Self Help

Disrupt Yourself - Whitney Johnson

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Matheus Puppe

· 23 min read

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Here are a few key points summarizing the praise for Disrupt Yourself and Whitney Johnson:

  • Johnson offers practical, research-based advice on embracing change and disruption to boost your career and become an innovator. Her innovative approach shows staying true to your strengths can be groundbreaking.

  • The book provides clear guidance to help you cope with unpredictability and use disruption to your advantage. It encourages taking smart risks, battling entitlement, and learning from failure.

  • Johnson draws on her experience as a successful Wall Street analyst and shows how to apply the principles of disruptive innovation personally. Reviewers praise the book as compelling, motivating, and actionable.

  • The advice works for all career stages and helps you embrace constraints, make career jumps to grow, and drive discovery and meaning. Reviewers say it will keep you learning, changing, and thriving.

  • Endorsers like Clayton Christensen, Susan Cain, Adam Grant, Tom Peters, Steve Wozniak, and Liz Wiseman praise Johnson’s innovative framework and say the book is a must-read for innovation, creativity, and career development.

  • The author started her career as a secretary on Wall Street, but was able to move up to become an investment banker and eventually an equity research analyst due to having a boss who believed in her. This kind of upward mobility is rare.

  • She later co-founded an investment firm with Clayton Christensen, a Harvard Business School professor who coined the term “disruptive innovation.” This describes how innovations at the low end of the market can eventually disrupt and transform an entire industry.

  • The author saw herself as a disruptor - starting at the bottom on Wall Street and climbing to the top, then disrupting her own career again by leaving to start her own firm.

  • Disruptive innovations often start out inferior, appealing only to the low end of the market. But once established, they can move upmarket and transform an industry before the market leader reacts.

  • Spotting potential disruptors early is valuable but challenging. The author missed how quickly mobile phones would spread in Mexico by underestimating demand from lower income consumers.

  • She realized disruptive innovation explained why her penetration projections were too low. Growth often looks flat at first, then suddenly spikes upwards when a critical mass is reached.

  • The S-curve model helps explain the non-linear nature of disruptive innovations and can also be applied to understand personal disruption in careers. Learning follows an S-curve of slow progress at first, rapid improvement at the inflection point, and then a tapering off as mastery is reached.

  • Being aware of the S-curve psychology can help persist through early discouragement and harness the thrill of rapid learning during the steep phase. Then as progress levels off, it signals the need for self-disruption again.

  • At the beginning of a new learning curve, progress is slow as you create new neural connections and map unfamiliar territory. But with practice, activities become more reflexive through brain “chunking.”

  • To accelerate your learning, clarify the functional and emotional “jobs” this new endeavor will do for you. Understand what your company and coworkers need from you beyond your formal job description.

  • Reduce ambiguity about where you fit in the organization, who you report to, and how your contributions will be measured. This allows your brain to focus less on worry and more on learning.

  • Consider the emotional rewards that motivate you, not just compensation. Understanding this helps you pursue the intangibles that drive engagement and retention.

  • Taking the time upfront to get clarity on these key elements - the real jobs to be done, the reporting structure, and the rewards - accelerates learning and growth in a new role or endeavor.

  • Taking risks is favored by nature and evolution, as seen in examples like risk-taking male guppies being more successful at mating.

  • People have different natural risk orientations - promotion-focused (comfortable with risk) or prevention-focused (risk averse). Prevention-focused people can overcome their aversion by focusing on what they might lose by not taking action rather than what they might gain.

  • It’s important to distinguish between competitive risk (going into an established market with competitors) and market risk (creating a new market where there is unmet need). Market risk has been shown to be statistically less risky with higher revenue potential.

  • When taking market risk, it’s best to “fly under the radar” with an idea that is ignored or dismissed by potential competitors. Examples are given of organizations like SNHU and individuals like Amy Jo Martin who succeeded this way.

  • Avoid taking competitive risk against established players who can easily replicate and squash a new idea, like what happened with TiVo and TomTom GPS.

Here are a few tips for identifying your distinctive strengths:

  • Look back at your past accomplishments and successes. What skills, abilities or personality traits enabled those wins?

  • What comes naturally or effortlessly to you? What do you do better than most people?

  • What feedback have you gotten from others, either direct compliments on your strengths or expressions of appreciation for something you did really well?

  • What energizes you and puts you in a state of flow? When do you lose track of time because you’re so immersed in an activity?

  • What did you enjoy and excel at as a child? Oftentimes childhood activities reveal natural talents.

  • What are you intensely passionate about? Our passions are clues to what we naturally do well.

  • What do you teach or explain easily to others? The ability to explain something complex shows mastery.

  • What skills come so naturally you take them for granted? The things we do with ease are often our strengths.

  • What frustrates you about others? We get annoyed when people can’t easily do what’s second nature to us.

  • Look for the intersection of your interests, passions, talents and values - that sweet spot is often where your distinctive strengths lie.

The key is to look for activities or skills that feel almost effortless for you compared to most people. Pay attention to what comes naturally and makes you stand out from the crowd. Those are likely indicators of your distinctive strengths.

  • R was nicknamed “Encyclopedia Brown” as a child because she was seen as very smart, but her teachers were frustrated because she got average grades despite her intelligence. She was an underachiever who daydreamed instead of doing her schoolwork.

  • In high school, R continued to ace exams but not do classwork, nearly failing English before being placed in a remedial class. A teacher challenged her to take advanced chemistry, which she excelled at when allowed to do a self-directed project.

  • As an adult, R’s daydreaming and self-directed learning are seen as strengths. She has 90 patents and invented a major display technology used in smartphones and TVs.

  • We can miss our own strengths, dismissing compliments about things we do reflexively well. R didn’t initially see her empathy and emotional intelligence as strengths.

  • “Hard-won” skills show perseverance, like the cowhand work R did to pay for college that made him stand out for an investment banking job.

  • Distinctive strengths are what you do better than others in your field. The chef in the film combined French and Indian cuisine to create his own fusion cuisine that led to a Michelin star.

  • R focused on his user research skills rather than just design creativity to become an industrial designer. He created his own graduate program to hone distinctive strengths.

  • Identifying our core strengths, hard-won skills, and distinctive strengths helps us find our comparative advantage.

  • Identify your distinctive strengths and skills based on your background and experience. Look for unique combinations that set you apart.

  • Match those strengths to unmet needs. Find problems you are equipped to solve that organizations are struggling with. Consider wild-card roles where you would bring something different.

  • At the low end of a new learning curve, it can be difficult to find the right fit. Be patient and achieve small wins to build credibility. Don’t give up too quickly.

  • Make sure you are on the right curve - your strengths should match the needs of the role or business. If not, consider jumping to a better fitting curve.

  • Focus on problems you feel drawn to solve, that leverage your expertise. Look for jobs no one else is doing, just as Darwin’s finches evolved distinct beak shapes to fill ecological niches.

The key is matching your distinctive strengths to unmet needs to identify opportunities to add value.

  • Constraints, limits, and restrictions are often viewed negatively by Americans who value freedom and unlimited possibilities. However, constraints can provide helpful structure and focus when pursuing new challenges or disrupting yourself.

  • Constraints lead to faster feedback, allowing you to quickly evaluate your actions and make adjustments. Tight feedback loops help accelerate learning.

  • Solving for one constraint or variable at a time, like in scientific experiments, leads to clearer answers vs trying to solve for everything at once.

  • Constraints help narrow your focus so you can concentrate without getting overwhelmed or distracted. Our visual field works this way, filtering out most of the spectrum to let us see key things clearly.

  • Artists often create some of their best work under constraints like deadlines, budgets, or materials. Constraints can force innovation and creativity.

  • Though initially frustrating, embracing constraints strategically helps provide the structure to successfully pursue disruption or new challenges. Constraints can liberate rather than restrict.

Here are the key points about imposing constraints:

  • Constraints can focus efforts and lead to creative solutions. With too many resources, efforts can become unfocused.

  • Money constraints incentivize innovation and bootstrapping. Many successful companies start with limited funding.

  • Lack of knowledge can lead to fresh approaches unbound by industry convention. Beginners may innovate by necessity.

  • Time constraints force prioritization and can unlock unexpected value. Creativity thrives under tight deadlines.

  • Invisible constraints like illness can inspire perseverance and empathy. Suffering can provide perspective.

  • The key is to turn constraints into advantages with creative problem solving. Rather than just inconveniences, constraints can drive breakthroughs when approached strategically.

Here is a summary of the key points about how entitlement can stifle innovation:

  • Cultural entitlement leads us to believe our own culture has everything figured out. This closes us off to new ideas from other cultures and makes us complacent. Companies can also become culturally entitled and stop innovating.

  • Emotional entitlement makes us expect rewards without effort. This prevents us from doing the hard work required for innovation and growth. We need to replace a sense of entitlement with one of responsibility.

  • Intellectual entitlement stems from expertise in one area, leading us to think we know more than we do about other areas. This blocks learning. We need intellectual humility to recognize the limits of our knowledge.

  • Entitlement makes us focus inward on what the world owes us rather than outward on how we can contribute. We need to replace achievement thinking with contribution thinking.

  • To combat entitlement, we can develop beginner’s mind, engage in lifelong learning, have compassion for ourselves and others, remember our shared humanity, and focus on giving rather than getting. Battling entitlement is an ongoing process but necessary for innovation and growth.

  • The passage discusses how success can breed a sense of entitlement that blinds people to potential disruption. It uses the example of Sears receiving praise while being oblivious to threats from discount retailers.

  • When things are going well, it’s easy to become complacent and miss signs of impending change. We start to feel we deserve the success and it will continue indefinitely.

  • To avoid this entitlement mindset, the author recommends “transplanting yourself to new cultures” by expanding your network beyond the usual suspects. Exposure to new ideas helps puncture complacency.

  • Another recommendation is full immersion in different cultures, as Janssen has done with its employee exchange program. New cultural settings stimulate creativity.

  • The passage also discusses “emotional entitlement” - the feeling our emotions deserve protection. This manifests as envy of others’ success or wanting to be liked over being accountable.

  • To counter entitlement, the author advocates practicing gratitude, thanking others, and reflecting on how you depend on them. This acknowledges the world doesn’t revolve around you.

In summary, the passage argues entitlement is a barrier to innovation, and suggests expanding networks, immersion in new cultures, and gratitude exercises to overcome it.

Here are a few key ideas about stepping down, back, or sideways to grow:

  • Disruption often requires temporary sacrifice or regression before progress. Like a diver crouching before springing up, sometimes you need to step back or down to ultimately move forward.

  • Leaders often have to step aside or delegate to empower others to grow. Giving up control and sharing power allows an organization to scale and prevents the leader from becoming a bottleneck.

  • Taking a lateral move can provide new skills, experiences and connections that promote future growth. Moving sideways exposes you to new perspectives and networks.

  • Humility is essential. Stepping down requires swallowing pride and recognizing that momentary regression is sometimes required for long-term advancement.

  • Patience is key. Growth isn’t always linear. Trusting the process and giving changes time to take root can lead to greater gains down the road.

  • Discomfort is inevitable but temporary. Regressing or relinquishing power feels uncomfortable initially but can catalyze tremendous growth over time. The short-term pain is worth the long-term gain.

The key is to embrace temporary sacrifice or discomfort as a necessary step on the path to disruption and innovation. Regression can power progression if you maintain humility, patience and trust in the process.

  • Stepping back in your career or business can allow you to grow in new directions and reach new heights. It opens up opportunities for learning and advancement.

  • Organizations can get stagnant doing the same thing, miss new opportunities. Stepping back allows them to pursue new, riskier directions with potential for greater rewards.

  • Individuals also need to find new challenges to continue growing. This may involve switching roles without changing employers, or leaving for a new company or industry.

  • Being pushed back against your will (fired, business disrupted) can also lead to new opportunities, though it is traumatic. It helps to know you aren’t alone.

  • Assess whether stepping back is right for you. It helps avoid being overtaken by competitors, and can lead to greater rewards through disruption/innovation. But don’t step back from an achievable goal you’re pursuing.

  • Examples are provided of companies and individuals who stepped back, took risks, and achieved greater success. This includes BRE Bank, Tractor Supply, and individuals like Carine Clark.

Here are the key points from the passage:

  • Disrupting your career often involves temporarily taking a step back or sideways to gain momentum for future growth. This can mean a pay cut or loss of status, which requires setting ego aside.

  • Prepare for the jump by saving money, testing out your plan, and building security like sponsorships or side gigs. Consider the career stage you’re at - early stage has little to lose, senior stage often has a golden parachute, middle stage is most risky.

  • Make sure your skills map well to the new opportunity. Don’t just quit out of fear. Jump to where the puck is going.

  • Rethink how you measure success with metrics aligned to the new curve. Consider talent development, innovation, integration of information as examples.

  • Recalibrate personal metrics too as disrupting work affects your personal life. Look at work-life integration rather than just balance.

  • Failure is a natural and inevitable part of life, but we are often conditioned from childhood to fear and avoid it. Smart kids who are praised for innate ability rather than effort can develop fixed mindsets that cause them to give up more easily when challenged.

  • There are also neurological reasons we dislike failure - it triggers stress hormones like cortisol and activates the “fight or flight” amygdala response. We get addicted to being right to avoid these uncomfortable feelings.

  • However, we can develop resilience and learn from failure. It’s not a matter of if but when we will fail. Seeing it as practice and striving for small wins helps reframe failure as part of the learning process.

  • Analyzing failures for their lessons, learning vulnerability by sharing stories of failure, and recognizing failure as a chance to iterate will help turn failures into opportunities for growth.

  • Persevering through challenges also builds grit that leads to greater long-term success. Failure is feedback that helps us adjust course, not a referendum on our worth.

  • By accepting failure as inevitable, analyzing it for insights, and iterating boldly but intelligently, we can become anti-fragile and ultimately succeed in disrupting ourselves.

  • The author played piano for a friend’s recital, but started making mistakes and getting frazzled due to perfectionism and self-doubt. Her friend advised her to not pay too much attention to mistakes, focus on recovering quickly, and relax. She ended up getting a good recording.

  • This experience taught her that planning for failure by focusing on recovery and surrounding yourself with supportive people can make failure less catastrophic.

  • Riot Games has created fan empathy and internal cultural openness to failure by directly communicating with users about failures and using humor.

  • We live in a culture where anything less than the best is considered failure. But defining success too narrowly leaves most people as “losers.”

  • It’s important to acknowledge sadness and share failures with trusted others rather than hiding them, to avoid shame spiraling into madness.

  • Shame from failure must be rejected, as it stifles future innovation and dreaming.

  • Failures should be viewed as opportunities for validated learning about prospects and future direction.

  • Sometimes failure indicates you’re on the wrong path and it’s best to quit that goal pursuit. Studies show persisting with unfit goals increases inflammation and health issues.

Here are a few key points on being driven by discovery:

  • Conventional planning relies on past experience and predictable results. Discovery-driven planning acknowledges that little may be known at the outset of a new venture.

  • Discovery-driven planning involves starting with assumptions, testing those assumptions, and adapting as you go based on what you learn. It’s more flexible than conventional planning.

  • Discovery-driven planning involves creating a reverse income statement to define the assumptions that have to prove true. It also involves identifying milestones to test those assumptions.

  • Discovery requires being comfortable with uncertainty and failure. You have to be willing to pivot as you learn.

  • Rather than expecting adherence to a predetermined plan, discovery-driven planning expects deviations and course corrections. Discovery fuels flexibility.

  • Many disruptive innovators and explorers like Lewis and Clark have embraced discovery-driven approaches, starting with a purpose but letting the path unfold through obstacles and learning.

  • Discovery can reveal one’s calling and passion. Following discovery can lead to great fulfillment, even if the path involves missteps and obstacles along the way.

The key is being driven by learning and discovery rather than rigid plans. This allows new innovators and explorers to pave entirely new paths.

  • Discovery-driven planning involves working backwards - decide on your required outcome, then determine what is needed to achieve it. Apply this to your career by deciding your target level of income or satisfaction, then figuring out how to get there.

  • Calculate the costs - estimate the time, money, skills needed to operationalize your plan. Is the personal cost worth it?

  • Make an assumption checklist and test assumptions along the way. For example, assume you need X clients at Y rate to earn your target income.

  • Use milestones to test assumptions and recalibrate as needed. Learning is progress, so course corrections are not failures.

  • Be willing to adapt - most successful businesses end up with a different strategy than initially planned. Your career path will likely differ from your original plan.

  • Insatiably curious people who continually learn tend to be successful executives. Adjust your metrics as you go.

  • You can’t see the end from the beginning. Pursue opportunities even if the endpoint is unclear. Highly driven people like Johnson and McGuire have zig-zagged to satisfying careers.

The key is to take steps forward to gain feedback, then adapt based on what you’ve learned. Don’t hold rigidly to your original plan - be flexible and discovery-driven.

  • The passage describes the career journey of Dr. Camille Johnson, who took a Deputy CIO position at the White House despite a huge pay cut and sacrifice. She was determined to be an asset and knew that if she did well, she would be rewarded in the future.

  • Johnson took some lateral and backward moves in order to make a difference in her future career. Her willingness to take risks and make sacrifices paid off, as today she is the Chief Information Security Officer at Stryker Corporation.

  • The passage highlights how sometimes you need to take a step back or sideways in your career in order to open up future opportunities. Johnson was willing to disrupt her career path and income for the chance to gain experience and make an impact at the White House. This ultimately enabled her to reach a higher position at Stryker Corporation.

  • Disruptive innovation often comes from constraints, limitations, or adversity. Imposing artificial constraints can spur creativity and innovation.

  • Jaws became a classic film partly due to production constraints like a malfunctioning mechanical shark. The constraints forced the director to be more creative.

  • Scarcity focuses the mind. People operating under scarcity or adversity often become more resilient and resourceful.

  • Laura Hillenbrand wrote the bestselling book Seabiscuit while severely ill and mostly confined to her home. The constraint helped her focus intently on writing.

  • When Bach was constrained by his employer to compose a new cantata every week, he produced masterpieces like the St. Matthew Passion.

  • Imposing constraints channels creativity into finding solutions within those limitations. But too many constraints can also be demotivating if they seem totally unrealistic.

  • Well-designed constraints stretch abilities while remaining achievable. Effective constraints inspire ingenuity rather than frustration.

  • Disruption often arises from some kind of constraint. Turning constraints into advantages requires resilience, grit, and creativity.

Here is a summary of the key points and citations from the chapters you listed:

Chapter 4

  1. Twenge and Foster found that narcissistic personality traits increased among American college students from 1982-2009 (Twenge and Foster 2010, 99-106).

  2. Heffernan argues willful blindness is a tragic flaw of the human condition (Heffernan 2010, 7).

  3. Christensen states disruptive innovations underperform established products in mainstream markets (Christensen 1997, xii).

  4. Simmons claims networking is the top predictor of career success according to network science (Simmons 2015).

  5. Uzzi et al. found that atypical combinations of collaborators produce more highly cited work (Uzzi et al. 2013, 468-472).

  6. Johnson states that an “us vs. them” mentality hinders innovation in large companies (Johnson 2014).

  7. The Economist reports that immigrant-founded startups are major job creators in the U.S. (Economist 2013).

  8. Piff found that wealthier individuals are more prone to unethical decision making (Piff 2013, 34-49).

  9. Rauch et al. encourage learning from failure (Rauch et al. 2011).

  10. Tierney reports that gratitude improves well-being (Tierney 2011).

Chapter 5

  1. Johnson argues that even disruptive companies like Yahoo can become disrupted (Johnson 2014).

  2. Skinner describes mBank as the world’s first mobile social bank within a bank (Skinner 2013).

  3. Nunes and Breene use the S-curve concept to illustrate leapfrogging innovation (Nunes and Breene 2011, 152–156).

  4. Scarlett advocates “creative destruction” by disrupting your own business (Scarlett, n.d.).

  5. Cherry reflects on the positive lessons learned from being fired (Cherry 2015).

  6. Christensen et al. encourage measuring your life by relationships and service (Christensen, Allworth, and Dillon 2012, 51).

  7. Johnson interviews Rebecca Jackson about pursuing work aligned with your values (Johnson 2012).

  8. Schein recommends humble inquiry to build relationships (Schein 2013, 18).

  9. Lewis praises business intuition over data analytics (Lewis 2011, 242).

  10. Johnson advocates developing your own “moneyball” metrics (Johnson 2010).

Let me know if you need me to summarize any other specific chapters or sources!

Here is a summary of the key points from the articles:

  • Clayton et al. (2011) propose a new M&A strategy that focuses on value creation rather than financial engineering. They advocate looking beyond synergies and preparing for post-merger integration challenges.

  • Coyle (2013) argues that specific, timely feedback is essential for improvement. Asking questions like “What exactly are you struggling with?” and “What’s working?” is more helpful than general praise or criticism.

  • Dugatkin & Godin (1996) find that female guppies prefer to mate with bolder males, suggesting boldness is an evolved trait. Dugatkin (2013) further explores the evolution and adaptive benefits of risk-taking behavior.

  • Duhigg (2012) examines the power of habits and how to change them. Creating keystone habits can lead to widespread positive changes.

  • Gladwell (2013) discusses the advantages that outsiders and underdogs can have over incumbents. Constraints and difficulties can sometimes produce better outcomes.

  • Johnson (2012) advocates intentionally disrupting your career to move from learning to accelerating performance. This may require giving up status and starting again at the bottom.

  • Loukides (2014) argues that exponential improvements in biotechnology, such as low-cost gene sequencing, constitute a revolution that will transform medicine, agriculture, and more.

  • McGrath & MacMillan (1995) propose discovery-driven planning as a method to develop plans and forecasts in highly uncertain environments. It focuses on assumptions testing rather than detailed scheduling.

  • Pascual-Leone et al. (2005) find neural plasticity allows the brain to reorganize itself and learn new skills throughout life. Mental exercise and new experiences can help maintain mental acuity.

  • Ries (2011) outlines lean startup methodology that emphasizes rapid prototyping, customer feedback, and iterative product development.

  • Dweck (1998) shows praising children for effort and strategies rather than intelligence encourages motivation and perseverance.

  • Johnson (2014) argues that even innovative disruptors like Yahoo can become complacent and fail to respond to new threats and competitors.

Here is a summary of the key points from the academic research citations provided:

  • The study by Wilson et al. examined the personality traits of shyness and boldness across a variety of animal species, including humans, finding evidence that both traits have adaptive value in different contexts.

  • The journal article by Jones et al. analyzed patterns of scientific collaboration and found that breakthrough research is more likely when scientists collaborate across institutional and geographic boundaries.

  • The book chapter by Kaplan reviewed research on entrepreneurial business planning, arguing that detailed upfront planning is less valuable thanflexibility and rapid experimentation in uncertain environments.

  • The paper by Lee examined the experiences of female entrepreneurs in high-tech industries, finding they face distinct challenges including lack of access to funding networks dominated by men.

  • The article by Mandelbrot provided early concepts around fractal geometry, positing that many natural and economic phenomena exhibit similar patterns of roughness and self-similarity at different scales.

  • The book by Christensen introduced his influential theory of “disruptive innovation” explaining how established firms focused on current customers can be overtaken by newcomers targeting overlooked segments.

  • The writings of Drucker emphasized understanding customer needs, continuous innovation, decentralization and viewing businesses as human communities, influencing management thinking over decades.

In summary, these works span a range of academic fields but share common insights around innovation, understanding customers, flexibility, and overcoming institutional barriers - themes relevant to self-disruption. The citations represent foundational research as well as more recent perspectives.

  • Dan, Lisa McLeod, and Scott McNeal are referenced, indicating they are relevant authors or figures.

  • The concepts of meaning, mental mapping, mergers, metrics, and personal metrics are discussed.

  • Companies mentioned include Merrill Lynch, Metropolitan Life, Microsoft, Millennium Pharmaceuticals, and others, suggesting their relevance.

  • Key themes include mindsets (victim, transformer), entitlement, money as a constraint, planning, risks/risk-taking, identifying strengths, playing to strengths, constraints as beneficial, stepping back as a strategy, and reframing failure.

  • The S-curve model of growth and disruption is referenced as an important framework.

  • Various theories and research are drawn upon, including neuroscience, evolutionary psychology, and behavioral economics.

  • The book incorporates case studies, research, and the author’s own experience in investing and innovation.

  • Overall, the key message seems to be about embracing constraints, taking smart risks, understanding your strengths, and disrupting yourself positively.

  • The speech is intended for a company whose revenue growth is slowing and needs reinvention, or whose management team lacks innovative thinking amid industry changes.

  • We live in an era of accelerating disruption. To succeed, companies must harness the power and unpredictability of disruption.

  • To achieve unexpected success, companies should follow their own disruptive path - dare to innovate, do something astonishing, disrupt themselves.

  • The speech encourages companies to embrace disruption and reinvent themselves to drive growth and innovation.

  • It is delivered by a speaker named Whitney, who can be booked through New Leaf Speakers.

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About Matheus Puppe