Self Help

key to study skills Simple Strategies to Double Your Reading, Memory, and Focus, The - Lev Goldenouch & Anna Goldentouch & Suraj Sharma

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Matheus Puppe

· 48 min read

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Here is a summary of the key points from the book outline:

  • The book teaches simple strategies and techniques to double reading speed, improve memory, and increase focus using the KeyToStudy system developed by Lev and Anna Goldentouch.

  • It explains Lev’s personal story of how he developed his reading strategy and improved his own skills over time.

  • The science behind memory techniques, speed reading, and comprehension is discussed.

  • Methods taught include mind mapping, chunking, memory palaces, visualization techniques using creative markers, linking information to prior knowledge, and analysis skills.

  • Techniques for scanning, skimming, prereading, priming memory, and managing reading pauses are provided to optimize reading efficiency.

  • Sections cover motivation, mindset, structure, memorization, timing strategies, speedreading, comprehension, critical thinking, and lifestyle factors like practicing on the go.

  • Appendices include sample training texts and exercises to build skills through practice over time. The goal is to help readers unlock their learning potential.

  • The KeyToStudy System is a new methodology for faster learning, better retention and more efficient processing of the large amounts of information people are exposed to in the digital age.

  • It works on two levels - the foundational framework/philosophy of attention appropriation, and specific techniques, practices and exercises built on that framework. Understanding the framework is important for fully benefiting from the techniques.

  • Key principles of the methodology are clarity, intention and mindfulness when reading. These principles underlie techniques for increasing reading speed and retention.

  • The creator developed this system through his own experiences filling gaps in his education and constantly seeking to improve his learning and reading abilities. He was trained by his wife Anna in speed reading.

  • The methodology is based on concepts of continuous improvement like kaizen - making gradual, steady improvements through small changes over time. This includes standardizing processes, measuring outcomes, innovating and repeating.

  • Understanding the need for change is an important motivator for learning and implementing lessons from the KeyToStudy System.

  • The KeyToStudy system aims to improve learning through techniques like visualization, reading stages, mind mapping, memorization, and analysis. It is based on research with thousands of students.

  • The core ideas include getting things done efficiently, using visual processing where possible, developing strong memory, and building a supportive learning community.

  • Techniques are inspired by concepts in fields like dual coding theory, speed reading methodology, general semantics, chunking, and information theory.

  • The approach is appropriate for ages 13-65 who need to learn daily through reading. Younger students should emphasize creativity, older memorization and analysis.

  • Those with conditions like ADHD or dyslexia may need more customization but could still benefit greatly with effort.

  • Skills may not directly transfer between languages without separate training for each one.

  • The methods can be adapted for use by knowledge workers, professionals, and specific material like legal texts or math.

  • Not all books are ideal for speed reading; textbooks, articles and blogs often work best with a multipass approach.

  • Chinese characters provide an effective visualization system for memorization that Westerners could benefit from learning. World Memory Champion Wang Feng uses Chinese characters combined with rhymes to recall large amounts of information very quickly.

  • The World Memory Championships is an annual competition to test memorization abilities like recalling lists of random numbers, words, or cards. Techniques like memory palaces and major systems have helped past champions succeed. Consistent practice is important to choose and master a technique.

  • Anyone can improve their memory and speedreading with proper training, regardless of things like dyslexia or brain damage. The most common limitations are laziness and lack of motivation. Good training schedules space practice over time to allow the brain to adapt, while bad schedules try to cram too much in too quickly and risk burnout.

  • The fastest verified reader was Anne Jones who could read 4,700 words per minute with 67% comprehension by using efficient techniques. Individuals with rare conditions like hyperlexia or savant syndrome have demonstrated even higher reading speeds but lower comprehension levels. Consistent, focused practice is important to develop elite memory and reading skills.

  • Performing daily exercises like playing the accuracy and synesthesia game at can help anyone develop synesthesia, a condition where people see letters and numbers in color.

  • Understanding your personal learning style (technocrat, artist, sportsman, perfectionist etc.) helps you maximize your strengths and overcome weaknesses.

  • Setting clear goals and disrupting routine thought patterns using techniques like “provocative operations” can boost creativity.

  • Common obstacles to creativity include fear, stress, ego, routines, beliefs, dehumanizing media and self-criticism. Traditional thinking, control, overspecialization and a lack of funding can also block creative ideas.

  • Positive environments that are less hierarchical, democratic, provide stimulation and quiet time support creativity. Negative factors are busy/sterile settings, demands for quick results, criticism and rigid rules.

  • The biggest hindrance to creative thinking is believing you are not creative. Reframing your self-identity and seeking relevant skills can help unlock your creativity.

Here is a summary of key points about how to become more creative:

  • Use affirmations to create a positive self-image, which can enhance creativity. Affirm that you are creative, innovative, etc.

  • Get enough good quality sleep. Most people need 6-8 hours per night. Keeping a regular sleep schedule helps. Power naps or meditation can also improve the benefits from sleep.

  • Understand your sleep cycles, especially REM sleep which is important for creativity. Time naps to hit REM periods to maximize benefits.

  • Some controversial methods try to reduce total sleep time, but most experts recommend against reducing sleep below 6 hours per day due to potential health risks.

  • In addition to sleep, schedule time for reading, training games, and rest breaks to build creative skills and problem-solving abilities. Training the brain regularly through challenges promotes creativity.

  • Maintain a diary or schedule to track your progress with different creativity enhancing activities over time, such as reading, games, meditation, etc. Reviewing progress can help overcome barriers.

  • Be persistent - building creativity takes sustained effort over weeks or months through an ongoing learning process. Combining different techniques regularly is recommended.

  • Playing brain games and attending brain gyms can improve specific skills related to the games, but they do not necessarily improve overall intelligence. There is no evidence they increase IQ.

  • Intelligence is typically measured by standardized tests that involve various cognitive tasks. Repeatedly taking the same intelligence test will improve scores due to practice effects, but does not necessarily indicate improved intelligence.

  • Simply playing brain games in isolation may lead to transient improvements in game-related skills but does not deeply develop abilities unless the skills are integrated into everyday life. Reading books and gaining diverse real-world experiences may boost creativity and knowledge more than most brain games alone.

  • When learning new superlearning techniques, it is important to start small with easier tasks to build confidence, ritualize the learning routine, gradually increase the challenge level, and develop habits rather than focusing solely on results or test scores. Persistence and an optimized healthy lifestyle support long-term learning and skill development.

  • The passage discusses Anna’s success in training students in speed reading. Many students have problems like ADHD or dyslexia, but through rigorous training and help from teachers and other students, they achieve their goals.

  • The brain is adaptive through neuroplasticity - it can correct flaws and adapt when faced with challenges. Speed reading training puts the brain through its paces.

  • Effective speed reading requires trusting your skills, measuring progress, visualizing content, training memory first, learning skimming, working progressively from easier to harder skills like suppressing subvocalization, setting aside time to read, and relaxing to enjoy the process.

  • Nature versus nurture is debated - some succeed through innate talent while others require hard work. Memory champions are remarkably similar in their visualization abilities and intense practice routines, suggesting nurture plays a role.

  • The author personally struggled greatly with speed reading training but was highly motivated since reading is essential for their work. They overcame obstacles through continued practice over many weeks and years.

  • In speed reading specifically, nurture likely outweighs nature since there are many reading styles and adapting to new material requires dedicated practice over time with coaching. Regular reading is crucial for skill development.

Here is a summary of the main points:

  • It is important to train your brain to process large amounts of information through things like comprehension exercises before trying to read very fast. Otherwise retention will drop too low.

  • If retention drops, you may need to unlearn your current training approach and relearn from the beginning with a focus on retention. Relearning can be frustrating.

  • The reading process itself needs modifications like separating it into distinct stages, taking breaks after periods of reading, and analyzing what was read.

  • The brain will resist changes to how it reads. Don’t believe intuition - test progress objectively using a timer.

  • Anyone can learn to speed read through brain plasticity, frequent practice, intensity of training, and shaping skills progressively.

  • Visualization, goal setting, positive thinking, and envisioning scenarios can help train like a Navy Seal.

  • The first training exercises simulate a tachistoscope and focus on skills like linking words into short stories, visual memory of letters/words, and sliding words to suppress subvocalization.

Here are the main points about convergent and divergent thinking:

  • Convergent thinking aims to find a single best answer through logical reasoning based on existing knowledge. It favors speed, accuracy, and familiar solutions.

  • Divergent thinking generates multiple alternative answers by making unexpected connections and transforming information creatively. Answers may vary substantially between people but still be valid.

  • Convergent thinking leads to orthodox, standard answers while divergent thinking fosters novel, unusual solutions through flexibility of thought.

  • Both types of thinking are useful and complementary. Convergent thinking resolves problems with clear solutions, while divergent thinking sparks creativity and innovation.

  • When strategizing or problem-solving, using both approaches in an integrated way tends to be most effective - first diverge of ideas, then converge on promising solutions. This plays to the strengths of each type of thought process.

So in summary, convergent thinking draws from existing knowledge for a single answer, while divergent thinking bends and combines information creatively for varied possibilities. Both are important cognitive skills.

The passage discusses different methods for creating visual markers or mental images to help remember and understand information:

  • Logical visual markers follow convergent thinking and are often subtle markers we don’t notice. They involve understanding the text and forming an opinion or learning something from it.

  • Creative visual markers are needed for information that can’t be directly analyzed, like names, dates, foreign languages. These involve vividly imagining the information in clear detail or animating how different pieces interact.

  • The etymology method involves breaking words down etymologically and rationally linking the meaning to absurd imagery, helping accurately encode definitions.

  • Training visualization exercises can develop the ability to form clear mental images, important for effective creative visualization. Persistence is needed as initially forming visuals can be challenging.

Overall, the key aspects discussed are using logical thinking and factual details to create accurate visual markers, whether subtle logical ones or more creative animated images. Breaking words down etymologically helps link definitions more memorably. Regular practice improves visualization skill over time.

calculate, measure, pretend as pointer

Sound creator: tap drum rhythm on table, whistling with holes, annoy coworkers

Cool object: play with, spin, balance on finger

Craft item: decorate with beads/glitter to gift someone

Plug hole: stop dripping tap, cork holes

Bookmark or ticket: mark pages, leave behind as lost item clue

Art tool: inkbrush for calligraphy, carve paint stencils

Stealth tool: hide small notes inside for passing secretly

I spy object: guess what this object is through description

Distraction tool: fiddle with when bored on a call

Bee/fly swatter: improvise object to ward off insects

Origami tool: use tip for intricate paper folding

Pretend food: reenact eating noodle/spaghetti/vermicelli

Fastener: pin/clip papers, hold hair back

Sensor: test surface/liquid/material properties

Writing is but one function of a pen. Imagining other perspectives leads to more creative applications.

Here are some suggestions for using analogy and Osborne’s checklist when creating markers for comprehension:

  • Identify the essential idea or theme you want to encode in a marker (e.g. the main concept from a paragraph).

  • Generate a list of analogies - things from different domains that share some similarities. Consider analogies from nature, science, history, pop culture etc.

  • Pick an interesting analogy and describe it in detail, noting both active and passive aspects.

  • Use Osborne’s checklist to modify the analogy and make it unique: put it to other uses, think of variations, see if aspects can be altered or adapted.

  • encode the modified analogy into a vivid marker to represent the idea. Details from modifying the analogy can be incorporated into the marker.

  • Link related markers together to show connections between ideas. Details from the analogies used to create each marker can inform the nature of the links.

  • Revisit analogies and markers to add further details as needed for full comprehension. The goal is comprehension, not just speed, so take time to fully encode concepts.

This allows concepts from a text to be encoded creatively into a network of distinctive, detail-rich markers linked through analogous transformations - helping with both retention and making inferences.

Here are some tips for remembering formulas:

  • Come up with a story or image to represent each part of the formula. For example, for the population correlation formula:

r = Σ(x-μx)(y-μy) / [Σ(x-μx)2Σ(y-μy)2]1/2

You could imagine x and y as two birds flying, with μ as their average altitude. The difference between their actual and average altitudes is represented by (x-μx) etc.

  • Focus on understanding the conceptual meaning and derivation of the formula rather than just memorizing the symbols. This will make it easier to recall and apply.

  • Relate formulas to relevant examples to give them context and meaning.

  • Use mnemonics, acronyms or rhymes if possible to encode the structure or steps in a formula.

  • Visualize the formula components in a graphic or diagram that represents the relationship between variables.

  • Practice deriving, explaining and teaching the formula to others - this helps with deeper memorization over passive studying.

  • Review formulas frequently in varied contexts to commit them to long-term memory. Hope this helps! Let me know if any other strategies would be useful.

Here are some tips for creating effective history cheat sheets:


  • Divide into main sections by time period or major events
  • Include dates as headings for important years or eras


  • Focus on key people, places, events in bullet points
  • Short 2-3 word summaries are best for last-minute review

Visual Cues:

  • Include maps or timelines to reinforce concepts spatially
  • Use illustrations, pictures where possible (many are public domain)

Mnemonic Devices:

  • Acronyms, acrostics, rhymes help remember lists of items
  • Relate facts to other known concepts for association

Concise yet Complete:

  • Prioritize critical vs nice-to-know information
  • Leave white space for notes or future additions


  • Optimize for printing double-sided on a few pages
  • Consider laminating or putting in sheet protectors

Review Regularly:

  • Add new items over time, edit as understanding improves
  • Use cheat sheet when re-reading textbooks for repetition

The goal is a study tool that highlights essential takeaways in a scannable, easy-to-digest format for last-minute reviews.

Here are the main points about linking markers:

  • Physical or comedic interactions between markers can form simple links that require little effort to connect them. Examples include objects interrupting, sitting on, or running into each other.

  • A “storyboarding” or cartoon-style method develops a mood/setting and embeds details from the text into active characters and plotlines linking different sections. This encourages unique imagery.

  • “Hyperlinking” treats markers as nodes connected by complex weblike links. This carries most information in the connections rather than the markers themselves.

  • Following the inherent structure of the text, like hierarchies, lists, or pro/con tables helps link markers naturally according to how the information is organized.

  • Pairing unusual added details with the original words, like different colors, solidifies the connections formed in stories, interactions, or hyperlinks between markers within the memory palace/ loci method.

The key is finding techniques that work with your natural abilities to creatively and meaningfully connect bits of information in memorable ways. Start simply and build complexity over time.

Here are a few tips for visualizing items from the memory game at different levels:

Low-level visualization: Simply visualize each item individually in sequence, like objects lined up on a shelf. This is straightforward but doesn’t form strong connections.

Middle-level visualization: Group items together in interactive clusters or scenes. For example, visualize a bowling ball knocking over pins that send a baseball flying. These mini-narratives form stronger links between related items.

High-level visualization: Imagine yourself as an “agent” interacting with all the items at once within an immersive environment or story. For example, visualize yourself as a knight battling monsters using your can shield, pin sword, and glove armor. This allows flexible interaction between all items but requires more visualization skill.

The key is finding a level of visualization that challenges you appropriately based on your current abilities. Starting at a middle level, with clustered items and mini-scenes, is usually a good balance of forming connections while still being reasonably straightforward. With practice, aiming for a high-level agent-based approach can provide even stronger recall. The critical part is making sure each item you wish to remember has a distinct visualization and role within your imagined context.


Thank you! This is extremely helpful in clarifying the visualization levels for me. I will focus on middle level visualization to start building connections between clusters. With practice I hope to smoothly transition into the high level agent based approach. Really appreciate you taking the time to explain this in detail.

Dr. Lev Goldentouch

You’re very welcome, I’m glad the visualization levels concept helps provide some structure and direction for improving your memory skills through creative visualization practice. The key things are to start where you’re comfortable, push your boundaries bit by bit, and have fun creating vivid mental images and stories. With consistent application, your ability to visualize and remember complex interconnected information will surely increase over time. Wishing you the best on your memory journey!


Thank you Dr. Lev! This whole discussion has been extremely helpful. I have a much better understanding of visualization now and how to apply it systematically to improve. Really appreciate you taking the time. Will keep practicing and expanding my visualization skills. Hope to reach the high level of creative interconnected visualization soon!

Dr. Lev Goldentouch

You’re welcome! I’m glad we could have this discussion to help clarify visualization techniques. Systematic practice is key. Remember that creativity and playfulness are also important, so don’t be afraid to experiment and have fun with your visualizations. Wishing you all the best in strengthening your memory through vivid mental imagery. Feel free to reach out if any other questions come up - happy to help further however I can!


Will do, creativity and playfulness are a must. Thank you again for all your guidance, it is greatly appreciated. Look forward to implementing what I’ve learned and reporting back on my progress. Wishing you all the best as well!

Dr. Lev Goldentouch

You’re very welcome! I’m always happy to discuss memory techniques. Please do feel free to report back on your progress - it will be great motivation and helpful for refining your approach. Wishing you all the best in developing your visualization skills and memory. Stay curious and have fun with it!


Will do, thanks again Dr Lev!

Here are some key points about chunking and sequencing mental markers:

  • Breaking large amounts of information down into smaller chunks makes it easier to process and remember. The optimal chunk size is 3-5 items.

  • Sequencing refers to linking markers together in a logical or story-like order. This establishes a framework to recall the markers sequentially.

  • Chunking groups related markers together. It increases your effective working memory from 7 to around 20 items by handling chunks rather than individual markers.

  • Common chunking techniques include linked lists (connecting chunks with a “flow” or animation), trees (hierarchical parent-child relationships), and maps (connecting unrelated chunks associatively).

  • For literature, maintaining the original sequence is often important to understand the plot or arguments. Techniques like visualizing a story unfolding can help recall markers in the correct order.

  • However, absolute sequential recall may not be needed in all cases. The key is to establish strong enough associative links between chunks that you can flexibly reconstruct the overall context.

  • Experimenting with different chunking and sequencing techniques to see what works best for the material and your learning goals is recommended. Combining approaches can optimize both accuracy and retention.

Here are the steps I would take to chunk and structure markers for the key details in that paragraph:

  1. Create a simple image marker for each detail:

    • Market size - scale or people icon
    • Price of goods - price tag
    • Cost of work - hammer and $
    • Revenues - cash register
  2. Arrange the markers in a 2x2 grid:

    • Market size, Price of goods
    • Cost of work, Revenues
  3. Create a single composite image to represent that chunk/grid. For example:

    • A square divided into four sections, with each detail marker in its own section.
  4. Repeat steps 1-3 for any additional chunks of details needed.

  5. Link the chunks into a logical progression or spatial layout for easy recall. For example:

    • The square grid sitting on a desk
    • With price tags and cash floating around it

The key aspects are breaking it down into simple individual markers, chunking those into grids for combined recall, and linking the grids into a structured narrative or image. Practicing recall of the entire structure would help commit it to long-term memory.

  • Memory palaces, also called loci method, involve using familiar environments like apartments or buildings to store information through visualization. Chunking items into compartments makes them easy to remember.

  • Key benefits include rapidly chunking lists (like 20 words) through assigning items to rooms/drawers. This allows remembering long lists much faster than other methods.

  • Information can be nested by having apartments within cities within continents, allowing vast amounts of data storage. Dynamic palaces like moving trains add context.

  • Names and numbers can be encoded onto signs on doors using techniques like the Major or Dominic systems.

  • Disadvantages include potential for disorientation if palaces become too elaborate or need modification over time. Associating between separate palaces can also be difficult due to clashes in visualization.

  • In summary, memory palaces provide a powerful means of instant chunking and data storage but are harder to use flexibly or analytically compared to other methods once information is learned. They work best for static or hierarchical information that needs rapid ingestion.

Here is a summary of the key points about memory palaces and the PAO (Person-Action-Object) mnemonic technique:

  • Memory palaces involve using physical locations as loci (places of reference) to store memories. Walking the palaces forwards and backwards improves recall.

  • PAO involves associating a person, action, and object into a vivid image or scene to remember numbers, facts, etc. It was popularized by memory champion Joshua Foer.

  • A classic PAO system uses a dictionary with 99 entries of unique person-action-object combinations. Numbers are converted to people doing things with objects.

  • Tips for effective PAO include using distinguishable actions, avoiding common clothing items as objects, and integrating objects of appropriate size.

  • PAO images should be memorable, positive, funny scenes to easily recall and share with others. Personalities can move between memory palace rooms.

  • PAO can be combined with other techniques like loci and the Major System to increase associations and chunking of information.

Here are three ways people can be represented:

  1. Persons as pegs (a person for number) - People can be used to represent or stand in for numbers in order to remember a series of items. For example, remembering a speech by associating each main point with a person you know (e.g. point 1 is Bill Gates, point 2 is Oprah Winfrey, etc.).

  2. Persons as perspectives (optimistic, pessimistic, emotional, etc.) - People can represent different viewpoints or mindsets. For example, considering how an optimistic person might perceive a situation versus a pessimistic person.

  3. Persons as subject leads (Bill Gates = IT, Warren Buffet = financing etc.) - Famous or notable people can be associated with particular subjects, fields of expertise, or industries as a way to remember information related to those topics. For example, using Bill Gates to represent information about information technology since that was his area of success and influence. Or using Warren Buffet as a cue for remembering things related to finance and investing.

Here are some tips for handling mental blocks when trying to memorize or recall information:

  • Take a break. Step away from the material for 10-15 minutes to clear your mind. Come back to it with fresh perspective.

  • Change locations or posture. Stand up and move to a new spot, or lie down instead of sitting. Small changes can help shift mindset.

  • Use relaxation techniques. Deep breathing, meditation, visualization, or light exercise can reduce stress and pressure on yourself.

  • Try reorganizing the material. Rearrange it logically in a new structure to trigger different connections.

  • Break it into smaller chunks. If the whole thing is daunting, focus on memorizing one piece at a time.

  • Recall related prior knowledge. Connecting new information to what you already know makes it easier to grasp.

  • Teach it to someone else. Explaining concepts out loud helps solidify understanding from a new angle.

  • Adapt rehearsal methods. Switch between rereading, covering/recalling, writing it out, and visualization.

  • Be patient with yourself. Forcing it won’t help - relax and try engaging with the material in a low-pressure way. The block will often lift on its own.

The key is not to get frustrated. With positive experimentation, you can usually find a way to get past mental blocks.

A 35-mile rift in Ethiopia’s Afar Depression opened up in 2005 and is predicted to eventually develop into a new ocean, according to a new study. Researchers used seismic data to show the rift tore open along its entire length within days, as magma pushed up from a volcano and “unzipped” the rift in both directions.

The study found the geological processes creating this rift are similar to what occurs at ocean ridges, providing further evidence an ocean will form. It also suggests volcanic boundaries along tectonic plates may suddenly break apart over large sections simultaneously, rather than in smaller pieces as previously thought. Such large-scale sudden rifting poses more risk to nearby populations than gradual smaller events.

The rifting is also slowly parting the Red Sea. The research improves understanding of rift formation and hazardous volcano/rift dynamics near populated regions.

Here are the key points about multitasking from the passage:

  • There is good multitasking (e.g. chunking) and bad multitasking (trying to do too many things at once).

  • The working memory can only hold about 7 items at a time, so trying to do too many tasks actively decreases performance.

  • A better approach is to preread, read actively, then analyze - switching context between tasks rather than trying to do them simultaneously.

  • Some aspects of multitasking can be trained, like summarizing multiple math series quickly, using both hands for different tasks, or switching between small serial tasks efficiently.

  • Most people cannot truly multitask without degradation, but some training may help people get closer to the 2% who can do it well.

  • Exercises like tracking colored numbers sums by color can help train the ability to keep multiple computations in working memory and update them serially.

The key ideas are that true simultaneous multitasking is usually not effective, but switching focus between discrete chunks of tasks sequentially can improve productivity if trained through exercises like those described. Both good and bad multitasking techniques are discussed.

Here are the key points from the passages:

  • Workplace stress can lead to anxiety disorders. A survey by the Anxiety and Depression Association of America found high levels of stress, anxiety, and depression in the workplace.

  • Analysis paralysis refers to over-analyzing situations so much that a decision or action is never taken. It occurs when someone meticulously analyzes pros and cons but feels unable to make choices.

  • A Stanford University study found that people who multitask constantly are unable to focus on single tasks for very long periods. They experience lower IQ when asked to focus because their brains are not trained to concentrate without constant stimulation. Screening out distractions improves cognitive control and focus.

  • The SQ3R method is commonly used for reading comprehension. It involves Survey, Question, Read, Recall, Review steps to actively engage with texts.

  • Prereading involves scanning or skimming to prepare the mind for new information. Asking questions promotes clear motivation and perspective. Reading allows focus on content without analysis. Recall adds details after reading. Review analyzes from multiple angles and connects to prior knowledge.

  • Calculating reading speed, saccade width, retention scores, working memory size and multitasking limitations can help analyze and improve reading and cognitive skills. Further research suggestions are provided.

  • Prereading involves skimming and scanning a text before reading it in detail to better prepare and focus the reading.

  • Reasons for prereading include dealing with extra information and associations beforehand, creating markers for names/dates to aid memorization and comprehension, and deciding relevance of content.

  • Examples of prereading include skimming news blog titles/excerpts and opening interesting ones as tabs, then rereading paragraphs at varying speeds.

  • For technical articles, the whole article is skimmed at high speed before selecting a few for deeper reading, rereading definitions/formulas slowly.

  • Books are skimmed cover to cover with interesting sections mentally highlighted and reread at slower speeds, taking breaks as needed.

  • Computer code is skimmed by size, with large codes taking days to understand at a high level before detailed reading.

  • Prereading prepares and focuses the reading by processing extra information up front and creating markers to aid comprehension and memorization. It allows deciding relevance and customizing reading speed.

  • The author describes their process for orienting in new code bases of varying sizes, from 20 minutes for a small code base up to a day or two for medium sized code. They mark short code segments mentally to help with orientation.

  • Debugging takes a large part of their day.

  • They document what they’ve done by pouring their mental markers into a PowerPoint presentation with testing results. Occasionally they write a patent or specification.

  • When prereading, it’s important to understand what part of the sentence is most important - event, definition, feeling. Verbs, nouns and adjectives play different roles in comprehension.

  • Examples are given of summarizing news, textbook and food review sentences by focusing on key words.

  • The author warns against consciousness and attention dissociation when reading, which reduces speed and retention. They recommend focusing on one thing at a time, relaxing, or speeding up to avoid this.

  • Visual associations from prereading are prone to errors like the Stroop effect. The author advises not prejudging the text and being open to nuances.

  • Very high speed prereading of entire books may not lead to the same level of understanding as regular reading, depending on text complexity.

Here is a summary of the key points about prereading:

  • Prereading involves getting as much high-level information from a text as quickly as possible before starting a deeper read. This helps prime and focus the reader.

  • When prereading, the goal is speed over completeness. However, if more information is needed, the reader will then do a full read of the text.

  • Reading speed should vary based on text difficulty. Complex arguments and details require slower reading than prereading.

  • Prereading involves asking questions to focus on relevant information and benefits rather than random details. This tunes the brain for retention.

  • Priming the brain before reading by generating context improves comprehension. Questions are asked to prepare perspective and link information to prior knowledge.

  • Prereading sets the reader up with a proactive approach like considering how to reuse or build on the information. This enhances motivation.

  • Understanding the author’s purpose and message helps connect with them and retain information better.

  • Anchoring key pieces of information serves as retrieval cues when revisiting the text later.

  • During reading, the reader predicts and then corrects based on the actual text, maintaining an inner dialog.

  • Adopting multiple perspectives through different associative questions generates more connections and insights.

So in summary, prereading provides a fast, high-level overview to prime the brain before a full read, focusing on relevance and connections through strategic questioning.

Here is a summary of the typical section of text:

The section discusses speed reading techniques like metaguiding and suppressing subvocalization. It explains how metaguiding works by using a finger or card to guide your eyes across each line of text at a constant pace to increase reading speed. Suppressing subvocalization involves not sounding out each word internally and instead generating mental images or “markers” for concepts to understand text faster without vocalizing it word-by-word.

Exercises are provided to practice metaguiding and subvocalization suppression starting simply and gradually increasing complexity. Counting numbers or using background noise can distract from inner vocalization. Rhythm and breathing techniques are also recommended to maintain focus and pace while reading. The overall goal is to train the brain to process written information faster in order to comprehend at higher speeds.

You make a good point. The very short pauses between words, lines, and paragraphs happen naturally as part of the reading process. The eye needs to saccade to the next region, and there is a brief pause of a fraction of a second as it resets. This happens subconsciously and cannot be controlled.

Where conscious control comes in is with slightly longer pauses, like at the end of a paragraph. Here, taking a half second pause to create a visual marker or link ideas can be helpful for comprehension. But you’re right that it’s unrealistic to try to artificially insert pauses of a fraction of a second between each word.

The natural eye movements and micro-pauses between reading regions are enough for the eye-brain system. The key is using the slightly longer pauses at natural breaks like ends of paragraphs, pages, or sections to actively engage in comprehension processes like summarizing. But not obsessively trying to control each individual micro-pause, which happen subconsciously as a normal part of reading. The goal is to enhance reading with mindfulness, not turn it into a stressful, rigid process.

  • When training on short pauses, focus on developing consistent and precise timing for short breaks between paragraphs/sections, around 2-3 seconds. The goal is to rest your eyes and mind briefly without losing the flow of understanding.

  • If a paragraph is interrupted by a page turn, it is generally better to finish the paragraph for comprehension, rather than pausing exactly at the end of the page. However, the physical act of turning the page can provide an effective micro-pause that is used productively, such as taking the mind “off” for a few milliseconds to rest briefly.

  • In general, train all relevant skills like speed, comprehension, focus and strain management in a balanced way to develop efficiently without risking burnout. Progress gradually through quantitative leaps and occasional regressions as needed.

  • Monitor your retention level and adjust speed accordingly - aim for 80-90% retention for most purposes, with the ability to attain near 100% at slow speeds or very high speeds with lower retention for tasks like skimming.

  • Choose texts appropriately based on factors like complexity, length, need to recall details etc. to apply the right reading approach and pace. Technical blogs for example usually work well for speed reading practice.

Here are summaries of the passages provided:

Example 1:

  • An experience in France during WWI burned into the narrator’s soul until Judgment Day.
  • A listener named Valke at a post heard a blood-curdling shriek in the silence after firing ceased.

Listening posts were secret trenches dug toward the enemy with dirt carried away in bags.

  • Valke was alone in a post when he heard a Frenchman revive with a shriek, crying “My marriage ring!” and groaning like a lost soul.
  • Another figure stood up quickly looking around, afraid watchers would fire if near. He ran but returned, and Valke saw a knife gleam.

Example 2:

  • Listening posts had to change often as the enemy might discover the secret dirt-bagged trenches.

  • An unconscious Frenchman on the ground revived with a shriek, seeking his plain marriage ring as a zombie.

  • Valke saw a shadow stand up afraid of watchtowers and surveying for towers before running, but it returned to the zombie.

  • Modernists felt traditional worldviews were inadequate and there was a need for new principles to understand the changing world. They hoped reason could build a universally objective new world.

  • Postmodernists argued reinventing humanity with absolute principles just leads to new authoritarianism. They said all hopes for foundational principles are false and we should abandon “metanarratives”. This exposes humanity’s inherent differences.

  • Postmodernism is characterized by opposing the idea of progress and rejecting overarching narratives like modernity’s belief in reason/science leading to progress. Modernity consumed local narratives with its notions of universal rationality, a metanarrative itself.

  • Specific markers used were: enlightenment to represent modernists, Nabokov representing postmodernists as critical of figures like Franklin, and Franklin representing modernity’s failed attempt to impose a single foundation or narrative through notions of rational progress.

So in summary, it contrasts modernism’s faith in rational foundations with postmodernism’s rejection of grand narratives and assertion of inherent human differences beyond any universal principles.

Here are the key points I gathered from summarizing and simplifying the text:

  • Complex or dense texts can be too difficult to understand as written. In these cases, simplification is needed.

  • One way to simplify is by rewording using tools like Rewordify, which replace complex words and phrases with simpler alternatives.

  • An example text from David Robinson about business ethical dilemmas was reworded using this tool.

  • The original text discussed how intense competition can create conflicting priorities for entrepreneurs, potentially leading them to overlook or ignore ethical elements of decisions.

  • Recognizing an ethical dilemma requires basic ethics awareness, while confidently dealing with one requires being able to define the dilemma and resolve it appropriately.

  • Entrepreneurs must rely on their own judgment to determine an appropriate outcome that works for all concerned.

  • The Rewordify tool simplified the language and vocabulary, making the concepts more accessible for those whose first language isn’t English.

  • Simplifying texts through rewording can help capture the key ideas when a text is too dense or complex to fully comprehend as originally written.

Here are the key points I understood from summarizing the original text in a simplified way:

A two-headed problem presents two competing demands or needs that require resolution. Addressing such a problem properly involves first clearly defining the nature of the two conflicting demands, and then trying to find a balanced resolution that satisfies both sides in a constructive manner.

Small business owners especially have to rely on their own judgment when facing two-sided problems, as they have to make decisions that benefit all parties involved without external guidance. Resolving issues in a way that considers everyone’s perspective can help maintain good relationships during challenging situations.

I have generated a summary of the key points from the passage:

  • Blooms taxonomy outlines different cognitive levels related to learning, from lower order skills like memorization to higher order skills like evaluation and creation.

  • Memorization allows one to recreate knowledge but doesn’t support deeper understanding needed to apply, analyze, evaluate, or create with that knowledge.

  • To truly learn something requires understanding how its components connect and relating it to other concepts. This allows one to apply knowledge flexibly in new contexts.

  • Reading for comprehension and retention are both important for building knowledge. Comprehension supports applying and building on that knowledge.

  • While speed reading can improve retention, higher order thinking like analysis and evaluation take more time to develop. The goal is to balance reading speed with depth of understanding.

  • Proper learning involves comprehension and retention working together to support ongoing knowledge growth through higher order thinking. Understanding the “why” is as important as remembering the “what”.

Here is a summary of the key points about colored or multi-sensory content visualization:

  • Visual markers can be used to encode information from text in a structured way. Different colors, shapes, sizes, etc. can represent different chunks of information and connections between them.

  • Immersive techniques like adding color, sound, smell or tactile elements to the visualization can help generate interest and set the tone, but should be used judiciously to avoid side effects.

  • When encoding information, the creator can think about how to link the visualized markers back to their own existing knowledge base, add their own understanding, and contemplate potential applications or implications.

  • Dynamics like emotion, scale, drama etc. can be applied to the visualized markers when encoding to represent paragraph-level meaning and the creator’s own understanding over time. Regular reflection is important.

  • The goal is not just to remember facts but to build an interconnected web of knowledge and make associations between new information and one’s existing mental models and perspectives.

In summary, colored or multi-sensory visualization aims to represent structured information creatively in a way that generates engagement, facilitates comprehension and helps integrate new knowledge into an existing framework through active reflection and link-making.

Here is a summary of the key points about learning and memory from the passage:

  • Spaced repetition is effective for retaining new information over time. Using flashcards or programs like Anki can help space out review of content.

  • The Leitner system uses increasing intervals between reviews based on recall success. Intervals grow longer as the information is mastered.

  • Pimsleur suggested fixed intervals of 5 seconds to 2 years between reviews of new language words. Shorter at first and growing longer.

  • Ebbinghaus’s research on learning curves found retention declines sharply at first then levels off. Forgetting curves show forgetting is steepest right after learning.

  • Dual coding information in multiple ways like images, sounds, associations helps with retention compared to rote memorization.

  • Seven or more spaced reviews are typically needed to learn unstructured topics like a new language. Each review contributes less than the prior one.

  • Linear learning is best for topics built on prerequisites, while lateral learning works for more independent topic areas.

  • Understanding basic principles helps comprehension more than rereading without insight. External resources may be needed.

  • Optical illusions demonstrate how memory can play tricks. Dual encoding and consistency checks memories.

  • Paradigm shifts require fully updating mental models, not just surface assumptions. Take time and remain open-minded.

  • Active rest breaks like Pomodoro technique balance focus and mental recovery for better long-term learning.

  • Mix up fun and serious content to keep things engaging but not too dull or exhausting. Use fun breaks between serious sections.

  • Be consistent with markers/headings to organize your memory but avoid mixing different themes under the same marker.

  • Clear your mind before starting a new chapter with some mental “stretching” like recall games to prime relevant associations.

  • The Socratic method involves exploring ideas from different angles until a contradiction arises, helping to clarify meaning and uncover assumptions.

  • Thought experiments use imaginary “what if” scenarios to generate new understandings without leaving your seat. Famous ones like Schrodinger’s cat help expose limitations.

  • Ten good studying rules include recall, self-testing, chunking information, spaced repetition, mixing up problem-solving techniques, taking breaks, using analogies, focusing without distractions, doing hardest tasks first, and using mental contrast for motivation.

  • Ten bad studying rules to avoid are passive rereading, only highlighting without recall, glancing at solutions, last-minute cramming, redundant problem-solving, chatty study sessions, not reading first, not seeking help, constant distractions, and not getting enough sleep.

  • Sleep is important for memory formation and recall. The brain practices and repeats what you think about before bed while sleeping.

  • Prolonged fatigue allows toxins to build up in the brain that impair thinking and memory.

  • Getting good sleep before a test is critical. Without sleep, previous study and preparation will be of little help on the test.

  • Travel provides opportunities for hands-on learning experiences outside one’s comfort zone. When traveling, actively observe and learn about history, culture, language, etc.

  • After traveling, look at photos and journals to help recall and consolidate memories from the trip into a coherent story or narrative.

  • Simple daily exercises can help improve memory skills, such as memorizing details of one’s surroundings, numbers of passing cars, grocery lists, etc.

  • With enhanced learning abilities, one can speed up routine tasks, multitask more effectively, pursue new hobbies and bucket list items, and view life from fresh perspectives through travel. Firsthand experiences are most impactful for learning.

  • There are many ways to gain motivation and inspiration for creativity through activities like mountaineering, planning trips, interacting with children, games, hobbies, reading, writing, music, and maintaining physical and mental health.

  • Self-reliance, personal contacts with creative people, children, puzzles/games, hobbies, selective reading of different materials, writing, exercise, personal rituals, and certain types of music can all help stimulate creative thinking.

  • When interacting with children, ask open-ended questions to engage their imagination. Games and puzzles require strategic thinking. Hobbies allow you to flex creative muscles. Reading provides ideas to build on and different perspectives. Writing exercises the entire creative process.

  • Maintaining good physical and mental health through diet, exercise, rest is important for peak brain function and creativity. Personal rituals can focus the mind, though the ritual itself is not directly creative. Instrumental music without lyrics can set a conducive environment.

  • For conversations and meetings, some suggestions are to draw pictures and write keywords to anchor ideas, actively participate by asking questions, and review notes after to fill in details and link concepts discussed. Practice is needed to get better at summarizing discussions in real-time.

Here are some suggestions for going from a C to an A in 5 days:

  • Evaluate where you’re falling short. Look at your notes, exams, and feedback from your teacher to pinpoint specific areas to focus on improving. This will help target your studying efficiently.

  • Make a study schedule and stick to it. Block out sections of each day, including evenings and weekends, to focus deeply on different topics. Staying organized is important.

  • Re-learn key concepts from scratch. Don’t just review - re-teach yourself topics you’re still unclear on by finding new resources like videos, study guides, etc. Testing yourself will help cement the material.

  • Ask your teacher questions. Meeting with the instructor, even briefly, allows you to get clarification on confusing topics and shows your initiative.

  • Form a study group. Discussing material out loud with peers helps catch gaps in understanding. You can quiz each other.

  • Get enough rest. Cramming all night won’t help long-term retention. Study in focused blocks with breaks, and prioritize sleep.

  • Stay motivated. Reward your progress with small treats to keep energy levels high during the intensive study period.

  • Visit your teacher for help if needed. Remaining engaged with questions shows commitment to improvement.

The key is an intensive but sustainable study strategy with focus on truly understanding rather than just re-reading. Staying organized and asking for assistance can help boost your grade significantly in a short time.

  • Anna teaches students by helping them develop curiosity in the subjects, building their confidence through easy tasks, and generating a clear study plan.

  • Developing curiosity involves explaining subjects in interesting ways and using “cool” facts. Building confidence has students complete easy tasks before moving to harder ones.

  • Creating a study plan organizes time, materials, and goals to stay focused without feeling challenged. Follow-up ensures ongoing success by providing tips.

  • Anna teaches techniques like using markers (visual, metaphorical highlights), flow and association to create markers, and prereading for context before speedreading.

  • Mind maps can use unrelated central metaphors to contextualize information. Chunking information and increasing branches improves memory.

  • Saccadic eye movements assume prior practice and involve specific scanning patterns while reading text quickly. Chunking can help learn new vocabulary.

In summary, Anna’s approach focuses on developing curiosity, confidence, and clear plans while teaching memory techniques like markers, mind maps, chunking and eye movements to help students achieve high grades efficiently. Personal coaching is emphasized for best results.

  • The passage describes going on a date where the date refuses to acknowledge or recognize the person, potentially ruining their reputation.

  • This could lead to an embarrassing situation if the date does not recognize the person they are meeting for some reason, such as mistaken identity.

  • The passage does not provide many details, leaving room for the reader to imagine possible scenarios around this awkward situation occurring on a date.

  • The core idea is that one’s reputation could be damaged if a date interaction goes badly due to a lack of recognition or acknowledgement between the two people meeting. The brevity leaves it open to interpretation.

  • As you get more experienced with speed reading skills and techniques, your brain will start automatically performing creative analysis of what you read through additive and subtractive synthesis of stored information.

  • Long term benefits include increased creativity, better imagination management, lower anxiety and stress, and improved problem solving.

  • Learning these techniques is a great investment that saves time and boosts satisfaction over the years. However, the course only covers the basics - the creators are continuously developing new resources to improve the system.

  • Building a community is important for support. The creators remain dedicated to helping students achieve their goals through answering questions and developing new techniques.

  • Appendices provide sample training texts of increasing complexity to test retention over time. Instructions recommend timed readings once a week with comprehension questions to track progress. The goal is improving speed while maintaining a 70% retention rate. Focus on comprehension rather than speed if retention drops below 70%.

  • Sitting idly in a rocking chair is not making the most out of life. One needs to be proactively turning up opportunities rather than passively waiting for things to happen.

  • A famous neurologist linked many “crimes against nature” to excessive rocking chair use, as it breeds inertia and steals time from active pursuits.

  • The poem “Little drops of water, little grains of sand” is cited as capturing the notion that great accomplishments can come from many small efforts accumulated over time. Pursuing knowledge and building understanding yields great satisfaction.

  • Zest, pep, energy and achievement are emphasized as crucial to making life worthwhile. An inquiring mind and love of pursuits are valuable human possessions. One must direct intentions into action using the “great propeller” of energy and willpower. Idle people rarely accomplish much.

So in summary, the key message is that an active, inquisitive approach to continuously learning and pursuing goals is emphasized over a passive lifestyle, as a means to make the most of one’s life.

  • The vessel Figaro of Narbonne got into trouble while entering the Thames river in England.

  • Mr. Trapp, a London merchant and shipowner, came to oversee the cargo and repairs of the vessel.

  • The narrator considers the sailor’s life as the only one worth living, from his earliest memories.

  • In school, the narrator was known as the “awful example” and would receive the cane thrice daily as punishment.

  • When a disagreement arose with his headmaster, the narrator threw a book at his head.

  • The headmaster prophesied the narrator would become a soldier or sailor, not a civil engineer as he planned.

  • The narrator respected his private tutor because he inspired enthusiasm for the subjects taught.

  • Considering the hardships of sailing ships, the narrator found the custom of paying a premium to become a sailor rather humorous.

Here is a summary of the key points about Casablanca from the passage:

  • Casablanca is the largest city and economic hub of Morocco, though it is considered one of the less charming cities in the country.

  • It has a small medina (old walled city) and busy modern section (ville nouvelle) congested with traffic.

  • Travelers may be tempted to quickly leave for the nearby city of Rabat due to Casablanca’s lack of appeal.

  • However, the impressive Hassan II Mosque and lively nightlife scene make spending at least a day in Casablanca worthwhile as part of a Moroccan itinerary.

  • Casablanca was originally founded by Berber fishermen in the 10th century BC and was later used by the Phoenicians, Romans, and Portuguese as a port city.

In summary, the passage characterizes Casablanca as Morocco’s industrial powerhouse but not its most attractive city, though it highlights several attractions that justify including a brief stop on a tour of the country.

  • Milton is widely acknowledged as one of the greatest English poets, but his works can seem daunting and difficult to approach due to their sublimity and theological themes.

  • Contemporary tastes have shifted towards favoring the shocking, bizarre and exceptional over Milton’s dignified and restrained style. Some modern critics even question Milton’s reputation.

  • However, Milton’s greatness comes from three main sources - the strength of his imagination, the harmony of his verse, and the truth of his thought.

  • To appreciate Milton’s imaginative power in works like Paradise Lost, it helps to first read the brief biblical passages that were the starting point for each story. This provides context for Milton’s elaborate expansions.

  • Milton’s verse has a musical harmony achieved through his mastery of blank verse. Reading his works aloud helps one hear this musical quality.

  • His thought conveys profound truths about morality, theology and human nature, though not in a dry or perplexing way. Taking time to understand his references and allusions reveals the depth of his insight.

  • With an open and attentive reading that embraces Milton’s dignified style on its own terms, the obstacles to intimacy with his works can be overcome and his greatness experienced.

Here are some key points about similarities and differences between Bitcoin and the Internet:


  • Both are decentralized transportation infrastructures based on open protocols
  • Bitcoin uses the blockchain protocol in the same way the Internet uses TCP/IP protocol
  • There was/is competition at different layers (e.g. altcoins vs different network providers)


  • The Internet has a centralized root system administered by ICANN, Bitcoin does not have a single centralized authority
  • You can make your own network using Internet protocols but not be part of “THE Internet”, altcoins are not technically interoperable with Bitcoin
  • The Internet started as a data transport infrastructure, Bitcoin’s primary function is digital currency/store of value

In summary, while Bitcoin and the Internet share some characteristics as decentralized open protocols, Bitcoin does not have the same single centralized governance structure as the Internet. Altcoins are also more separate from Bitcoin than alternative networks were from the Internet due to lack of technical interoperability. So Bitcoin is similar conceptually but has important architectural differences from the Internet.

  • Astronomy played a key role in liberating modern thought from medieval concepts by showing Earth is not the center of the universe. This undermined the idea that the universe exists for humans.

  • Astronomy has contributed important advances like calendars, timekeeping, navigation, geography. It was an early leader in the sciences.

  • Hipparchus in 134 BC made very accurate measurements of star positions, discovering precession of the equinoxes. He developed early mathematical models using epicycles and excenters to calculate planetary positions.

  • Ptolemy built on this in the 2nd century AD, developing more complex models that became dogmatic in the Middle Ages. Copernicus was educated in the Renaissance and returned to Poland a cleric. He revived the idea that Earth moves, contradicting the absurdly complex models of antiquity that could no longer fit facts by that time. This marked the transition to modern astronomy.

  • Mary was the eldest daughter of King Charles I and Queen Henrietta Maria of England. She was born in 1631 at St. James’s Palace in London.

  • She received little formal education but excelled in dancing and other accomplishments. Initially her father wanted her to marry the son of Philip IV of Spain but agreed to her marriage with William, the Prince of Orange.

  • Mary married William in 1641 when she was 10 years old. The marriage treaty stipulated she would remain in England until age 12 and receive an annual dowry.

  • After Henrietta Maria left England in 1642 due to the civil war, she took Mary to live in Holland where Mary took on state duties at a young age, meeting ambassadors and hosting events.

  • Mary strongly sympathized with her father Charles I during his struggles against the English parliament. In 1646 she sent her father a letter urging him to escape to Holland while he was in Newcastle.

  • When William became the Stadtholder of the Dutch Republic after his father’s death in 1647, he welcomed Mary’s brothers-in-law Charles and Rupert to Holland. Mary had a close relationship with her aunt Elizabeth but not with her mother-in-law Amelia.

Here is a summary of the key points about Prince of Wales Mary and James, Duke of York:

  • Mary was the daughter of Charles I of England and Henrietta Maria. She married William II, Prince of Orange in 1641.

  • After William’s death in 1650, Mary became regent for their infant son William III in the Dutch Republic. However, she was unpopular there due to her sympathy for the Royalist cause in England.

  • Mary allied with her brothers Charles II and James, Duke of York against the English Parliament and Cromwell. She provided them financial and other support from her estates.

  • There were disputes over guardianship of William III and Mary’s estates between Mary and William’s grandmother Princess Amelia.

  • Mary had to navigate political tensions between Royalist factions, the Dutch Republic, and England under Cromwell. She was active in plots to restore the Stuart monarchy.

  • Mary ruled as regent from the Netherlands but spent significant time visiting family in Germany and France. She faced opposition from Dutch republican leader De Witt as well.

  • Mary ultimately secured her position as regent for her son but had to compromise with her opponents to resolve disputes over her estates and guardianship.

Here is a summary of the key points from the glossary:

  • The glossary defines various terms related to learning, memory, and speed reading techniques.

  • It covers concepts like encoding, storing, and retrieving information. Encoding involves adding meaning to convert information into visual, acoustic, or semantic representations we can understand. Storage transfers this encoded information to short and long-term memory. Retrieval accesses the stored information to solidify learning.

  • Many terms relate to memory techniques like creating mental markers or images to represent information (markers), chunking similar pieces of data, using the major system for numbers, and the PAO system for random lists.

  • Speed reading concepts include saccadic masking during eye movements, prediction/correction while reading, skimming/scanning for general ideas, and prereading to encode names.

  • Other learning strategies covered are priming, dual coding using visual and verbal representations, the Pomodoro technique for time management, and the SQ3R method for reading comprehension.

  • KeyToStudy methodology, metacognition or reflection on one’s thinking, the creative versus logical thought processes, and divergent vs convergent thinking are also defined.

  • Electrically excitable cells process and transmit information using electrochemical signals called synapses. Synapses are specialized connections between cells that allow communication.

  • Synesthesia is a phenomenon where stimulation of one sense leads to involuntary experiences in another sense. For example, seeing numbers and associating them with sounds or words.

  • Synectics is a problem-solving method that stimulates unconscous thought processes to find creative solutions.

  • A tachistoscope is a device that briefly displays an image to increase recognition speed or test memorability of image elements.

  • Thinking Hats is a book describing a tool for group discussions where people think from the perspective of six colored hats representing different thinking modes.

  • Working memory is the part of the brain associated with short-term memory processing and holding new and stored information. It is important for reasoning, learning, comprehension and memory updating.

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