speech and unprotected hate crimes is clear. Hate crimes involve either speech tied to a criminal act, or threats/harassment that are criminal in themselves. Hateful beliefs or sentiments alone are protected.

  • Fighting hate speech requires alternative approaches to censorship, like education, social media policies, and monitoring extremism, in addition to enforcement against actual hate crimes. The passage advocates comprehensive efforts to counter hate while sustaining free speech protections.

  • Several recent prominent hate crimes, such as the Charleston church shooting, Pittsburgh synagogue shooting, and El Paso Walmart shooting, were directly inspired by online hate speech and white supremacist/anti-Semitic dogma consumed online.

  • While the perpetrators’ bigotry predated their online activity, the correlation between hateful online speech and hate crimes is concerning.

  • Studies have found increases in reported hate crimes, verbal harassment in schools, and hate incidents on college campuses in recent years. One study linked increases in local “hate tweets” with increases in racially/religiously aggravated local crimes.

  • Counterspeech, or speech that counters hateful messages, is advocated as an alternative to censorship. However, it requires amplification and guidance on effective strategies. Studies found counterspeech sometimes leads individuals to abandon hateful views through respectful dialogues.

  • Authoritative counterspeech from leaders and influential figures is especially important as it powerfully refutes claims, isolates hateful speakers, and rallies support for those targeted. One example described the university president forcefully rejecting a white supremacist’s event on campus.

  • r spoke before a half-full auditorium, mostly without incident. The university’s response was praised for upholding free speech while condemning bigotry.

  • Counterprotesting hateful speech through education, dialogue and bringing more diverse voices is important. Exposure to different groups can help reduce bias.

  • Anti-bias training in schools has shown success in some studies in promoting tolerance. Direct human contact across divisions can break down stereotypes.

  • Hate crimes are underreported. Better public awareness of what constitutes a hate crime and how to report it can help. Strengthening hate crime laws sends a message against bigotry.

  • Effectively addressing hateful speech and hate crimes through approaches like counterspeech, education and legal reforms upholds free expression and protects vulnerable groups. Protest rights are important but should not silence opposing views.

Here is a summary of the key points about protests that seek to silence or censor speech:

  • The “heckler’s veto” refers to protesters preventing a speaker from being heard through loud disruptions, physical obstruction, or disorder that forces an event’s cancellation. This infringes on free speech rights by blocking both the speaker and willing listeners.

  • Protest tactics that interfere with speech, like shouting down a speaker, are not legally considered free expression. However, protests outside events or silent demonstrations inside that don’t prevent the speech are generally protected.

  • Some protests go beyond disruption and call for banning, punishing, or firing someone due to their speech. While these demands are legal, they encourage censorship and foreclose open debate.

  • Universities and event organizers must ensure controversial speakers can be heard even amid protests. Education rather than punishment is usually best for dealing with disruptive student protesters.

  • The threat of censorship can negatively impact academic freedom by chilling controversial opinions. Defending free expression, even of unpopular views, is important for open inquiry and debate.

Here are some key points about when it may be appropriate to consider forgiveness for speech-related transgressions:

  • There needs to be acknowledgment of wrongdoing and harm caused by the offender. A sincere apology and signs of remorse are important.

  • The motivation and nature of the offense matter. Was it truly insensitive/harmful speech, or was the intent different than how it was received? Accidental harms may warrant more leniency.

  • There should be efforts by the offender to make amends and do better in the future. Forgiveness is more justified if they work to address the issues that led to the offense.

  • The damage caused and severity of offense are factors. More egregious claims that deeply hurt victims may take longer to forgive, if at all. Lesser harms may be forgiven more readily.

  • Forgiveness helps reintegrate offenders and encourages reform, if given a path. But there is no obligation to forgive - it is a personal choice. The victim’s well-being should take priority over the offender’s.

  • As time passes, forgiveness becomes more reasonable if the offender consistently demonstrates reform and making amends was sincere. Recidivism would undermine efforts at forgiveness.

  • A culture of forgiveness, within reason, promotes productive dialogue on difficult issues and encourages free discourse without fear of permanent ruination over a single mistake. But accountability is also important.

Here is a summary of the risks of speech according to the passage:

  • Offensive or harmful speech can get individuals “canceled” or fired from jobs and lose other opportunities. There is no clear standard for when forgiveness is due.

  • Apologizing is key but apologies need to show sincere contrition rather than being self-serving. Owning the consequences of one’s words is important.

  • Character references from respected individuals who know the person can help provide context and show their words do not reflect their overall character.

  • Those seeking forgiveness must earn it through substantive engagement with those offended, not just expect absolution. They need to demonstrate a willingness to understand and address broader issues like racism.

  • Institutions face risks to their reputation if they are too closely associated with the offensive speech. They need to swiftly disavow it while also being reluctant to sever relationships without due process.

  • Reintegrating individuals requires convinced of their contrition and intent to improve, as well as addressing internal stakeholder concerns to avoid backlash.

So in summary, the passage discusses both individual and institutional risks to careers, opportunities and reputation that can come from offensive or harmful speech. It focuses on steps to potentially earn forgiveness over time through sincere apologies and demonstrated character change.

Here are the key points from the summary:

  • There are three main categories of potential harm from speech: injurious, instigating, and intercommunal.

  • Injurious harm involves speech that causes feelings of inferiority, stigma, etc. in targeted individuals. Instigating harm refers to speech that incites unlawful or violent actions. Intercommunal harm is broader social harm, like undermining community well-being.

  • U.S. law recognizes and prohibits some types of injurious harm like threats, harassment, libel, etc. but defines incitement (instigating harm) very narrowly.

  • The harms of speech depend greatly on context, speaker, listener, and are not always objective. The same speech could deeply wound one person but be laughed off by another.

  • Digital technologies have intensified the potential for speech to cause intercommunal harms by spreading hate/extremism and inciting real-world violence more easily.

  • There are open questions about when and how heavily to weigh different types of harm from speech in balancing with free expression. The summary argues not all harms are equal.

  • Speech and violence intersect but are fundamentally different. Violence involves physical force and harm, while speech is an expression of ideas.

  • Equating speech with violence erodes important distinctions between types of harmful acts and could normalize responding to speech with physical force.

  • While some speech can cause psychological or even physical harm, it does not rise to the level of violence and should not provoke a violent response.

  • Treating offensive speech as a form of violence undermines free expression and the rule of law. It could chill valid discussions and debate by making people afraid to voice unpopular or controversial ideas.

  • Overly broad definitions of violence risk justifying censorship and physical attacks in response to speech deemed provocative or harmful. This threatens civil discourse and society’s ability to manage conflicts through lawful means instead of force.

  • Recognizing speech can potentially cause harm does not mean treating it identically to violence. The differentiation remains important to upholding civilized debate and the state’s monopoly on legitimate use of force.

In summary, the passage cautions against conflating speech and violence, arguing it is a slippery slope that could undermine free expression and the rule of law. While speech may cause harm, responding to it with violence sets a dangerous precedent.

  • Toni Morrison argued in a 1993 speech that oppressive language can be a form of violence through its psychological and social impacts. While words don’t involve physical force, their harmfulness should not be denied.

  • Some have argued that certain speech can literally cause biological stress and health effects, rendering it a form of violence. But designating all offensive speech as violence risks justifying censorship or violent responses to speech. It also may intensify harmful impacts by increasing anxiety.

  • If speech is considered violence, it could beget violence in response under the guise of self-defense. Some have argued physical force can be used to prevent hateful views. But this runs counter to the principle that disputes over speech should not devolve into physical confrontation.

  • Universities have preemptively silenced some provocative speakers due to claimed safety concerns, but peaceful discussion is still possible. Rejecting violence empowers security to ensure controversial expression can proceed safely. While some speech may be legally questionable, the answer is not to label it as violence.

  • Free speech is becoming increasingly politicized, with some viewing it as a conservative issue rather than a universal value. This poses risks as younger generations who prioritize diversity and inclusion become skeptical of free speech.

  • Studies have found that Supreme Court justices, like all people, tend to be more protective of speech they ideologically agree with. The current Roberts Court in particular has been accused of using free speech jurisprudence to further conservative goals.

  • Public opinion polls show rising partisan divides over what types of speech deserve protection. Republicans are more inclined to limit liberal speakers while Democrats are more skeptical of protecting conservative voices. Both sides view their own party as true defenders of free speech rights.

  • Reversing this politicization trend requires both left and right to champion free speech more universally, acknowledge the real harms of some speech, and educate young people that free expression supports goals like social justice. Hypocrisy on any side undermines free speech principles.

  • University campuses in the US often have more liberal students, faculty, and administrators. This can lead conservatives to feel their views are not welcomed or that they cannot express dissenting opinions freely.

  • Surveys have shown conservatives are much more likely than liberals to feel the political climate prevents them from saying things for fear of offense. Universities should work to address this by promoting diverse viewpoints.

  • While universities need to do more to welcome conservative views, government interventions have tended to focus only on defending conservative speech. Actions like executive orders and legislation risk further politicizing and dividing campuses.

  • A better approach is for universities to examine diversity of views themselves and take measures to include all ideological groups, rather than imposing speech regulations from the outside.

  • Younger generations appear more supportive of censorship, so protecting free speech principles is important to ensure protections for all opinions in the long run, especially dissenting or unpopular voices.

  • Progressives bear a responsibility to defend free speech neutrally to avoid undermining protections for all groups over time. Balancing values like inclusion and free expression is challenging but important.

  • Free speech debates often involve caricaturing and insulting those on the opposing side through labels like “snowflakes”, “social justice warriors”, “fascists”, etc. This hinders genuine debate.

  • While nicknames may be part of satire and polemic, excessive caricature breeds antagonism between free speech advocates and those supporting social/racial justice causes, which should be seen as compatible.

  • Private discussions allow opposing sides to understand each other better by sharing personal perspectives rather than public posturing. At closed-door meetings, students and administrators found their divisions less stark.

  • The label “snowflake” arose from criticism that students demand speech regulation to avoid discomfort. However, critics of this view argue it downplays legitimate concerns about harassment, sexism and systemic biases experienced by marginalized groups.

  • A balanced approach considers both objective speech standards and protecting individuals who may experience certain speech as more harmful due to their backgrounds. Empathy and understanding divergent reactions is important alongside defending free expression.

  • Simply teaching students to change their own perspectives, rather than addressing underlying societal bigotry, is an insufficient solution according to some critics of the “snowflake” viewpoint. A comprehensive approach is needed.

  • The article discusses different perspectives on campus free speech debates. It acknowledges that works by Haidt and Lukianoff helped jumpstart discussions but were sometimes replicated in unconstructive ways that inflamed tensions.

  • It examines how conservative commentators have used caricatures like “snowflake” to dismiss legitimate concerns about racism, sexism, etc. as mere outrage culture. This approach can come across as indifferent to real issues of bigotry.

  • It discusses how some students, especially minorities, may feel the First Amendment was not intended to protect them, as it is mainly invoked to protect offensive or racist speech on campus. This risks alienating rising generations from free speech ideals.

  • The article acknowledges left-leaning critiques also exist, with some arguing free speech has historically only been selectively applied and is a distraction from essential debates about racial inequalities. However, it argues free speech remains fundamentally important for limiting state power and enabling open debate and change.

  • In summary, it analyzes different perspectives in the campus free speech debate and argues constructively engaging all views is important to avoid further polarizing the issue.

  • The event refers to controversy over the ACLU defending the legal rights of white nationalists who organized the “Unite the Right” rally in Charlottesville in 2017. Protesters criticized the ACLU for enabling hate speech and white supremacy through its free speech advocacy.

  • This sparked debates about whether free speech should protect hateful or harassing expression that targets vulnerable groups. Some argued free speech is often used to harm minorities, while others said it remains important for enabling protests for equality and justice.

  • After Charlottesville, the ACLU reexamined its approach to supporting demonstrations involving weapons or intending to intimidate, adopting a more nuanced, case-by-case stance accounting for impacts on racial justice.

  • There is a risk of “throwing the baby out with the bathwater” by blaming free speech for deeper societal problems like racism and inequality. While speech rights don’t cause these issues, ensuring equality in participation of public debates is important.

  • The challenge is articulating how free speech and equality can mutually reinforce one another through open yet responsible expression that confronts injustice without inflicting further harm.

Some critics argue that recent Supreme Court free speech decisions have further cemented an unequal status quo by expanding protections for corporate political spending and limiting regulations aimed at achieving greater participation. While the current court is unlikely to adopt alternatives, some legal theorists propose updating First Amendment jurisprudence to better address hate speech and inequities online or allow moderate constraints on advocacy of racial supremacy. Achieving substantive equality also requires steps beyond legal restrictions, like ensuring all voices are heard in discussions. Initiatives have aimed to “decenter whiteness” by prioritizing narratives from historically marginalized groups. Tactics like “progressive stacking” seek to rectify prejudices that discount certain voices, though rigid exclusionary approaches are controversial. Overall, achieving narrative justice requires moving beyond viewing any culture as a baseline and instead treating a diversity of experiences equally.

Here are the key points from the passage:

  • Freedom of speech is not absolute in the US - there are certain categories of unprotected speech like incitement, threats, fraud, and obscenity.

  • The landmark 1969 Brandenburg v. Ohio Supreme Court case established a strict test for determining what constitutes unprotected incitement: 1) the speech must advocate imminent lawless action, 2) be likely to incite such action, and 3) that lawless action must be imminent and likely to occur.

  • This test expanded free speech protections beyond prior standards, moving away from allowing restrictions on speech that might incite future harm. It requires a direct call for imminent lawless action that is likely to lead to violence or illegality.

  • Most advocacy or provocative speech that does not meet all three prongs of the Brandenburg test remains protected by the 1st Amendment, even if some find it offensive or disagree with its message.

  • The passage contrasts the modern, strict standard for incitement from broader restrictions allowed in early 20th century cases during times of war or national emergency. This reflects an evolution toward stronger, more speech-protective jurisprudence.

  • Courts have found that urging lawless or violent action at a future time, or in a contingent way, does not meet the legal definition of illegal incitement. Fiery or emotive rhetoric alone is also usually protected free speech if it stops short of a direct call for immediate violence.

  • There is a distinction between incitement and provocation - incitement involves urging a violent act, while provocation refers to speech that may elicit an angry response.

  • The “fighting words” exception established in 1942 prohibits speech directed at an individual that is likely to provoke a violent response from that person. However, this exception has been applied very narrowly and convictions are rare. Fighting words must directly insult or invite a fight from a specific person rather than express ideas or policies.

  • “True threats” of violence against individuals are also not protected by the First Amendment. However, prosecutions of threatening language often fail if it does not clearly express intent or ability to carry out violence. Context matters in determining if a threat is a “true threat” or political hyperbole.

  • Harassment that creates a hostile environment, particularly in schools or workplaces, can be restricted without violating the First Amendment balancing test between free speech and equal protection. But the lines here are fact-specific.

Here are the key points from the summary:

  • In Meritor Savings Bank v. Vinson (1986), the Supreme Court ruled that sexual harassment that creates a hostile work environment qualifies as unlawful sex discrimination under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act. It must be sufficiently severe or pervasive to alter employment conditions.

  • In Davis v. Monroe County Board of Education (1999), the Court said schools can be liable for peer harassment under Title IX if they have actual knowledge and respond with deliberate indifference. The harassment must be severe, pervasive, and objectively offensive as to deny access to education.

  • The legal standards may not address all problematic situations, like lower levels of harassment from many individuals online.

  • Obscenity is defined narrowly under the Miller test as depictions of sex that appeal to prurient interests, depict sex in a patently offensive way defined by law, and lack serious value. It does not include violence.

  • Defamation law was narrowed in New York Times v. Sullivan to require actual malice for public figures, defined as knowledge of falsity or reckless disregard.

  • Time, place, and manner restrictions must be content-neutral, narrowly tailored to a significant interest, and leave open alternative channels of communication.

  • Several clinics sued over state laws creating buffer zones around abortion clinics, barring protesters from approaching visitors within a certain distance.

  • The courts struck down these laws, finding they did not meet the “narrow tailoring” requirement. The state could protect clinic visitors through stronger enforcement of existing laws against interference, rather than imposing wide buffer zones.

  • Reasonable time, place and manner restrictions that require permits for large public gatherings are usually upheld as constitutional if viewpoint neutral. However, some new laws allowing more stringent protest restrictions are being passed and will likely face legal challenges.

  • The legal definitions of exceptions to free speech, like incitement, threats, harassment, defamation and obscenity, are intentionally narrow. This helps safeguard speech while allowing restriction of clearly unprotected categories. Broader standards could chill protected speech.

  • Speech regulations from decades ago need to be continually re-evaluated in light of new technologies and social issues, but changes should be based on a full understanding of the rationale for current rules.

  • Countries that allow more restrictions on free speech than the US, like China, have serious issues with government censorship and imprisonment of journalists/writers for their opinions. 251 journalists were jailed globally in 2018 just for their work.

  • China extensively censors online content and monitors private online communications. It aims to restrict any speech that could lead to protest movements. Foreign companies operating in China must abide by these strict censorship rules.

  • While other democracies like those in Europe allow more restrictions than the US based on hate speech and non-discrimination laws, these rules are often applied selectively and can be used to suppress unwelcome viewpoints.

  • The US approach of only banning imminent incitement to violence is preferable to avoid such political abuse of anti-hate speech laws, though both approaches aim to balance free expression and non-discrimination.

The passage discusses the complex issues around regulating hate speech and balancing free speech protections. It notes that laws banning hate speech like Holocaust denial in Europe have been used to curb political dissent and criticism of Israel. Critics argue the vague standards in these laws give too much discretion to enforcement officials. Laws against advocating boycotts of Israel have been used to prosecute pro-Palestinian activists in France.

Germany’s Network Enforcement Law requires social media platforms to quickly remove “manifestly unlawful” hate speech, but this has led to over-removal of content and censorship of those opposing far-right parties. Regulations aimed at “fake news” also threaten free expression, like Singapore’s broad anti-misinformation law criminalizing sharing of “false statements.”

While hate speech is concerning, the passage argues strict laws have historically failed to curb extreme ideologies and may intensify hatred by portraying critics as censors. Drawing proper boundaries between regulation and free speech will be challenging. An absolutist stance risks harm, but censorship also threatens open debate on sensitive issues.

  • Social media platforms face pressure to more aggressively moderate/remove harmful, offensive, misleading content on their sites due to evidence it intensifies social problems.

  • However, empowering private for-profit companies to exert unchecked control over vast swaths of public discourse risks allowing them to dictate acceptable opinions, images, ideologies in ways that could suppress dissent and benefit those in power.

  • There are concerns about concentrated corporate control/domination over public debate that are similar to those regarding government control of speech. Platforms have significant influence over speech through deletion/account bans even without legal prosecution powers.

  • The risks of both expanded government regulation and expanded unchecked corporate controls on speech are acknowledged, as each could threaten open exchange of ideas and disproportionately benefit those enforcing the controls. Finding the right balance is challenging.

  • Internet platforms like Facebook, YouTube, Twitter have become major markets for information, communication and commerce, but are privately controlled by the companies.

  • There are calls for platforms to more aggressively moderate harmful/misleading content, but also concerns that this could amount to corporate censorship.

  • Legally, platforms are private entities not bound by the 1st Amendment, but some see them as performing a quasi-public function as modern town squares.

  • Platforms set their own content rules but moderation at scale is difficult given the vast volumes of content. Moderation relies on user flagging, which can be open to manipulation.

  • Risks of tighter corporate controls include lack of transparency, arbitrary decisions, vulnerability to politicization, favoring the powerful, and profit motives overriding free expression.

  • Balancing harmful content with open platforms is challenging given their role in public discourse but accountability for real harms is needed.

  • In Syria’s civil war, pro-government groups have tried to manipulate social media companies like Facebook and YouTube by frequently flagging opposition or rebel content, causing it to be taken down. While companies have taken some steps to address politically motivated flagging, it remains an effective tactic.

  • Once flagged, content is reviewed by low-paid moderators at contractor firms who have difficult working conditions like high stress and lack of support. They have little time to make judgment calls on complex issues without proper context.

  • Moderation policies and decisions lack transparency. Detailed internal guidelines beyond published standards are not disclosed. Appeals processes are opaque and often futile.

  • Policies have led to arbitrary outcomes, like banning some types of targeted hate speech but not others. Inconsistent enforcement fuels perceptions of bias.

  • Pressures on platforms to appease politicians risk politicizing content decisions. Conservative claims of bias, while disputed, still influence company approaches.

  • Heavier moderation could disproportionately impact less powerful speakers who lack visibility and access to reverse unfair removals of their content. Transparency and oversight are needed to address these challenges.

Internet platforms are often criticized for inconsistent and potentially biased enforcement of policies around objectionable content like hate speech and disinformation. While some content like terrorist propaganda or copyrighted material can be more easily identified and removed at scale, other types of harmful content like white nationalist views have faced less stringent rules from platforms.

Platforms face pressures from both regulating maintaining profitability. They want to keep users engaged with sensational content, but too much vitriol could drive some away. Regulations also vary by country and platforms censor some political speech abroad to maintain access to markets, even if it compromises free expression values.

Automated content moderation using techniques like hashing prohibits similar content, but struggles with nuance and context. Tracking inauthentic coordinated behavior patterns instead of content itself shows promise while avoiding adverse decisions on speech.

Platforms have different duties depending on their role - more neutral conduit for broad searchable information, stricter as curators selecting highlighted content, and obligations to verify sponsored advertising and political messages targeted to influence specific audiences. fully consistent policies remain challenging to balance various stakeholder interests.

  • Tech platforms like Facebook, Google and Twitter have immense influence over public discourse due to their large user bases and revenues. But they face little oversight or accountability for how they moderate content.

  • Platforms have generally done a poor job addressing issues like online harassment, hate speech, misinformation and privacy violations. Whistleblowers have uncovered many cases of malfeasance and inaction.

  • While the First Amendment limits direct government regulation of online speech, citizens still have a responsibility to pay attention to platform policies and actions, voice concerns when values are breached, and demand more responsible moderation. Reporting problematic content can also help.

  • No solution is perfect, but platforms must do more on their own to address serious online harms in a way that respects free expression. Oversight models like a public content defender could help address the imbalance of power between platforms and users. Citizens should participate in these important discussions around content governance.

  • Increased transparency around content moderation policies and decisions is needed. Without transparency, it is impossible to judge companies’ behavior or have meaningful public debate on these issues.

  • Companies should provide more information on what content is suppressed, demoted or subject to “shadow banning”, the rationales for these decisions, and policies/guidelines used. This would increase predictability, accountability and allow for independent research and input.

  • Algorithms that amplify engaging but polarizing/dangerous content also need more scrutiny and debate around how they are calibrated. Researchers should be allowed to study the impact of content amplification and moderation techniques.

  • Meaningful accountability is lacking as internet companies currently have broad immunity from liability under Section 230. While this protects free expression, it also allows harmful content to proliferate without consequence.

  • Reform to Section 230 could increase companies’ incentives to address harms, such as limiting immunity for paid/promoted content. However, any changes require great caution to avoid infringing on free speech.

  • Overall, more transparent, accountable and externally overseen content moderation processes are needed that maximize free expression while also addressing online harms in a reasoned, debate-driven way. Government regulation may be required to mandate some transparency reforms.

Some legal experts argue that Section 230 immunity, which protects online platforms from liability for user-generated content, has been applied too broadly by courts. This allows platforms to ignore unlawful activity and foster environments that are unsafe, especially for women, minorities, and children. Potential reforms discussed include making platforms liable if they do not take reasonable steps to address unlawful content, while avoiding overzealous content removal.

Another proposal is for platforms to adhere to international human rights law in content moderation. This would require platforms to publicly articulate clear content rules, ensure rules minimize speech restrictions, and evaluate rules’ impact on public interest. It could also give platforms leverage to resist government censorship demands that violate rights.

To safeguard free expression as moderation increases, experts propose a global “public content defense” system. It would allow users to quickly appeal erroneous account/post restrictions via experts who can examine cases and compel platforms to restore content. This balanced approach could help moderation curb harm without unduly limiting speech.

The passage discusses concerns about large tech platforms that govern much of our online discourse. It argues they care little about users’ rights and needs.

It presents some proposals to hold tech companies more accountable, such as demanding greater transparency in content moderation policies and their implementation. Reforming platforms’ immunity from liability for user content is also suggested. Pushing platforms to adhere to international human rights laws and establishing oversight for content moderation are other proposals discussed. The creation of a “Public Content Defender” is proposed to advocate for users.

The passage notes that while breaking up tech giants through antitrust enforcement may lead to more choice in online content standards, ultimately users, citizens and civil society groups must pressure companies to properly balance limiting online harms with not unduly restricting free expression. The concerns discussed relate to tech platforms having outsized influence over public discourse without sufficient consideration of users’ perspectives.

  • Freedom of speech is essential for promoting the discovery of truth, as the competition of ideas allows truths to be refined and falsehoods exposed over time. Censorship can suppress new and valid ideas.

  • Free speech is essential for self-government in a democracy. Open debate allows the public to consider all arguments and ensure their popular will is reflected in leaders. It acts as a check on government power.

  • Free speech promotes civic tolerance and reduces violence by nurturing citizens who can engage opposing views through reasoned debate rather than panic or fear.

  • Free speech is essential for personal autonomy and living freely according to one’s beliefs and identity. It encompasses freedom of thought and expression of self.

  • Free speech has been recognized as a catalyst for scientific and economic progress by allowing open exchange and debate of new ideas, even those that conflict with tradition or assumptions. This spurs innovation. However, authoritarian countries can sustain growth in the short term through other means like addressing poverty, but lack accountability checks.

The passage discusses defending free speech and the tensions that can arise, using examples from the author’s experiences working in South Africa during the transition from apartheid to democracy, negotiating at the UN, and serving in the Obama administration at the State Department on human rights issues.

While at the State Department, the author worked to oppose UN resolutions championed by the Organization of Islamic Conference aiming to prohibit “defamation of religion,” or speech denigrating religious beliefs, particularly Islam. Western countries opposed these resolutions as infringing on freedom of expression.

The author argues the resolutions accomplished nothing and proposes an alternative approach - offering cooperation on practical measures to address legitimate concerns about discrimination toward Muslims, while asking the Islamic Conference to abandon attempts to ban speech. This faced resistance at first from those worried it would weaken defense of free speech.

However, after negotiations including a difficult trip to Pakistan to meet with officials, an agreement was reached on a new UN resolution that emphasized global cooperation rather than prohibitions on speech, ending the biannual diplomatic fights that resolved nothing.

  • The passage discusses various terms and language that some people find offensive or objectionable, such as the R-word (referring to intellectual disabilities) and certain racial terms like “Chink” and “Oriental.”

  • It notes campaigns to replace outdated terms and encourage more respectful language, like replacing the R-word and no longer using it in government documents. However, some terms like “queer” have been reclaimed by certain groups.

  • Determining what language is offensive or not can be complicated. While some aim to help erase hurtful language, banning certain terms also runs against freedom of expression.

  • The passage gives examples of debates around language use and political correctness in areas like trademarks, writers’ rooms, and pronoun usage. It discusses the difficulties of language that some see as disparaging while others view as impartial descriptions.

  • In summary, it examines the contested nature of language and debates around using respectful and inclusive terminology versus banning terms that may offend some groups. Striking the right balance around diverse and evolving linguistic norms is challenging.

Here is a summary of the key points from the article:

  • In September 2019, Merriam-Webster added new gender-neutral pronouns to its dictionary, including “they, them, their” as singular pronouns.

  • This was done to reflect how these pronouns are increasingly being used by those who want a non-binary alternative to “he” and “she”. Their inclusion does not make other usages incorrect but rather acknowledges the new usage.

  • The pronouns were added under the gender-neutral pronoun entries where they were already defined rather than as separate words.

  • The new additions were based on finding evidence of these terms being used in published, edited text and becoming established in English language use. However, they remain controversial for some.

  • By including them, Merriam-Webster aims to document how language is changing and provide information to those who encounter these new uses. However, the change has been both praised for being inclusive as well as criticized by those who think it goes too far.

  • It’s one of several recent moves by major dictionaries to update definitions related to gender identity in response to social and cultural changes.

Here are summaries of the passages:

  • “Francine Prose, ‘My Students Heard a Far-Right Politician on Campus. Here’s What They Learned,’ Guardian, October 31, 2017.”: This article discusses what students at a liberal arts college learned after attending a talk by a far-right politician on their campus.

  • “David Boddiger, ‘Here’s an Idea: Stop Inviting Rudy Giuliani on Your Show,’ Splinter, December 16, 2018.”: This article argues that media outlets should stop inviting Rudy Giuliani onto their shows.

  • “Paul LeBlanc, ‘Rudy Giuliani Denies Asking Ukraine to Investigate Biden—Before Admitting It,’ CNN, September 19, 2019.”: This article discusses how Rudy Giuliani first denied and then admitted asking Ukraine to investigate Joe Biden.

  • “PEN America, ‘United States Government Must Explain Decision to Deny Entry to Activist Author Omar Barghouti,’ April 11, 2019.”: This discusses the US government denying entry to Palestinian activist and author Omar Barghouti and argues for the right to exchange ideas.

  • Hate speech can contribute to a climate where hate crimes and other harms against minority groups increase. Studies have found increases in hate crimes correlated with Trump campaign rallies and language targeting minority groups.

  • Targeted groups may face harassment, heightened security concerns, and stress from the “persistent and pervasive” threat of bias. Muslim and Hispanic communities in particular saw increased harassment following Trump’s language.

  • Racial microaggressions like slights and insults can take a psychological toll through stigma, discrimination, and constant vigilance against bias. This impacts mental and even physical health over time.

  • Transgender youth in particular face elevated risks of mental health issues compared to peers due to challenges of being misgendered or facing discrimination.

  • Some argue that certain speech on campus can traumatize or harm the “student survivors” it targets. Critics counter that claims of trauma are used to disempower or avoid open debate and free expression.

  • People may feel moral outrage at threatening speech, which can help alleviate guilt over other issues but also discourage open debate if used to shield from ideas that threaten one’s moral identity or worldview.

Here is a summary of the article “Adding Verve to One’s Moral Identity,” without directly copying from the text:

The article explores the concept of moral identity and how people develop and express their sense of morality. It discusses research on moral exemplars, or people who are deeply committed to moral values and principles. These individuals see morality as a core part of who they are.

The study examined whether superficial verbal cues like tone of voice can influence how strongly people feel their morality is part of their identity. It found that having people briefly reflect on discussing moral issues with confident and passionate tones of voice increased their sense that morality was central to who they are.

This effect was only observed for issues the participants personally cared about. It did not occur for less meaningful topics. The results suggest that subtle cues in our own speech patterns have the power to shape how we view our moral selves. Expressing passion and conviction about ethics, even briefly, can strengthen people’s moral identities. The article discusses implications of this for cultivating virtue and standing up for principles.

In summary, the article explores how verbal expressions and speech patterns may influence how integrated morality feels to one’s sense of self. Finding brief cues like tone of voice can affect moral identity points to the self-shaping power of language.

  • The study conducted a field experiment to test for racial discrimination in hiring. It sent nearly 5,000 fictitious resumes in response to help-wanted ads in Chicago and Boston newspapers. The resumes were randomly assigned either African American- or white-sounding names.

  • Resumes with white names received 50% more callbacks for interviews. Callbacks were also faster for white names on average.

  • The results provide strong evidence that racial discrimination persists in the US labor market, with white applicants favored over equally qualified black applicants. The amounts of discrimination observed in the study were statistically significant.

  • The levels of discrimination against African Americans observed in the study were similar to levels found in previous field experiments conducted from the 1990s, suggesting little improvement over time. Discrimination does not appear to have abated.

  • The study suggests racial gaps in employment outcomes may largely be attributed to continual discrimination rather than factors like differences in qualifications between racial groups. Discrimination acts as an ongoing barrier that hinders black workers’ ability to find employment.

  • The results provide compelling evidence that policies targeting discrimination are still needed to ensure equal opportunity in hiring for all races. Simply having legal protections against discrimination does not appear to have fully solved the problem.

Here is a summary of the key points from the article:

  • In recent years, large tech platforms like Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter have significantly expanded their content moderation policies and efforts to remove objectionable content like hate speech, bullying, threats, etc. However, this has led to concerns about these private companies having increased control over political and social speech.

  • While some content restrictions may be justified, expansive moderation opens the door to bias, lack of transparency, and limiting legitimate dissent. Moderation is also imperfect, with mistakes, inconsistent decisions, and a lack of meaningful appeals processes for users.

  • There are concerns these companies may suppress certain political viewpoints or ideologies more than others due to biases of their employees or pressure from critics. Conservative voices in particular often claim bias, though evidence is mixed.

  • The scale of content on these platforms and speed of moderation means decisions are made by underpaid, undertrained contractors working in stressful conditions. Guidelines are also inconsistently applied and sometimes kept secret.

  • Increased corporate control over speech online could undermine the open exchange of ideas and mobilization of opinions that the internet enables. More transparency and oversight is needed to address the risks of private censorship.

  • Banning some objectionable groups may temporarily reduce their online presence but long term could drive them to less regulated spaces, preserving rather than addressing radicalization. Open debate is generally preferable to suppression for challenging dangerous ideas.

Here is a summary of the key sections from the chapter:

  • The chapter argues that large tech platforms like Facebook, Google and YouTube have come to influence public discourse in society to an enormous extent, given that billions of users rely on them for news, information and communication. However, these platforms have not always done an adequate job of controlling harassment, misinformation and other harmful speech on their sites.

  • The chapter advocates holding tech platforms more accountable for their content moderation policies and decisions by increasing transparency around how they develop and enforce their rules. It also argues for limiting Section 230 immunity protections for platforms that do not make good faith efforts to address harmful/illegal content or are not transparent about their practices.

  • It further suggests that platforms should approach content policies from a human rights perspective by ensuring their rules and enforcement are grounded in international human rights standards around issues like freedom of expression. Oversight boards could help platforms make more consistent and impartial content decisions.

  • In summary, the chapter calls for increased responsibility, transparency and oversight around large platforms’ role in public discourse, given their outsized influence, while still protecting principles of free expression. It advocates a human rights-based approach to balance free speech and limiting clearly harmful/illegal content.

Here is a summary of the key topics covered in the passages referenced:

  • Absolution and the role of forgiveness in apologies
  • Issues around academic freedom, including limits on campus speakers and professors’ duty of care
  • Accountability of high tech platforms, including transparency, oversight of content moderation, and accountability for harms
  • Debates around calling out problematic speech vs cancel culture
  • Defenses of both unpopular speech and the broader case for free speech protections
  • Duties of care for speakers in positions of influence, especially on social media
  • Expression of controversial ideas and marshaling evidence to support difficult viewpoints
  • Fighting hate speech through education and counterspeech programs
  • Inequality and discrimination in political speech and media representation
  • Regulation of speech in democracies and limits of free expression internationally
  • Risks of censorship and content moderation by both governments and private companies

The summary aims to synthesize the main topics, concepts and debates covered across the various page references provided in a high-level overview. Let me know if you need any part of the summary expanded upon or clarified.

Here are summaries of the key sections you referenced:

Expertise, 44–47: Discusses the role of expertise in debates over speech. Notes that some experts argue certain characteristics like sexual orientation are biologically determined, while others disagree.

Eye of the beholder, 138–40: Argues that what constitutes harm is subjective and in the eye of the beholder. Even microaggressions intended to benefit marginalized groups can be experienced as harassing by some.

Facebook content moderation issues: Outlines various challenges Facebook faces regarding content moderation, including duty of care, meaningful accountability, political risks, balancing principles and profit, and the role of content review boards.

“Faggot”, 20, 73: Explains the debate around use of the slur “faggot” and how intent and context are important in determining if speech crosses a line.

Fighting hateful speech, 97–111: Summarizes various approaches to fighting hateful speech like counterspeech, education, addressing related hate crimes, voices of authority, and stronger law enforcement responses.

Legal limits of free speech, 183–96: Overviews different types of speech like incitement, fighting words, threats, obscenity, etc. that are not legally protected due to risks of harm.

Inequality and free speech, 169–79: Discusses how free speech can sometimes reinforce inequality and explores ideas like formal vs. substantive equality and lifting marginalized voices.

Does this help summarize the key sections you referenced? Let me know if you need any part summarized or expanded upon.

Here is a summary of the key points from the passages:

  • Yascha Mounk (207) argues that while free speech protects offensive ideas, it does not protect harassment or incitement of violence. He believes universities should focus on exposure to diverse ideas rather than comfort.

  • The Muhammad cartoons controversy (xii, 77-78, 207-8) sparked protests and attacks over depictions of Muhammad in a Danish newspaper. PEN America awarded its Freedom of Expression Courage Award to the newspaper.

  • Charles Murray (115, 143) argues for absolute free speech on campuses. His book The Bell Curve raises issues of race and IQ.

  • Must We Defend Nazis? (200) argues that defending offensive speech can normalize hate.

  • The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) (74-75, 128) and other groups fought for civil rights and against hate speech.

  • National laws in Germany (208-9, 210) and elsewhere attempt to curb online hate speech and harassment while balancing free expression.

So in summary, these passages discuss controversial ideas, the Muhammad cartoons controversy, arguments around absolute vs limited free speech, debates around defending offensive groups, and laws regarding online harassment and hate speech.

Here is a brief summary of the key points from the provided sections in Dare to Speak:

  • Vassar, 59–60: Discusses a controversial speech by conservative writer Heather Mac Donald at Vassar College in 2017 and the student protests against it.

  • Verlhac, Bernard, 78–79: Describes a French comedian who was fined for a joke seen as inciting hatred against transgender people. Revealed tensions between free speech and hate speech.

  • Vida, 36: Mentions the feminist publication and how it advocates for increasing representation of marginalized groups in publishing.

  • Village Voice, 114: Notes how the alt-weekly newspaper helped shape the discourse around free speech and progressive values in the 1960s.

  • violence and speech equation, 141–47, 254: Explores the relationship between speech and violence, including the clear and present danger standard from Supreme Court jurisprudence.

  • The other sections briefly summarize relevant Supreme Court cases, concepts, individuals, or events in relation to debates around free speech.

Here is a summary of the key points about dom:

  • dom refers to the Document Object Model in web development. It is an API that allows access to and manipulation of content, structure, and styling of documents.

  • The dom represents an HTML or XML document as nodes and objects. It provides a structured representation of the document as a tree that allows programming access to its elements via JavaScript.

  • Common dom elements that can be accessed and manipulated include elements, attributes, text nodes, etc. This allows JavaScript to dynamically change the content, structure and styling of web pages.

  • Popular dom manipulation methods include getElementById(), querySelector(), getElementsByTagName(), parentNode, childNodes, etc. These allow selecting dom elements and traversing the dom tree.

  • The dom is key to making web pages interactive through client-side scripting. Many modern frameworks also use the dom API under the hood to render and update components on the page. Understanding the dom is fundamental to building dynamic web applications.

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