Self Help

The Minimalist Program 20th Anniversary Edition - Noam Chomsky

Author Photo

Matheus Puppe

· 104 min read



Here is a summary of the key points from “The Minimalist Program”:

  1. The Minimalist Program seeks to identify the “simplest grammar” for human language. This follows from a general scientific principle that nature favors simplicity.

  2. Two notions of simplicity are relevant: an abstract goal of rational inquiry and a more specific theory-internal procedure to select the optimal grammar for a language.

  3. Minimizing the complexity of Universal Grammar helps explain the evolution of language faculty in humans.

  4. The Minimalist Program emerged from the Principles and Parameters framework, which overcame issues in earlier frameworks.

  5. MP takes the approach of formulating a “perfect” solution to the conditions language must meet (satisfying external constraints from interfaces) and then seeing how well actual languages fit that model.

  6. The Strong Minimalist Thesis proposes that Universal Grammar reduces to the simplest possible computational operation satisfying external interface conditions and principles of minimal computation.

  7. The core principle underlying language is that it generates an infinite number of hierarchical expressions interpreted at the conceptual-intentional and sensorimotor interfaces.

  8. If the Strong Minimalist Thesis is correct, Universal Grammar should reduce to the simplest computational operation (Merge) subject to constraints of minimal computation.

  9. While initially controversial, evidence from results over the last 20 years suggests the Minimalist Program is on the right track, especially regarding displacement and structure-building operations.

Does this cover the key points adequately? Let me know if you would like me to expand or modify the summary in any way.

Here is a summary of the key points in the text:

  1. The author argues that the copy theory of movement is the simplest way to account for phenomena like displacement and multiple interpretations. This suggests movement is a basic principle of language design.

  2. Under the copy theory of movement, the syntactic structures have copies that are appropriate for conceptual-intentional interpretation but wrong for sensorimotor interfaces that need to delete copies. This suggests the conceptual-intentional interface is privileged in language design.

  3. The asymmetry between the conceptual-intentional and sensorimotor interfaces implies that communication, which involves externalization, is peripheral to the core elements of language evolution.

  4. Structure-dependence of rules is another puzzle that is best explained by the internal system observing Minimal Computational Mechanism and ignoring linear order. This fits with externalization being secondary.

  5. The complexity of language seems localized in externalization, suggesting that evolution played a slight role in constraints on externalization. The computational operations for basic proposition formation likely emerged first, followed by externalization.

  6. The author argues that so far, the copy theory of movement has yielded some significant results that support these conclusions, though much remains to be explored.

Hope this summary helps! Let me know if you have any other questions.

Here is a summary of the key points in the passage:

  1. The author is discussing the Minimalist Program for linguistic theory. It aims to understand the human language faculty by exploring what conditions it should satisfy.

  2. The author considers two main questions: (A) What conditions does the language faculty meet due to its place within the mind/brain’s cognitive systems? (B) What conditions does it meet due to general conceptual considerations like simplicity and elegance?

  3. The author assumes the existence of a language faculty in the mind/brain that consists of a cognitive system and performance systems. The cognitive system stores linguistic information, and the performance systems access and use that information.

  4. The language faculty interfaces with two external systems: the articulatory-perceptual system and the conceptual-intentional system. This gives rise to two interface representations: Phonetic Form and Logical Form.

  5. The author adopts several conventional assumptions for the purpose of discussion, though noting they may not be entirely accurate. These include assumptions about the architecture of the language faculty and its interaction with other systems.

  6. The key questions guiding the Minimalist Program emerged in the context of developments in the Principles and Parameters model over the last few decades. The author traces the history briefly.

That covers the major ideas presented in the summary. Let me know if you would like me to expand on or clarify any part of this.

  1. The tension between descriptive adequacy and explanatory adequacy has defined the research program of generative grammar. The goal is to abstract general principles from complex rule systems for particular languages, thus reducing the variety of language-specific properties and contributing to explanatory adequacy.

  2. The Principles and Parameters approach holds that languages have no rules or grammatical constructions like traditionally assumed. Instead, there are universal principles and a finite set of parameters that determine how principles apply.

  3. Language acquisition involves fixing the parameter values of the initial state for a particular language. Parameter setting determines an I-language.

  4. The P&P model provides a way to address the problem of explanatory adequacy, by determining how experience sets parameter values within a universal set.

  5. If the P&P concept of I-language proves accurate, there may be a single computational system for human language with limited lexical variety. Cross-linguistic variation would then be morphological in character.

  6. Formulating the P&P model led to discovery of new empirical facts and phenomena, providing evidence that it is moving in the right direction.

Does this cover the main points accurately? Let me know if you would like me to expand or modify the summary in any way.

Here is a summary of the key points in the excerpt:

  1. Principles and parameters (P&P) theory is not a precisely defined system, but rather a broad approach to studying language based on certain guiding ideas.

  2. The central concerns of generative grammar are: determining and characterizing the linguistic capacities of individuals, studying the states of the language faculty (part of the mind/brain), and identifying its initial state (genetically determined).

  3. Early work focused on developing evaluation procedures to select among proposed grammars. The P&P approach suggests going beyond that to address explanatory adequacy.

  4. With no evaluation procedure, there is no internal notion of simplicity in the earlier sense. But economy considerations that select among derivations have emerged as a way to move toward explanatory adequacy.

  5. Questions of the Minimalist Program then arise, such as how “perfect” is language and to what extent departures from “perfection” are needed. This places a huge descriptive burden in understanding the interface conditions and formulation of coherence principles.

  6. The chapters presented follow a chronological order and show a progression in which concepts regarded as fundamental are later challenged and eliminated as the author’s approach evolves.

  7. The end result is a significantly different picture of language compared to its immediate precursors, though only time will tell if the current direction is correct.

Does this cover the main points accurately? Let me know if you need any clarification or have additional questions.

  • A person’s language faculty undergoes little change after reaching a stable steady state in early childhood, apart from expanding vocabulary.

  • This steady state constitutes a person’s mature linguistic competence, allowing them to produce and understand an infinite number of expressions with finite means.

  • A person’s internal language, or I-language, identifies the generative procedure and principles that govern their linguistic competence.

  • The I-language focuses on an individual’s mental state, independent of social factors. It is intensional rather than extensional.

  • The study of I-language centers on the structures it generates, not an external language (E-language) consisting of a set of well-formed expressions. E-language has little relevance to linguistic theory.

  • Understanding a person’s I-language involves determining the properties of both their steady state competence and the initial state endowed by Universal Grammar.

  • Performance factors like production, interpretation and usage realize and utilize a person’s linguistic competence.

So in summary, the key concepts are I-language, representing a person’s internal generative system, and Universal Grammar, specifying the biological endowment for language shared across humans. The study of I-language aims to describe linguistic competence, not performance or an abstract external language.

Here is a summary of the key points in the given text:

  1. The problem of how an individual like Jones decides what to say and interprets what he hears is complex and highly idealized.

  2. A common hypothesis is that the mind has a parser that assigns percepts to signals, which incorporates language and other information. Interpretation involves this and other systems.

  3. Parsing is not always easy and fast. It can be slow, difficult, or even impossible. Many cases of parsing errors have been studied.

  4. There is no inherent reason to expect languages to be learnable. That they seem learnable is an empirical discovery.

  5. A grammar for Jones is “true” if it accurately describes the language he knows. This meets the condition of descriptive adequacy.

  6. A theory of Universal Grammar is “true” if it correctly describes the initial state of the language faculty. This meets the condition of explanatory adequacy.

  7. Any realistic approach involves idealizations. The theory focuses on the “core” of a language, abstracting away accidents and idiosyncrasies.

  8. The language has two components: a computational system and a lexicon.

  9. There is a level of representation called D-Structure where lexical items are inserted.

  10. There are computational rules that combine roots with inflectional features.

  11. Phonetic Form and Logical Form specify sound and meaning. They must be universal, interface with other systems, and be uniform across languages.

So in summary, the text discusses the theoretical issues and assumptions underlying the approach to language and interpretation known as the “Principles and Parameters” theory. It focuses on the idealized nature of the theory, the postulation of various levels of representation, and the distinction between computational and lexical components.

Here is a summary of the provided text:

The text discusses the concept of Universal Grammar (UG) and the Principles and Parameters (P&P) approach in generative grammar. It makes the following key points:

  • Early versions of generative grammar relied on phrase structure rules and transformational rules. While they achieved some success, there was a tension between descriptive and explanatory adequacy.

  • The P&P approach aims to “factor out” overarching principles that govern rule application and assign them to UG. The actual rules of a grammar are then given in the simplest form.

  • Under the P&P conception, transformational rules still exist but only as principles of UG that apply freely. Phrase structure rules may be superfluous as they recapitulate information in the lexicon.

  • Descriptive statements about language can be either language-particular or construction-particular. The P&P approach aims to reduce them to language-independent principles and language-specific parameters.

  • The P&P conception assumes that all principles are assigned to UG, while language variation is restricted to certain options on how the principles apply. This allows rule systems to be eliminable for the core of a language.

That summarize the main points covered in the provided text regarding Universal Grammar and the Principles and Parameters approach in generative grammar. Let me know if you would like me to expand or modify the summary in any way.

Here is a summary of the key points in the given text:

  1. The Principles and Parameters theory considers language as having invariant principles of Universal Grammar and language-particular parameter settings. Constructions in the traditional sense have no theoretical status in this theory.

  2. There are only general principles that interact to form descriptive constructions. There are no specific constructions like verb phrase, passive, relative clause, etc.

  3. The parametric options available seem to be restricted. There is likely only one computational system that derives structures. Variations arise from lexical properties and the point at which structures map to phonetic form.

  4. Languages are expected to be similar at the deep structure and logical form levels. Variations arise from parameter settings and mapping from deep to phonetic structure.

  5. The principles fall into categories like principles governing transformations and principles governing representations.

  6. There seem to be groupings of principles into modules like binding theory, case theory, etc. Certain concepts like locality apply across modules.

  7. Principles of economy like Full Interpretation and derivational economy are assumed to have wide applicability.

  8. Formulating principles explicitly as empirical hypotheses with implications is seen as a “real result” compared to just devising rule systems to account for phenomena.

  9. The P&P approach changes the nature of problems like typology, language change, acquisition, and parsing.

  10. The guiding assumptions of Universal Grammar being simple, elegant, and non-redundant have proven to be successful guides for inquiry.

Hope this summary helps! Let me know if you have any other questions.

Here is a summary of the key points in the given text:

  1. Complex systems tend to have redundancy, which helps compensate for injury and accommodate diverse functions. Language displays similar properties, with large parts being “unusable” yet forming the usable core structure.

  2. The functional simplicity and elegance of the language faculty are not characteristic of complex organic systems in general, suggesting language may be biologically isolated. However, these conclusions could be artifacts of the approach.

  3. The text discusses the Theory of Principles and Parameters (P&P) and the Government-Binding Theory. It notes that the terminology is misleading as the theory encompasses more than just government and binding.

  4. The lexicon contains information on phonology, syntax and semantics of lexical items. The thematic properties of lexical heads, specifying their argument structure, are of particular interest.

  5. Subcategorization seems to follow from theta-role specification, suggesting subcategorization may be redundant. Selectional restrictions are also partially determined by thematic properties.

  6. The text discusses the debate on whether c-selection (subcategorization) or s-selection (thematic) properties have epistemological priority for the learner. While the primitives of s-selection seem more accessible, it is unclear if they determine c-selection properties.

  7. The text uses examples to illustrate how s-selection and c-selection properties interact and may both contribute to lexical knowledge acquisition.

That covers the main summary points discussed in the given text. Let me know if you need any clarification or have additional questions!

Here is a summary of the key points in the given text:

  1. There are four levels of representation in the EST system: D-Structure, S-Structure, LF, and PF.

  2. D-Structure, LF, and PF are interface levels that satisfy the general condition FI. Each level consists of atomic elements and objects constructed from them.

  3. The terminal elements in a phrase marker come from the lexicon, while others are projected by computational operations. Maximal projections project no further.

  4. Two fundamental relations in a phrase marker are domination and linearity.

  5. Command and government are important concepts that apply throughout the grammar.

  6. An SD consists of representations at all four levels: (π, λ, δ ,σ).

  7. Lexical entries contain features like phonological form, category, Case, and agreement. They can also lack features, resulting in empty categories (ECs).

  8. Three types of ECs are discussed: PRO, pro, and trace. They differ in how they are interpreted and constrained.

  9. Trace occupies the position from which its antecedent was moved. Antecedents can bind traces, reflexives, and reciprocals.

  10. Inflected verbs involve a combination of a lexical verb and inflectional features, either via raising of the verb or checking of features in a higher position.

So in summary, the text discusses the key representations and computations involved in narrow syntax according to the EST framework, focusing on properties of lexical entries, the different levels of representation, and the types and functions of empty categories.

Here is a summary of S-Structure representations in both kinds of language (Emonds 1978, Pollock 1989):

  1. English auxiliaries raise at S-Structure but main verbs raise only at LF. French elements all raise at S-Structure.

  2. English and French would be identical at D-Structure and LF but different at S-Structure:

a) English: John often [kisses Mary]

b) French: Jean embrasse souvent [ t Marie]

  1. At S-Structure, traces function as if the antecedent were in that position, receiving and assigning syntactic and semantic properties.

  2. PRO and trace differ in their properties:

  • The antecedent of PRO is an independent argument assigned a semantic role.
  • The antecedent of a trace is not an independent argument and is not assigned a semantic role.
  1. Trace, pro, and variable share properties with anaphors, pronouns, and r-expressions respectively, as expected given their features.

This covers the main points regarding S-Structure representations in Emonds and Pollock’s analyses. Let me know if you would like me to expand on or clarify any part of the summary.

Here is a summary of the key points regarding intelligent expressions (ECs) and movement:

  1. ECs are abstract traces left by movements. They contain typological features like [masculine, singular] to be interpretable. ECs lacking such features are uninterpretable.

  2. Movement forms chains, with the moved element as the head and the trace as the tail. The head yields the interpretation at the LF interface.

  3. Movement can involve either substitution or adjunction. It preserves categorial features to satisfy the Recoverability of Deletion principle.

  4. Movement satisfies locality conditions. Skipping steps leads to deviance.

  5. Arguments (like names, variables) must receive a theta-role. Adjuncts (like adverbials) assign roles.

  6. Argument chains must contain at least one theta position and one Case position.

  7. Theta-marking occurs at D-Structure, so nothing can gain a theta-role by movement.

  8. The Chain Condition states that argument chains must be headed by a Case position and terminate in a theta position.

So in summary, ECs left by movement must be interpretable, and movement is constrained by locality, recoverability, and the need for arguments to be assigned theta-roles and Case.

The summary is as follows:

  1. D-Structure represents the basic structural facts of the language in the form of phrase markers with terminal strings drawn from the lexicon.

  2. D-Structure is the interface with the computational system and the lexicon. It is then mapped to LF and S-Structure.

  3. Early theories postulated a single level of syntactic representation using rewrite rules. Later, complexity was “factored” into multiple representational levels related by simple operations.

  4. Trace theory captures the phenomenon of “displaced elements” in human language. There are different approaches to the relation between S-Structure and D-Structure, but they are difficult to distinguish empirically.

  5. Locality conditions on movement are satisfied step-by-step in the derivation, but may not be satisfied by the output chain. This poses challenges for non-derivational theories.

  6. D-Structure captures certain systematic aspects of the full complexity of natural language. Together with other levels, it allows the computational system to express properties like “displaced elements” in a simple way.

That summarize the key points covered in section 1.3.3 regarding D-Structure and its role in the theory. Let me know if you would like me to clarify or expand on any part of this summary.

Here is a summary of the key points in the given text:

  1. Phrase structure rules were initially used to form phrase markers, but they had redundancy issues with lexical properties. The goal became to eliminate phrase structure rules as much as possible.

  2. X-bar theory was proposed as a way to simplify phrase structure rules and restrict most of them to properties of Universal Grammar, rather than specific languages. This involved limiting rules to certain forms and introducing the notions of specifier, complement and adjunct.

  3. Lexical items were separated from the computational system. They consist of functional and substantive elements, with feature structures.

  4. Functional elements have selectional properties and determine the presence of specifiers and complements. Specifiers are often targets of movement.

  5. A full clause is analyzed as a CP headed by C with IP as its complement. IP is headed by I and has VP as its complement.

  6. The EPP states that the specifier of IP is obligatory. It is the subject position.

  7. Complement positions are theta positions (A-positions) while specifier and adjunct positions are A-bar positions. This distinction is important for movement.

  8. The text discusses two possible analyses of syntactic rules associating lexical items with inflectional features: word formation by adjunction, or checking of features. The former requires such rules to operate in the D-to-S structure derivation.

In summary, the text outlines how X-bar theory and the separation of lexicon from rules aimed to simplify phrase structure grammars, with important consequences for selecton, movement, and theta roles.

Here is a summary of the key points in the excerpt:

  1. The author argues that V-raising to I is required at LF, even if morphological properties are determined at S-Structure. This is to void potential violations and provide an LF structure where V is at least as high as I.

  2. In V2 languages like German, V raises to C and some phrase raises to [Spec, CP]. The author assumes structures like (66) for questions and other constructions.

  3. Embedded clauses can also have the structure in (65), with an empty or filled complementizer. The embedded subject can be a trace or PRO.

  4. Binding theory requires every variable to have an antecedent, fixing the interpretation of examples like (69).

  5. Locality conditions on movement explain the deviance of examples like (71) and (72).

  6. Some embedded clauses like (74) behave differently, implying they are just IP structures rather than CPs. This allows the embedded subject to be governed by the matrix verb.

  7. The author proposes DP as the maximal projection for noun phrases, headed by D. This is analogous to IP and CP.

  8. The functional elements I, T and Agr are debated. The author adopts Pollock’s structure with [Spec - T - Agr - VP], allowing proper subject-verb agreement.

That covers the major concepts discussed in the excerpt in summarized form. Let me know if you would like me to clarify or expand on any part of the summary.

Here is a summary of the key points in the passage:

  1. There are two Agr elements in IP: AgrS involved in subject agreement and case assignment, and AgrO involved in object agreement and case assignment. This reconciles proposals that Agr is involved in both subject agreement and nominative case assignment.

  2. The [Spec, IP] position is anomalous in that it may or may not be a theta-position, depending on the lexical verb.

  3. These anomalies would be eliminated if subjects originate from within VP and then raise to [Spec, IP]. This would be a “universal base” approach.

  4. There are proposals that internal theta roles can be assigned to non-sister constituents, contradicting the original assumption that theta roles are assigned to sisters of the head.

  5. The notions of A-position and A-position may need to be reconstructed, as they were originally defined based on assumptions that have been abandoned.

  6. Derivations from D-Structure to LF map D-Structure to S-Structure via affect alpha, and then S-Structure to LF. The LF component represents scope and c-command structurally. Movement of operators and quantifiers can happen between D-Structure and S-Structure or between S-Structure and LF.

Hope this summary helps! Let me know if you have any other questions.

Here is a summary of the key points in the given text:

  1. Quantifier raising (QR) is an S-Structure to LF operation that accounts for cases of “inverse linked” quantification where scope does not match surface order.

  2. LF representations must be fully interpretable, so expletives must be “eliminated” in the mapping from S-Structure to LF. One possible way is to amalgamate the expletive with its associate, resulting in a full argument that satisfies interpretation requirements.

  3. The locality conditions of expletive-associate pairs follow from their amalgamated representation as an A-chain at LF.

  4. Case visibility, requiring a Case-marked element to be visible for theta-marking, can explain why expletives only appear in Case-assigning positions.

  5. Conditions requiring Case checks may actually be LF conditions, though Case is manifest at S-Structure.

  6. S-Structure conditions are less expected given that S-Structure does not directly interface with meaning or sound.

  7. Languages differ in whether question phrase movements are visible at S-Structure, feeding phonology, or invisible, occurring only at LF. This suggests parametric variation in functional features.

So in summary, the text discusses how the mapping from S-Structure to LF, via quantifier raising and expletive elimination, can account for interpretations that do not match surface structures. It also mentions potential cross-linguistic parametric variation at the S-Structure level.

  1. The article discusses the notion of “indicators” in the Fregean sense. This refers to linguistic elements that identify an expression as belonging to a certain category, like interrogative (question).

  2. It gives the example of a Q element in the lexicon that marks an expression as a yes/no question, even if the question phrase is in situ (in its original position). This means the question phrase does not need to raise to the specifier of CP at S-Structure (surface structure).

  3. The article argues that economy principles favor covert operations over overt ones. So languages may differ in how they form interrogatives:

  • Languages with a Q element can have the question phrase in situ (Chinese, Japanese)

  • Languages without a Q element have to move a question word to the specifier of CP (English, German)

  1. The article discusses the role of S-Structure conditions - requirements that must be met at surface structure representations. It gives examples of properties that seem to apply at S-Structure, like the Command principle (prohibition of a pronoun c-commanding its antecedent).

  2. It considers whether such properties apply at S-Structure itself or through reconstruction at LF (logical form). Some examples suggest they apply directly at S-Structure, indicating S-Structure conditions.

That covers the main points summarized from the excerpt. Let me know if you would like me to expand or clarify any part of this summary.

In summary:

  1. Reconstruction effects suggest that interpretive conditions like command apply at LF, not S-Structure. This is evidenced by examples like (103) to (107).

  2. However, certain examples, like parasitic gap constructions in (112) to (116), suggest there may be some S-Structure conditions. Parasitic gaps are licensed by A-bar chains but not A-chains.

  3. Overt syntactic properties like lexical affixes and Case marking appear to require S-Structure, indicating there may be S-Structure conditions.

  4. The relation of predication between an XP and its subject may require S-Structure conditions. This suggests that licensing of trace subjects of predication should also take place at S-Structure.

  5. Rizzi’s theory of null subjects assumes that inflection licensing pro subjects is a property of S-Structure. This also suggests pro licensing occurs at S-Structure.

  6. Expletive pro is licensed by “strong” agreement in null subject languages. But in non-null subject languages, expletive pro must be replaced by S-Structure. This also indicates a role for S-Structure conditions.

In summary, while many interpretive conditions appear to apply at LF, there are some indications that S-Structure may play a role in licensing certain syntactic properties through constraints or conditions. The degree to which S-Structure is autonomous from LF remains an open issue.

Here is a summary of the key points in the text:

  1. The concept of government plays an important role in studying the different modules of grammar. There are different formulations of government with varied empirical consequences.

  2. Government requires that an element c-commands another element and there is no intervening category that protects the governed element.

  3. A barrier is a category that protects an element from government. Barriers include non-complements (XPs that are not complements of a head).

  4. However, the complement of a head H and the specifier of H’s complement are not barriers. This excludes them and their daughters from being barriers.

  5. There are two types of government: antecedent government and head government.

  6. Intervention between a potential governor and governee can block government in two ways: rigid minimality and relativized minimality.

  7. Rigid minimality refers to intervention by a head. Relativized minimality refers to intervention by a category of the same type as the potential governor.

So in summary, the text discusses the concept of government, what constitutes a barrier to government, and two types of intervention that can block government. It proposes that complements and specifiers of complements are not barriers, contrary to initial assumptions. Hope this helps! Let me know if you have any other questions.

Here is a summary of the key points in the passage:

  1. Case (131a) illustrates the Head Movement Constraint (HMC), where will intervenes between fix and its trace. Both fix and will are heads.

  2. Case (131b) illustrates superraising, where it intervenes between John and its trace. Both it and John are in A-positions and it is the specifier of IP.

  3. Case (131c) illustrates the Wh-Island Constraint, where why intervenes between how and its trace. Both why and how are in A’-positions and why is the specifier of CP.

  4. Adjunct and argument extractions behave differently with regard to extraction from barriers. (131c) is adjunct extraction while (132) is argument extraction, and the latter is less unacceptable.

  5. Head government - where a head assigns properties to a phrase - meets locality conditions narrower than command. A verb can assign Case to XPs in a local relation to it.

  6. The positions where a verb can assign Case are also where trace can appear, indicating government licenses trace.

  7. PRO cannot appear in governed positions where Case can be assigned or trace licensed.

  8. C (complementizer) behaves differently from other heads. PRO is not barred from positions governed by C and C does not license trace.

  9. C differs from other heads in that it does not free its complement from barrierhood. It also lacks the semantic content of other heads.

  10. C does not suffice as the required head governor for a subject trace.

Here is a summary of the key points in the given text:

  1. A-movement of subjects, as in wh-questions, is less straightforward than A-bar movement. While sentences like (142) are unacceptable, they become well-formed if the overt complementizer ‘that’ is absent.

  2. The text proposes that in cases where the complementizer is null, spec-head agreement between the subject trace ‘t’ and the null complementizer ‘e’ provides the features to license the trace.

  3. The that-trace effect, where sentences with ‘that’ are unacceptable, indicates that such feature sharing is not possible with the overt complementizer ‘that’.

  4. Adjunct traces do not show the that-trace effect. When ‘that’ is present, no spec-head agreement is possible, so the adjunct trace is licensed at LF.

  5. Both subject traces and adjunct traces must be properly governed. Sentences like (149) are unacceptable because the intermediate trace ‘t” is not properly governed.

  6. Subjacency violations, like in (150), are less severe than proper government violations. Subjacency constraints overt movement but not LF movement, explaining the contrast between (153) and (154).

  7. The text proposed minimizing chain links - i.e., making the shortest move - as a more general condition on government and movement. This collapses Relativized Minimality and the Minimality Condition into an economy condition.

  8. However, head government still needs to be stipulated separately, questioning whether it is actually required.

Here is a summary of the key points in the provided text:

  1. Binding is a structural relation, defined as α binds β if α c-commands β and α and β are coindexed. If β is not bound, then β is free.

  2. An r-expression (fully referential expression) must be free, according to Condition C of the binding theory. This rules out examples like *he i said Mary criticized John i.

  3. Condition B states that a pronoun must be free in a local domain. This accounts for examples like *John i criticized him i being ungrammatical, while John i said Mary criticized him i is acceptable.

  4. The relevant local domain is approximately the minimal clause containing the pronoun. structural approaches to defining this domain are considered.

  5. Initially, coreindexation of an r-expression and a pronoun is allowed if they have distinct indexes. But this must be further constrained to rule out possible coreference between them.

  6. Binding and movement both obey economy principles. Deletion applies as a last resort to form a legitimate LF object, avoiding more severe violations. Traces must be properly governed to avoid being starred, indicating deviance.

So in summary, binding relations are constrained by conditions on referential expressions, pronouns and the local domains they occur in. The account appeals to structural configurations and economy principles, with more severe violations indicated by more asterisks on traces.

The summary is as follows:

  1. Anaphors like reflexives and reciprocals require antecedents that bind them. This is different from pronouns which may or may not have binding antecedents.

  2. An anaphor must be bound within a local domain, as stated in Condition A.

  3. If Condition A and Condition B have the same local domain, pronouns and anaphors are complementary.

  4. Coindexing is used to show the relationship between anaphors and their antecedents. Coindexing requires proper interpretive principles.

  5. Initially, interpretive rules (176) and (185) were proposed. But these had to be strengthened to rule out unintended coreference and allow for overlap in reference.

  6. Set indices were introduced to accommodate overlap in reference. Interpretive rule (206) was proposed.

  7. Alternatives to set indices were also discussed, like enriching the interpretation for simple indices or unifying the binding conditions and interpretive rules.

So in summary, the key points are the differences between anaphors and pronouns, Condition A for anaphors, the local domain, complementarity of pronouns and anaphors, coindexing and interpretive rules, and ways to handle overlap in reference.

Here is a summary of the key points in the manding paragraph:

  1. The standard approach to binding theory involves an indexing procedure that satisfies the binding conditions and an interpretive procedure.

  2. The new approach unifies the indexing and interpretive procedures into a single interpretive procedure.

  3. The local domain for binding, traditionally the minimal clause, is now defined in terms of government.

  4. The local domain, or governing category (GC), is defined as the minimal constituent containing the anaphor/pronoun and a governor of that anaphor/pronoun in which the binding condition could potentially be satisfied.

  5. The GC can be NP as well as IP. The presence of a potential binder within the GC is relevant for Condition A but not Condition B.

  6. There are some cases where pronouns and anaphors have overlapping distributions, but this can be accounted for by the definition of GC.

  7. Condition A, not Condition B, is responsible for ruling out sentences like “John believes himself is clever.” Even though the GC is the matrix clause under the new definition, something else rules out this example.

That covers the key points made in the summarized paragraph regarding the proposed changes to the definition of binding theory and local domain. Let me know if you would like me to expand or clarify any part of this summary.

Here is a summary of the key points in the text:

  1. The distribution and interpretation of reflexives is governed by Condition A, which requires them to be bound in their governing category. This locality requirement can be explained by the need for the reflexive and its antecedent to agree.

  2. Both reflexives and reciprocals show constraints suggestive of movement. This suggests that Condition A may ultimately be subsumed under the proper government requirement on traces.

  3. Condition C need not be satisfied at D-Structure. It seems to apply at S-Structure or LF.

  4. While PRO shares some properties with reflexives, there are also significant differences in their distribution. A purely Case-theoretic account is insufficient to explain PRO.

  5. The crucial factor governing PRO distribution is government, not Case. PRO must be ungoverned, and this follows from its nature as both an anaphor and a pronoun.

In summary, the text discusses how principles of movement, agreement, Case and government help explain the binding properties and distribution of anaphors, reciprocals and PRO. Condition A applies locally at S-Structure or LF, while Condition C may not need to be satisfied at D-Structure.

This passage discusses the Case theory, which is an attempt to explain phenomena involving NPs (noun phrases) in syntax. Some key points:

  • Case is an abstract grammatical feature that is required for noun phrases to be realized morphologically. The Case Filter states that every realized NP must be assigned Case.

  • The subject of a finite clause receives nominative Case, while the object of a transitive verb receives accusative Case. The object of a preposition receives oblique Case.

  • Lexical NPs are prohibited in certain positions, like the subject of an infinitival clause, because they cannot be assigned Case. Traces and PRO are allowed in these positions because they don’t require Case.

  • Exceptional Case marking allows some verbs, like believe, to assign accusative Case to the subject of their infinitival complements. This indicates that Case can be assigned under government, not just in a head-complement relation.

  • Nouns and adjectives cannot assign Case, which is why NP complements are prohibited with nominal and adjectival heads. “Of-insertion” is proposed as a way to provide a Case assigner for these NPs, though this analysis has some problems.

In summary, the Case theory attempts to explain distributional patterns of NPs based on the abstract requirement for Case assignment and the ways Case can be assigned under government and in certain syntactic configurations.

Here is a summary of the key points in the theorem:

  1. The of-insertion occurs in the context of a [+N] head, meaning a noun (N) or adjective (A). It is not possible in “exceptional” circumstances.

  2. The of is available only for the complement of an appropriate N or A head.

  3. The theory proposes that N and A heads are actually genitive case assigners, like in German. The of can then be seen as the realization of this genitive case.

  4. Inherent case is assigned by an element to an NP only if that element theta-marks the NP. Structural case has no theta requirement.

  5. Passive verbs, while not completely nominal or adjectival, are not able to assign genitive case. This shows they are a neutralized category with no [N] feature.

  6. Case Filter effects are explained not just morphologically, but also by theta theory. NP traces, pro and variables also need abstract case to be visible for theta-marking.

  7. The Case Filter is essentially part of the theta-marking principle: a chain needs a case position to be visible for theta-marking.

  8. PRO behaves differently from other arguments in that it cannot move from a case-marked position, indicating binding theory and the PRO requirements apply at S-Structure.

Does this cover the main points accurately? Let me know if you need any part of the summary revised or expanded.

Here is a summary of the key points regarding Case assignment:

  1. Initially, the proposal was to impose a nongovernment requirement for PRO and incorporate this into the Last Resort condition. This was meant to solve the problem of ungrammatical constructions like (314).

  2. However, constructions like (314) remain ungrammatical, showing that the initial proposal was inadequate.

  3. The author then proposes that PRO, like other arguments, has Case, though a null Case that is distinct from nominative, accusative, etc.

  4. Null Case is assigned/checked in positions like [Spec, IP] where I lacks tense and agreement features. This accounts for PRO appearing in infinitival and gerundive constructions.

  5. The author notes that structural Case is realized as a Spec-head relation while inherent Case is assigned by lexical heads.

  6. The author suggests reducing Case agreement to a reflection of the Spec-head relation, with structural Case arising from a [Spec, Agr] position and inherent Case from a head.

  7. This allows the author to explain word order variations across languages in terms of which Case-checking operations apply overtly and which covertly.

  8. Though the principles like Last Resort must be modified under this new approach, their content remains largely the same. Constructions like (319) and (320) require revision of the Chain Condition to account for covert Case checking.

The key takeaway is that the author proposes analyzing all Case, including that of PRO, as involving a Spec-head relation, though realized differently across languages. This offers a more unified approach to Case theory.

The author summarizes issues related to the subject position [Spec, IP], which can be occupied either by an argument raised from a theta position or an expletive.

The key points are:

  1. The subject position [Spec, IP] can be filled by either an argument raised from a theta position, or by an expletive. The expletive can be overt (there, it) or empty. In languages with null subjects, the expletive can be pro.

  2. The standard account had problems explaining why arguments are raised to [Spec, IP] before case is assigned. The new account solves this by linking chains and applying the Chain Condition to linked chains at LF.

  3. Last Resort is reinterpreted such that an operation is allowed if it is a prerequisite for forming a legitimate LF object. This explains why raising occurs.

  4. The Case Filter is now seen as a condition applying at the LF interface, not S-Structure. Raising occurs to satisfy economy conditions and properties of expletives.

  5. The discussion is incomplete as it does not cover the PF component, morphology, ellipsis constructions, and other topics like theta theory and control. This omission leaves important questions unanswered.

So in summary, the author outlines how the new account solves issues related to arguments and expletives occupying the subject position [Spec, IP], and how Case theory has been revised. But many related topics are not fully covered, indicating the need for further research.

In summary:

  • The system of modules is seen as a descriptive convenience, rather than a real property of language architecture, according to the Principles and Parameters framework.

  • Under this framework, there are no rules specific to particular languages. Instead, a language is a set of parameter settings within an invariant Universal Grammar.

  • Traditional grammatical constructions may be epiphenomena resulting from the interaction of universal principles and parameter settings.

  • A language can be viewed as the principles of Universal Grammar parameterized for that particular language. But languages differ primarily in their lexicons.

  • Universally there are three levels of representation - D-Structure, Phonetic Form and Logical Form - and an intermediate level of S-Structure that connects the other three levels.

  • There are ideas of “economy of derivation and representation”, where elements and derivations should be minimized. This includes concepts like Full Interpretation and Last Resort movement.

  • Empirical effects of such economy principles could help elevate them to actual principles of Universal Grammar.

So in summary, the author argues that the system of modules - the three levels of representation and S-Structure - may be a descriptive device, rather than a fundamental property of language architecture. Languages differ primarily in their lexicons and parameter settings, rather than in having distinct rule systems of their own.

The summary is as follows:

  1. The author discusses the “projection” of S-Structure from D-Structure and whether S-Structure relates to the lexicon via a directional mapping through D-Structure or directly. The author tentatively supports the former view with three fundamental interface levels.

  2. The author then focuses on X0-movement, specifically inflectional morphology. He assumes a distinction between inflectional morphology (part of syntax) and derivational morphology (part of the lexicon).

  3. The Head Movement Constraint (HMC) and whether it can be reduced to independently motivated principles of syntactic movement, like the Empty Category Principle (ECP).

  4. The author discusses proposals by Pollock based on Emonds’ work on verb inflection in English-type vs French-type languages. Pollock proposes that in French, V raises to I, while in English, I lowers to V.

  5. Pollock also proposes that “strong” Agr attracts all verbs while “weak” Agr can only attract auxiliaries. The difference is argued to reduce to the theta-criterion: strong Agr allows adjoined elements to head a theta-chain, while weak Agr does not.

  6. Raising of a theta-marker to weak Agr violates the theta-criterion, while lowering of weak Agr does not affect theta-marking. This captures the difference between verb raising in French and auxiliary raising in English.

  7. The author argues this analysis shows how the HMC can potentially be reduced to independently motivated principles like the ECP and theta-criterion.

That covers the main points in the summary, let me know if you need any clarification or have additional questions!

Here is a summary of the key points in the text:

  1. The analysis of verbal inflection proposes that raising is necessary if possible. This follows from the assumption that shorter derivations are always chosen. Lowering yields improper chains that require subsequent LF raising, so raising is preferred to minimize derivations.

  2. However, “least effort” cannot just mean shortest derivations. English uses do-support for interrogatives, which involves do-insertion and raising, not lowering. This uses language-particular rules instead of UG principles.

  3. The HMC explains why certain derivations are blocked. LF raising across Neg violates the HMC, so do-insertion is required.

  4. Overt raising across Neg is also sometimes required, as in negative forms with auxiliary verbs. The text argues that traces of Agr can be deleted at LF since they have no role, while verb traces cannot be.

  5. Deletion of an element is assumed to leave a category lacking features, denoted [e]. So deletion of [Agr t] leaves [eP], which is acceptable at LF since AgrP has no role.

  6. This allows overt raising of Agr over Neg to be legitimate, forming [do - I - Agr]. Though it crosses Neg, the trace of Agr can be deleted.

In summary, the key points are that “least effort” means applying UG principles where possible, language-particular rules when needed, and the HMC explains why some derivations are blocked. Deletion of traces that have no LF role makes certain overt crossings of Neg legitimate.

Here is a summary of the key points in the text:

  1. The HMC (Head Movement Constraint) is not a true principle but rather a descriptive generalization that is valid only when it reduces to the ECP (Empty Category Principle). The HMC can be violated when other processes eliminate an “offending trace.”

  2. Elements that play a role at LF (Logical Form) cannot be deleted, while elements that do not play a role at LF can be deleted. This distinction explains the optionality observed in French infinitival constructions.

  3. “Least effort” requires the shortest derivation, favoring overt movement over covert movement. But “cost” also considers factors like UG principles vs. language-specific rules. Do-insertion is a “last resort.”

  4. Long-distance movement examples show that the “least costly derivation” condition does not strictly require the shortest derivation, as successive-cyclic movement is also allowed.

  5. Attending to the formal meaning of concepts like adjunction, the empirical observations in French and English follow from relatively basic assumptions.

In summary, the text argues that considerations of economy and cost in terms of the length, principles, and processes involved in derivations can explain a number of otherwise puzzling aspects of syntactic phenomena. The distinction between deletable and non-deletable elements based on their role at LF also plays an important role.

Here is a summary of the key points in the reading:

  1. Derivation is barred due to reasons of economy. Shorter, more direct derivations are preferred over longer, circuitous ones.

  2. This implies that (26) is not structurally ambiguous, with one legitimate derivation and one deviant derivation. There must be a single, preferred derivation.

  3. The preference for short movement over long movement suggests that “least effort” conditions constrain movement in UG.

  4. This approach tends to eliminate optionality in derivation. Any remaining optional rule application may need to be assigned to a stylistic component.

  5. The analysis assumes distinct agreement elements : AgrS for subject agreement and AgrO for object agreement.

  6. AgrO is closer to V while AgrS is more removed. This is consistent with Kayne’s analysis of participle agreement.

  7. Agreement with objects is also based on a government relation between the NP object and AgrO.

  8. Distinguishing AgrS and AgrO resolves some of the issues with Pollock’s analysis.

  9. More generally, movement, deletion and do-support may be “last resort” operations, used only when necessary, according to an Economy of Representation principle.

Does this cover the main points accurately? Let me know if you need any clarification or have additional questions.

Here is a summary of the key points in the text:

  1. The principle of α applies only where necessary expresses the idea that derivations should be as economical as possible, with no superfluous rule applications. This reflects a “least effort” principle that is specific to the language faculty.

  2. The analogous principle for representations is called Full Interpretation (FI), which states that elements can only appear in a representation if they are properly “licensed”.

  3. FI is argued to hold at D-structure, PF, and LF: each element must have an interpretation in relation to other cognitive systems.

  4. Vacuous quantification and free variables are argued to be barred by FI, contrary to formal systems which allow them freely.

  5. Legitimate LF elements are identified as: arguments, adjuncts, lexical elements, predicates, and operator-variable constructions. All must form a chain.

  6. Based on FI, traces may have to be deleted at LF to form legitimate operator-variable constructions. This suggests a framework for the ECP theory.

  7. FI may also constrain the status of expletive elements in language.

In summary, the text argues that the general notion of FI - requiring elements to have an interpretation - can be refined and used to explain and constrain various properties of linguistic representations and operations, though it acknowledges FI is not a logically necessary assumption.

Does this cover the key summary points in a condensed form? Let me know if you would like me to clarify or expand on anything further.

Here is a summary of the key points in the text:

  1. The expletive there has three main properties: a) an NP must appear as its associate, b) it takes number agreement from its associate, not itself, and c) there is an alternate form with the associate actually in subject position.

  2. These properties can be explained by assuming that there is an LF affix that adjoins to its NP associate. Since there lacks inherent features, it gets them from its associate by “percolation”.

  3. Agreement and Case are argued to be assigned at S-Structure but checked at LF. This fits with the analysis of there as an LF affix.

  4. There are no distributional restrictions on there and related expletives across languages if their lexical properties are considered.

  5. The binding theory and chain conditions must hold at S-Structure for the expletive-associate pair, since they form a chain at LF.

  6. Condition C of the binding theory does not rule out the expletive-associate pair since they have different indices.

  7. There does not appear to be a process of Case transmission from the expletive to its associate. Case seems to be assigned directly.

  8. LF raising of the associate does not cause ECP violations in examples like (50a) because the associate is γ-marked by wh-movement before raising.

That covers the main points discussed in the summary, let me know if you need any clarification or have additional questions.

  1. The notion of LF adjunction eliminates much of the motivation for Case transmission theories of expletive-associate relations. Case transmission approaches are further undermined by the observations reviewed.

  2. However, there is some evidence supporting Case transmission. Koopman’s (1987) comparative study of Bambara and French-English provides an indirect argument for Case transmission.

  3. Koopman postulates a parameter with [+CC] languages having Case chains and [-CC] languages lacking them. English-French are [+CC] while Bambara is [-CC].

  4. Koopman shows that in phenomena like verb raising and operator movement, Bambara behaves as predicted for a [-CC] language while English-French behave as [+CC] languages.

  5. The author argues that Koopman’s data can be reinterpreted without positing Case transmission. The crucial parameter could involve lexical [+C] elements that can enter Case relations vs. functional [-C] elements that cannot.

  6. Under this reinterpretation, Bambara’s behavior follows without Case transmission. The author concludes that there is no strong argument for Case transmission after this reanalysis.

  7. While this reveals an interesting parametric difference in Case theory, it suggests Case transmission can be eliminated from UG in favor of LF movement driven by the Full Interpretation principle.

Overall, the summary argues that though there is some evidence for Case transmission, an alternative analysis suggests it may not be necessary in UG. The discussion points to a more minimal conception of UG without Case transmission.

Here is a summary of the key points in the passage:

  1. The author is rebutting claims made by McCawley in a review. McCawley misunderstood the author’s usage of “generative” as meaning more than “explicit.” The author says there has been no change in his conception or usage.

  2. Phonology alone is expected to have a specific rule structure, as argued by Bromberger and Halle in 1989.

  3. The author considers the core language (or basic language) as an expository device that should be superseded with clearer understanding of linguistic inquiry.

  4. Certain conditions on syntax, economy of derivation and representation were investigated in the author’s early work in 1951.

  5. Several conditions and constraints are discussed that govern syntax and derivations, including:

  • Conditions on lexical elements
  • Restrictions to functional elements
  • X-bar theory conditions
  • Proposals for a more reduced formulation of the ECP
  • Relations between strong vs weak features
  1. The author argues that the principles of Universal Grammar remain distinct from language-specific properties, even at the “steady state” achieved in language acquisition.

  2. The author discusses analyses of expletives, empty categories, movement operations, and argument chains in relation to economy of derivation and representation.

That covers the key points summarized from the passage, focusing on the author’s main arguments and discussions around syntax, generative grammar and related concepts. Let me know if you need any clarification or have additional questions.

  1. The author adopts the view that language is part of the natural world and is generated by the language faculty in the human brain.

  2. According to the Extended Standard Theory, a structural description (SD) consists of representations at four linguistic levels: D-Structure, S-Structure, Phonetic Form, and Logical Form.

  3. Properties of language like discrete infinity and economy of design suggest that language is based on simple principles that interact complexly.

  4. Linguistic expressions serve as instructions for performance systems like the articulatory-perceptual and conceptual-intentional systems.

  5. The interface levels corresponding to these performance systems are Phonetic Form and Logical Form.

  6. A language consists of a lexicon and a computational system that uses lexical items to generate expressions.

  7. The simplest design for language would be one with only the two interface levels as representations.

  8. Logical Form is taken to correspond to the conceptual-intentional interface, representing meaning.

  9. Parts of the computational system relate only to Phonetic Form, others only to Logical Form, and some are relevant to both.

  10. Variation across languages is likely limited to the lexicon and phonetic options, with minimal variation in the computational system and Logical Form.

In summary, the key ideas discussed are the interface levels and representations corresponding to sound and meaning, the proposed minimalist design with just two interface levels, and potential sources and limits of cross-linguistic variation.

Here is a summary of the selected text:

• The author proposes a Minimalist Program (MP) for linguistic theory that aims for a minimal design with simple and restrictive principles.

• Under this MP, Universal Grammar (UG) consists of invariant principles with a finite set of options restricted to functional elements and the lexicon. A language is determined by the selection among these options.

• The MP seeks to do away with the notion of construction-specific rules and parameters, and eliminate levels like D-structure and S-structure. A linguistic expression is merely a formal object that satisfies interface conditions optimally.

• The principles of UG determine which derivations are possible and which yield legitimate linguistic expressions. A derivation converges if it yields outputs that are legitimate at both the phonological interface (PF) and the semantic interface (LF).

• The most fundamental relations in this framework are based on X-bar theory, with the head-complement relation seen as more basic than the specifier-head relation.

• The MP requires recasting theories like Case theory solely in terms of X-bar relations, replacing notions like head government. As an example, the author proposes analyzing structural Case assignment in terms of the specifier-head relation with inflectional features.

That covers the major points discussed in the selected text regarding the MP and how it seeks to reformulate linguistic notions using minimal X-bar theoretic relations. Let me know if you need any clarification or expansion of the summary.

  1. The author proposes a minimalist approach where only local X-bar theoretic relations and chain links are considered fundamental principles of language.

  2. In the VP structure, NP object raises to Spec of AgrO and NP subject raises to Spec of AgrS, creating crossing paths. This follows from general properties of UG and parameters are assumed to be morphologically restricted.

  3. NP can enter into two types of structural relations with predicates: agreement and Case. Agreement involves features shared by NP and predicate, while Case is manifested on the NP alone.

  4. The choice of “active” AgrS vs “inert” AgrO determines nominative-accusative vs ergative-absolutive alignment. Less marked Case is assigned to Spec of “active” Agr.

  5. pro and PRO licensing falls under Case theory, involving a Spec-head relation to a strong Agr head.

  6. Fundamental notions are defined based on chain links and local X-bar theoretic relations: minimal domain, internal domain, and checking domain of heads. These capture the complement and non-complement nodes structurally related to the head.

The key idea is that only local structural relations and minimal notions, akin to conceptual necessity, should form the basic principles of language under a minimalist program. Parameters and other constructs can then be derived from these foundations.

The passage discusses the concepts of minimal domain, internal domain, and checking domain in the context of the Minimalist Program. Some key points:

  • These domains are defined for syntactic chains, not individual heads. They are based on the notion of maximal projection of the highest element in the chain (Max(S(α))).

  • The minimal domain of a chain contains all nodes contained within Max(S(α)) that do not contain any element of the chain. It represents the complement of the head.

  • The internal domain is a subset of the minimal domain, consisting of nodes reflexively dominated by the complement of the highest element in the chain. It represents the internal arguments of the head.

  • The checking domain contains nodes in a local relation to the head, that have checking or agreement features. It includes specifiers and adjoined elements.

  • For nontrivial chains, with more than one member, the domains are defined based on the maximal projection of the first element in the chain (α1).

  • The author suggests that phenomena like superiority effects and relativized minimality can be captured by a “Shortest Movement” condition, where chains form in a single step to form the shortest link.

So in summary, the passage defines and illustrates the notions of minimal domain, internal domain and checking domain for syntactic chains, and how they can be used to analyze phenomena like incorporation and movement constraints.

The summary is as follows:

  1. The EST framework postulates a level of D-Structure to account for how lexical items are drawn from the lexicon and presented for further computation.

  2. This requires operations like Satisfy and principles like the Projection Principle and Theta Criterion that apply at D-Structure.

  3. However, D-Structure and these assumptions lack conceptual necessity and raise empirical problems. Imposing an “all-at-once” operation Satisfy is dubious.

  4. Examples like “John is easy to please” show that lexical items can appear in non-theta positions, violating Satisfy. The proposed solutions are ad hoc.

  5. There is evidence for generalized transformations, not just Satisfy.

  6. So the minimalist program favors eliminating D-Structure and Satisfy, instead relying on a theory of generalized transformations for lexical access. This allows minimizing unnecessary structure while still accounting for the empirical consequences.

In summary, the author argues that the minimalist program calls for abandoning D-Structure and the operation Satisfy, and relying more on generalized transformations to account for how lexical items are accessed during the computational procedure. This results in a more conceptually minimal framework while still explaining the relevant linguistic phenomena.

Here is a summary of the provided text:

The author argues that D-structure and S-structure, which are assumed in previous linguistic theories, are superfluous and can be eliminated under a minimalist framework.

For D-structure, the author proposes replacing EST assumptions with an approach that projects items from the lexicon into X-bar structures and applies a generalized transformation GT to insert one phrase marker into another. Spell-Out occurs when a single phrase marker is formed, outputting a PF representation. D-structure is not needed.

For S-structure, the author notes two types of evidence for it: 1) Languages differ in where Spell-Out occurs, indicating different derivation orders. 2) Many modules show S-structure conditions. However, the author argues that type 1 evidence can likely be reduced to PF/LF properties, and that type 2 evidence does not conclusively prove that S-structure conditions must apply at S-structure rather than LF alone.

The author concludes that D-structure and S-structure are not necessary and can be eliminated under a minimalist approach, simplifying the theory. The key is reducing parameters and conditions to those that apply at the interface levels of PF and LF.

Here is a summary of the relevant section:

The passage discusses various arguments for separating syntactic structure and interpretive conditions. It looks at the possibility that conditions like Condition C apply only at the interface levels (LF and PF), rather than at syntactic structure (S-structure).

As an example, it considers an LF movement operation involving a wh-phrase that would violate Condition C if the condition applied at S-structure. However, since the movement occurs at LF, it allows keeping interpretive conditions at the interface levels. This provides a weak but sufficient argument for the separation.

The passage then discusses the possibility that multiple wh-questions are not actually movement operations but involve a semantic absorption process. This would mean conditions on movement do not apply, further arguing for interpretive conditions being separate from syntactic structure.

Finally, the passage proposes replacing the notions of A-positions and A-bar positions with the concept of L-relatedness, based on morphological features of lexical items. Positions directly related to an L-feature (Verb, Noun, Adjective) would have the properties of A-positions, while unrelated positions would have A-bar properties. This provides a way to characterize positions in terms of their interface properties rather than syntactic structure.

In summary, the passage explores arguments for a minimalist view that interpretive conditions apply at the interfaces (PF and LF) rather than the syntactic component, and proposes characterizing positions in terms of their interface properties rather than structural notions like A-positions.

  1. The author proposes that all syntactic operations are driven by morphological features that must be checked for the derivation to converge. Verbs and nouns are assumed to have morphological features that must be checked in appropriate positions.

  2. Case features were previously thought to require presence at S-Structure, but the author argues they can be checked at LF under the checking theory. The Case Filter is reinterpreted as an interface condition requiring all features to be checked.

  3. Agreement is achieved when verbs raise to inflectional heads and nouns raise to specifier positions, checking their respective morphological features.

  4. Overt verb raising is required in French-type languages due to “strong” inflectional features, but not in English-type languages with “weak” features. “Strong” features must be checked overtly to converge, while “weak” features can be checked at LF.

  5. Economy principles like Procrastinate favor LF movement over overt movement, which explains why English verbs do not overtly raise.

  6. Word order variations are attributed to differences in the strength of inflectional features, namely NP and V features on inflectional heads.

  7. Wh-movement is driven by an operator feature on C that must be checked. If the feature is “strong”, movement must be overt.

  8. Economy of derivation principles like Last Resort mean that syntactic operations only occur if necessary to converge the derivation.

That covers the key claims and reasoning presented in the paper in summary form. Let me know if you would like me to expand on or clarify any part of this summary.

Here is a summary of the key points in the excerpt:

  1. The notion of Last Resort operations is formulated in terms of economy: shorter derivations are preferred to longer ones.

  2. Last Resort operations are “self-serving”: they apply only to satisfy the needs of the moved element, not to benefit other elements. This is the principle of Greed.

  3. Reconstruction at LF can be eliminated if we adopt the copy theory of movement, where traces are copies of the moved element. Under this view, reconstruction just involves deleting parts of the copy at LF.

  4. Pied-piping derivations require reconstruction at LF to form legitimate objects. Under the copy theory, reconstruction arises naturally from deleting parts of the copies.

  5. The deletion of trace copies can be viewed as a special case of a more general deletion operation that applies in ellipsis constructions.

That covers the main points discussed in the excerpt regarding Last Resort operations, economy, and the copy theory of movement as an alternative to reconstruction.

Here is a summary of the key points in the passage:

  1. There is a debate about whether binding theory conditions like Condition C apply at S-Structure or LF. Evidence from examples like (44a) suggests Condition A may not require reconstruction, unlike Conditions B and C.

  2. The facts in (44a) can be explained if we adopt an LF movement approach to anaphora, where the anaphor undergoes a cliticization LF operation. This distinguishes Condition A from Conditions B and C.

  3. Cliticization LF applies before reconstruction operations at LF. For (44a), cliticization LF could apply either to the operator phrase or its trace, yielding (45a) or (45b) respectively.

  4. The LF interpretive rules then yield options (46a) and (46b). If we select option (45a), we cannot then select interpretive option (46b), since that would violate Condition A.

  5. Examples like (41a) and (41b) provide further evidence against Condition A applying at S-Structure. The available interpretations correlate with the LF options, supporting the view that idiom interpretation and binding theory apply at LF.

So in summary, the key points are that Condition A seems to pattern differently from Conditions B and C with respect to reconstruction, and this can be accounted for by positing an LF movement operation for anaphora that applies before reconstruction. The evidence favors binding theory applying at LF, not S-Structure.

Here is a summary of the key points in the text:

  1. The goal of the Minimalist Program is to reduce linguistic theory to only what is needed to account for human language. This involves eliminating unneeded constructs and finding the simplest ontology.

  2. The ultimate level of linguistic representation is the interfaces with other cognitive systems for sound (PF) and meaning (LF). There are no other levels of representation.

  3. All linguistic constraints express properties of the interfaces and reflect interpretive requirements.

  4. UG provides a unique computational system with derivations driven by morphological properties, restricting syntactic variation across languages.

  5. Economy in derivations can be understood in terms of factors like finite increments, length of derivations/links, Procrastinate, and Greed.

  6. The pair of interface representations (π, λ) generated by an optimal derivation satisfying interface conditions defines a linguistic expression.

  7. Binding theory conditions are argued to apply only at the LF interface, allowing for a simpler interpretive version.

  8. Reconstruction appears necessary to account for variable binding, idioms, and anaphor licensing, supporting the existence of LF.

Does this cover the key points adequately? Let me know if you would like me to expand or modify the summary in any way.

Here is a summary of the provided text:

  1. Structural Case is unified under government, understood as m-command to include the Spec-head relation. However, in the framework considered here, m-command plays no role.

  2. NP and IP are used informally to refer to NPs and IPs in general, ignoring distinctions.

  3. Verb raising to functional heads like AgrS and AgrO allows forms to agree and share features, even though the verb itself is not in an A-position.

  4. The Extended Projection Principle breaks down into PF and LF properties, applying at S-Structure or shallow structure between S-Structure and PF.

  5. Minimal chains satisfied the Head Movement Constraint, though the final output may violate it. This favors a derivational approach to chains.

  6. The ECP loses theoretical significance and reduces to descriptive taxonomy.

  7. At PF interface, there is no relevant structure, only a phonetic matrix.

  8. Theta theory is not dispensable at LF, though the Theta Criterion and Projection Principle play no role.

  9. Generalized transformations are eliminated in favor of a restrictive recursive base, for reasons of explanatory adequacy and restrictiveness.

  10. Overt substitution operations generally satisfy the strict cycle condition. Adjunction may violate the structure-preserving requirement.

  11. Raising of elements to successive functional heads derives multiple-wh effects.

  12. Strong features must be checked, causing the derivation to crash if not; weak features may be deleted at PF.

  13. Auxiliary insertion is part of the syntactic derivation, not the input.

  14. Interpretation of LF involves descriptive theory with unclear notions of restrictiveness and explanatory adequacy. Linking to performance theory is also obscure.

Hope this helps! Let me know if you have any other questions.

Here is a summary of the key points in the provided text:

  1. The Minimalist Program aims to generate linguistic derivations that satisfy two conditions: Full Interpretation (FI) at the semantic and phonological interfaces, and economy of derivations.

  2. Under the Minimalist Program, linguistic expressions are pairs of phonological and semantic representations (π, λ) that satisfy FI. There are no intermediate levels of representation like D-Structure and S-Structure.

  3. Derivations can converge (satisfy FI) at one or both interfaces, or crash (fail to satisfy FI). Convergent derivations may still be blocked if they are less economical than others.

  4. A language L generates three sets of computations: all derivations D, the convergent subset Dc, and the subset of admissible derivations Da that satisfy economy conditions. Da is assumed to be a subset of Dc.

  5. The Minimalist Program aims to determine the precise nature of the economy conditions, derivation optimization, and how “perfect” language actually is.

  6. Even if the Minimalist Program proves largely accurate, it would not prove that language is uniquely modular or specific. Other factors like interface conditions and physical constraints may also contribute to the “design” of language.

That covers the primary points discussed regarding the Minimalist Program, its goals and assumptions. Let me know if you would like me to clarify or expand on anything here.

Here is a summary of the key points in the provided text:

  1. The text discusses the question of what determines the properties of sounds and meanings of a language. It suggests that this is determined by pairs of phonetic form (π) and logical form (λ) that are derived by maximal economical computations that satisfy external output conditions.

  2. The computations that derive (π, λ) must follow minimalist computational principles and economy conditions. Outputs should consist solely of lexical features arranged in interface levels.

  3. The text assumes that the language faculty comprises only a strict derivational computational system (C HL ) and bare output conditions imposed by external systems. It argues for a derivational approach over a representational one.

  4. The text proposes that the more minimal the assumptions of C HL are, the more intricate the derivations will likely be to achieve the desired outputs. It aims to minimize the concepts, entities, relations and conventions involved beyond lexical features.

  5. The “displacement” properties of natural languages, where objects appear displaced from their interpreted positions, are discussed as an irreducible fact about human language. The text suggests morphology-driven movement may underlie these properties.

  6. The concept of “inclusiveness” is introduced, where the interface levels consist only of arrangements of lexical features, meeting a condition of minimal derivation.

In summary, the key focus is on determining an optimally minimal computational system and set of assumptions that can account for the properties of sounds and meanings in language, in line with a minimalist program.

Here is a summary of the section:

The computational component of language maps some array A of lexical choices to the pair (π, λ) of phonetic and semantic representations.

A is at least a numeration N, which is a set of pairs (LI, i) where LI is a lexical item and i is its index.

The procedure CHL selects items from N and reduces their indices until all indices are zero. The derivation then produces a pair (π, λ) that satisfies output conditions.

CHL includes the operations Select and Merge:

  • Select chooses a lexical item LI from N, reducing its index.
  • Merge combines syntactic objects to form a single object, exhausting N.

There is no question of motivating Select or Merge operations - if they are insufficient, no derivation is generated.

Lexical items LI selected multiple times from N are marked as distinct for CHL. This departs from the inclusiveness condition.

The numeration N determines the reference set for evaluating derivations for economy.

Computational complexity suggests a local interpretation of reference sets - only considering alternatives to a derivation at a given stage.

At some point, the computation splits into the parts that form π and λ, with no interaction between the two.

Hope this summary helps! Let me know if you have any other questions.

The summary is as follows:

  • The author assumes that the computation from numeration to LF proceeds in a uniform manner, with operations applying at any point in the derivation.

  • There is an operation called Spell-Out that applies at some point in the computation and strips away elements relevant only for PF, leaving the residue that maps to LF.

  • The subsystem that maps the output of Spell-Out to PF is called the phonological component, while the subsystem that continues the computation to LF is the covert component. The pre-Spell-Out part is called overt.

  • The author distinguishes lexical features that receive an LF interpretation and those that receive a PF interpretation. Only the former are accessible to the covert component.

  • Overt operations cannot delete or detect phonological features, so phonological features are “atomic” for them.

  • Lexical entries contain formal features that function in the LF computation and semantic features.

  • The formal features of a lexical item are divided into intrinsic features listed in the entry and optional features that are added during numeration.

  • Selection of a lexical item with phonological features by the covert component would crash the derivation at LF, so selection must be overt. However, items with no phonological features can be selected covertly.

  • Strong features can trigger covert selection of a phonologically null item, as long as the strong feature is checked. Strong features are generally features of non-substantive categories that require a certain category to check them.

  • Functional categories are said to be “strong” when they have a strong feature.

That covers the key points summarized in the given text. Let me know if you have any other questions!

Here is a summary of the key points in the text:

  1. Strong features have two properties: they trigger an overt operation before Spell-Out and they induce cyclicity. They cannot be passed over and checked later, otherwise it would violate Relativized Minimality.

  2. The author proposes that instead of explaining strength in terms of PF convergence, we simply define a strong feature as one that a derivation “cannot tolerate”. A strong feature triggers an operation that eliminates it.

  3. There are four possibilities for how a strong feature category (T) joins with another category (K):

a) T projects and the joining is by substitution - This is admissible.

b) K projects and T is the specifier or complement - Subsequent joining of the larger category to T is barred.

c) K projects and T is an adjunct - Subsequent joining is also barred.

  1. This leads to the principle that “Nothing can join to a nonprojecting category”. And the descriptive property of strength is: “D is canceled if α is in a category not headed by α.”

  2. The author assumes a traditional view of the lexicon as a list of exceptions that do not follow from general principles. Lexical entries specify idiosyncratic properties and optimally code just enough information to derive the LF and PF representations.

Hope this summary helps! Let me know if you have any other questions.

Here is a summary of the key points in the given text:

  1. Case and phi-features of nouns are specified either intrinsically in their lexical entries or arbitrarily when they enter the numeration. Larger syntactic structures are only relevant for checking these features.

  2. Verbs also have features that are intrinsic or optional. Inflected verb forms could have features chosen optionally when entering the numeration or result from raising to Agr and T.

  3. The optimal representation of lexical entries is with a proper phonological matrix, unless there is a strong reason otherwise.

  4. For suppletive and irregular forms, the lexical entries must provide whatever information the phonology needs to assign a form.

  5. The form of coding information in the lexicon (e.g lists of alternants vs late insertion) does not matter for the purposes here.

  6. Functional categories in the lexicon have to meet the burden of proof, by output conditions or theory-internal arguments. T, C, D and Agr are the primary focus. T, D and C have semantic properties while Agr does not.

In summary, the text discusses how lexical entries feed into derivations, with a focus on how features and properties of nouns, verbs and functional categories are specified and represented in the lexicon. It argues for the optimal representation of lexical entries while noting exceptions and variation across cases.

Here is a summary of the key points in the excerpt:

  1. The goal is to develop a minimalist phrase structure theory that has both explanatory and descriptive adequacy.

  2. The lexicon and phrase structure computations should be separated to reduce redundancy. X-bar theory aimed to eliminate phrase structure rules altogether, leaving only the universal X-bar format.

  3. For the LF interface, it must be possible to access lexical items and their non-phonological properties. This implies that minimal and maximal projections are accessible, but not other projections.

  4. Minimal and maximal projections are relational properties, not inherent properties of categories. A maximal projection XP has no projections above it, a minimal projection Xmin has no projections below it. Other projections are invisible at the interface.

  5. Computation should involve local relations between elements and their terminal heads.

  6. The operation Merge creates a new syntactic object K from two inputs α and β. K minimally involves the set {α, β}.

  7. K must have a label γ indicating its type, to account for differences in interpretation and behavior.

  8. The label γ of a category K is assumed to be determined derivationally, rather than representationally.

  9. The goal is to deduce when and why label determination for a category is unique, based on properties of the language and language faculty.

So in summary, the discussion focuses on developing a minimalist approach to phrase structure that is constrained by interface conditions and favors local, derivational computations.

  1. The author proposes a “bare phrase structure” theory based on minimalist principles. It dispenses with X-bar theory and bar levels.

  2. Categories are constructed directly from the properties of lexical items. There are no partial projections.

  3. Merge applies asymmetrically, projecting either the first or second constituent. The head of the projected constituent becomes the label.

  4. Adjunction forms a two-segment category, not a new category. The label is constructed from the head but is distinct from the head.

  5. Substitution forms a new category with the head as the label. Specifiers and complements are defined in relation to the head.

  6. The author argues that Merge only applies at the root, not within larger constituents. Adjunction is limited to forming two-segment categories.

  7. The minimal terms of a structure correspond to the nodes of an informal phrase structure representation.

That covers the key ideas in the summary, focusing on the bare phrase structure theory and how it differs from more traditional assumptions. Let me know if you need any clarification or expansion on the summary points.

Here is a summary of the key points in the passage:

  1. An item can be both an X0 and an XP. Clitics provide an example. They are Ds (X0), but also raise from their theta position and attach to an inflectional head, requiring them to be an XP at that point.

  2. Phrase structure theory is “perfect” under minimalist assumptions, satisfying conceptual necessity with the simplest possible elements - lexical features.

  3. The operation Move forms chains (α, t(α)). It meets several conditions:

  • C-Command: α must c-command its trace
  • Uniformity: A chain is uniform with regard to phrase structure status
  • Last Resort: Move is driven by feature checking, a morphological property
  1. The copy theory of movement is discussed. Two positions in a chain can be distinguished by their co-constituents.

  2. Parallelism structures involving “copy intonation” may involve non-distinct copies that still form a chain. This can be interpreted similarly at LF.

  3. Linked chains and successive-cyclic movement may also fit into this framework.

So in summary, the key points are about how Move forms chains, the conditions it meets, and how the copy theory handles distinctness within chains. Phrase structure theory is argued to be “perfect” under minimalist assumptions.

Here is a summary of the key points in the provided text:

  1. It is meaningless to ask if the conditions that define the computational system CHL (e.g. Last Resort) can be violated for convergence purposes. These conditions define the algorithm itself, so violating them would be like making an illegal move in a game.

  2. CHL is based on Merge and Move. Merge always applies as simply as possible, at the root. But covert Move often targets embedded categories to comply with economy considerations like Procrastinate.

  3. Overt movement always targets the root, with possible exceptions like head adjunction. The text discusses arguments that non-cyclic overt movement is not possible due to linear ordering requirements.

  4. The text discusses checking theory and whether Case and φ-features are properties of functional categories like Agr or of categories like T and V. It tentatively assumes the latter.

  5. The text considers whether Move can project the moved element α after targeting K. It argues that this option is ruled out by Last Resort, which requires the movement to satisfy some feature checking requirement. Projection of α after targeting K would not do this.

In summary, the key takeaways are that the conditions that define CHL cannot be violated, that overt movement likely only targets the root, and that projection of the moved element after targeting is incompatible with Last Resort.

Here is a summary of the key points in the given text:

  1. Raising of a nonmaximal category α targeting K is generally barred by the uniformity condition, which requires that α and its trace have the same phrase structure status.

  2. When movement by substitution occurs, the target K must project for the derivation to converge. This is true whether the movement is covert or overt.

  3. When adjunction movement occurs, the added adjunct α must be of the same maximality as the category it adjoins to for the derivation to be valid.

  4. Interpretation (20c) of Last Resort, which allows movement that only satisfies properties of the target, is problematic.

  5. Interpretation (22) of Greed, which requires that movement satisfy some property of the moving category itself, rules out unwanted derivations like (23b) and (24b).

  6. However, interpretation (20b) of Last Resort, which allows movement to satisfy properties of the target, can generate derivations like (23b) and (24b).

  7. Instead of adopting a broad Last Resort principle, a narrower conception of movement that avoids some of the complications is proposed. This likely eliminates the need for the broader Last Resort formulation.

Hope this summary helps! Let me know if you have any other questions.

The summary of the main points in section (20c) is:

  1. The traditional operation “Move α” should be replaced by “Move F”, where F is a feature, not a full category. This is more consistent with minimalist assumptions.

  2. This allows for a broader range of syntactic objects, including K = {γ, {α, β}}, where α and β are features.

  3. When F is raised by Move F, it carries along enough material for the derivation to converge, as required by the economy condition in (26).

  4. Pied-piping is largely required for phonological reasons, to satisfy constraints in the PF component.

  5. Covert movement only raises features, not full categories, since it does not involve the PF component.

  6. The moved feature F automatically carries along the formal features FF(LI) of the lexical item LI that contains F. This is represented in (28).

  7. Broader pied-piping, producing the category chain CHCAT, is only required when necessary for convergence.

So in summary, interpreting Move as Move F, raising just a feature, allows for a range of options including: raising just the feature F; raising F along with its formal features FF(LI); and raising F with additional material as needed for convergence, producing the “excess baggage” of pied-piping. But covert movement is argued to only involve raising F itself.

Does this cover the main points accurately? Let me know if you need any clarification or have additional questions.

  1. The Move operation is revised to Move F, where F is an unchecked feature. This has several advantages.

  2. Only convergent derivations are compared for economy. Raising a feature without pied-piping may be more “economical” but it is irrelevant if the derivation does not converge.

  3. The revised Move F approach extends the analysis of wh-movement, where only the wh-feature raises covertly, leaving the rest of the phrase in situ.

  4. Move F captures the essence of Last Resort by requiring that F enters into a checking relation upon movement.

  5. The target of movement must have an unchecked feature for checking the raised feature F.

  6. Successive cyclic movement is only allowed where there is a morphological reflex.

  7. Violation of the Minimal Link Condition is assumed to be an illicit movement, not an economy condition.

  8. For the raised element, the relevant checking feature is F itself. For the target, the relevant checking features are its “sublabels”, which are features of its head projection.

  9. In summary, Move F raises feature F to target K only if F enters into a checking relation with a sublabel of K, along with the consequences in (33).

Does this summary cover the main points accurately? Let me know if you need any clarification or have additional questions.

Here is a summary of the key points in the provided text:

  1. Under the Move F theory of movement, elements do not raise as whole phrases or projections. Instead, just the relevant features of the phrase move to check other features.

  2. When movement is overt, the entire phrase moves along with the features to ensure convergence at PF. But when movement is covert, just the relevant unchecked features move and adjoin to the target projection.

  3. According to the Move F theory, the target of movement always projects, whether the movement is of features or of an entire phrase.

  4. The move F theory limits the types of permissible syntactic objects to just lexical items, features that raise by adjoining to a projecting category, and projections formed from heads.

  5. The text argues that covert movement of objects and subjects involves just the features of the object or subject raising and adjoining to the relevant functional projection (AgrO or AgrS).

  6. Since just the features raise covertly, the object or subject remains in situ. But the text claims that these raised features have the same properties as the full phrase in an overt A-position, allowing them to bind and take scope.

  7. The text uses expletive constructions and null subject languages as evidence for this analysis of covert feature movement.

Hope this summary helps! Let me know if you have any other questions.

Here is a summary of the provided text:

The text discusses different types of features that lexical items have:

  • Categorial features: Determine the category of the lexical item, like noun or verb. These are interpretable features.

  • φ-features: Features like number, gender and person. The φ-features of nominals are also interpretable.

  • Case features: Case assigned to nouns and DPs. These are uninterpretable features that must be checked.

  • Strong features: Strength of a feature determines if it is strong or weak.

There is also a distinction between intrinsic features, listed in the lexical item, and optional features that are added arbitrarily.

The key distinction is between interpretable and uninterpretable features:

  • Interpretable features enter into interpretation at LF, like categorial features and φ-features of nominals.

  • Uninterpretable features must be eliminated for LF convergence, like Case features and agreement features.

The checking relation holds between an uninterpretable feature F of the checking domain and an interpretable sublabel F’ of the target.

The text uses examples like “we build airplanes” to illustrate these points and discusses some correlations between feature types. But it notes that more empirical scrutiny is needed and explanations are still lacking for some phenomena.

Hope this summary helps! Let me know if you have any other questions.

  1. Interpretability refers to whether a feature can be interpreted at logical form. Interpretable features can be interpreted, while uninterpretable features cannot.

  2. Features of the checking domain (e.g. on nouns) are always interpretable, while features of the target (e.g. on verbs) are always uninterpretable.

  3. The author revises the theory of checking to account for this distinction. Checking now involves:

  • Uninterpretable checked features are deleted. If possible, they are then erased so they become inaccessible.

  • Interpretable checked features cannot be deleted, as that would violate recoverability. They remain accessible.

  1. This revised theory captures the generalization that:

a) Features visible at logical form (interpretable features) remain accessible after checking.

b) Features invisible at logical form (uninterpretable features) become inaccessible after checking.

  1. Case features are always interpretable, regardless of whether they are in the checking domain or target.

  2. When an element with interpretable and uninterpretable features raises, only the uninterpretable features are erased. The interpretable features remain.

  3. Pure expletives are an exception, as all their features may be uninterpretable.

Does this look like an accurate summary? Let me know if you would like me to expand on or clarify anything.

The summary is as follows:

  1. The verb raises covertly so that feature checking between the verb and subject occurs later in the derivation. This is to comply with Last Resort, which would be violated if the features were checked overtly.

  2. The Case feature of the subject is Interpretable, so it is erased when checked. But the phi-features and categorial feature are Interpretable, so they remain accessible for further operations.

  3. The EPP feature is divorced from Case. Raising infinitives do not assign Case, though they may satisfy the EPP.

  4. Only Interpretable features of the subject enter checking relations. This helps minimize unnecessary operations and complexity in the computational system.

  5. Successive cyclic raising is possible because the features that enter checking at each intermediate step are Interpretable and therefore unaffected. This allows the subject to satisfy multiple EPP requirements and agree with multiple heads, though it receives Case only once.

  6. Inherent Case features do not require checking of phi-features since the phi-features survive checking. This resolves a previous problem.

  7. Multiple Specifier constructions are possible in principle and could allow the same Case feature to check multiple Specifiers, if that feature does not necessarily erase upon checking.

In summary, the revised theory of movement, based on the distinction between Interpretable and uninterpretable features, provides improved explanations for various phenomena involving Case, agreement, and successive cyclic movement.

Here is a summary of the key points in the provided text:

  1. Expletives like there and it differ in their formal features. Pure expletives like there lack Case and phi-features, while expletives like it have a full complement of features.

  2. Pure expletives satisfy the EPP requirement by virtue of their categorial feature [D], but they lack features that must be checked by the VP or IP head. So the associate of the expletive must raise to check these features, allowing the derivation to converge.

  3. The associate of a pure expletive provides the Case in expletive constructions, not the expletive itself. This rules out the partitive Case theory for expletives.

  4. Pure expletives show verb agreement with their associate, since the expletive lacks phi-features that would check and erase the verb’s features.

  5. Pure expletives are predicted to allow their associate to bind and control as if in a subject position, since the expletive does not interfere. There is some evidence that this is true.

  6. The optionality of overt vs null expletives in some languages may be related to the V2 property and belong to the phonological component rather than the core computation.

  7. The Q-feature that determines clause type can be strong or weak across languages. A strong Q-feature must be checked before Spell-Out, either by Merge of a FQ feature or by raising of a FQ feature to the checking domain of Q.

That covers the key points outlined in the summary. Let me know if you need any clarification or have additional questions.

Here’s a summary of the key points in the passage:

  1. DP = which book. The strong feature of Q in (63) can be satisfied by I-raising alone, yielding (66): did John give which book to Mary.

  2. Covert raising of the wh-feature is unnecessary and hence impossible, due to economy conditions.

  3. (66) converges but may have an uninterpretable meaning, like gibberish.

  4. If (63) is embedded, the I-raising option is unavailable. The wh-phrase can raise overtly to the embedded [Spec, Q], yielding (67).

  5. If the matrix clause is also interrogative, the strong feature can be satisfied by I-raising or wh-movement, yielding (68a) or (68b).

  6. (68a) is unproblematic but (68b) converges with the interpretation in (69), where the embedded clause is interpreted as a yes-or-no question.

  7. Strong Q requires the wh-feature to adjoin to satisfy its strong feature. Covert insertion of strong features seems barred.

  8. Covert insertion of declarative C seems possible since it has an effect at the LF level but no PF effect.

  9. Economy principle (76) states that an element enters the numeration only if it has an effect on output, based on phonetic or logical equivalence.

  10. Insertion of complementizer can have an LF effect, but strength cannot be inserted covertly as it is motivated only by PF manifestation.

So in summary, the key takeaways are around how strong and weak features, covert vs. overt movement, and economy principles interact to determine surface word order and interpretations of constructions involving wh-phrases and interrogative complementizers.

Here is a summary of the main points regarding “s for raising to”:

  1. The discussion is focused on A-movement and A’-movement and how the Minimal Link Condition (MLC) can account for island effects in both types of movement.

  2. The MLC is interpreted as requiring that at a given stage of a derivation, a longer link from α to K cannot be formed if there is a shorter legitimate link from β to K.

  3. In A’-movement cases like Wh-island violations, the “shortest move” option is taken, which leads to a convergent but deviant derivation. The actual island-violating move is not possible due to the MLC.

  4. In A-movement cases like superraising violations, the “shortest move” option leads to a non-convergent derivation. The actual island-violating move would yield a convergent derivation, if it were allowed.

  5. The MLC is considered part of the definition of Move itself, not just an economy condition. This is what allows it to rule out actual island-violating moves in A’-movement cases.

  6. The discussion proposes reinterpreting movement as “attraction” by a target, with the MLC and Last Resort captured in the definition of Attract F.

  7. The notion of “equidistance” is generalized to include cases where a category adjoins to a target, not just substitutes into it.

That covers the main points regarding the role of the MLC and how it accounts for island effects in both A’-movement and A-movement. Let me know if you need any clarification or have additional questions.

Here is a summary of the key points regarding the minimal domain of CH:

  1. The minimal domain of CH determines a “neighborhood of H” that is ignored when determining if a feature F is attracted by HP. β within this neighborhood is not considered closer to HP than α.

  2. The neighborhood is determined only by γ, an immediate constituent of H0max, not more deeply embedded sublabels. This prevents virtually all categories from being equidistant with I at LF.

  3. The definition extends equidistance to cases of adjunction.

  4. There are still unresolved issues, like how to handle a projection of H with multiple adjuncts. These issues will be reduced as the theory proceeds.

  5. Intermediate traces of movement are made invisible at LF. Only the chain with the head in the highest position and the base position is interpreted.

  6. Formal features of intermediate traces of arguments are erased. This ensures that traces do not improperly attract other elements or block required attraction.

  7. The trace of an expletive cannot attract or block attraction since it lacks relevant features.

So in short, the minimal domain of CH deals with determining the “neighborhood” of H that is ignored for attraction purposes. Intermediate traces are made invisible at LF and their features are erased as an economy measure. This ensures the proper formation of chains and operator-variable constructions.

Here is a summary of the key points in the argument chain:

  1. Traces left behind by A-movement have their formal features deleted and erased. This is not the case for traces of wh-movement and operator movement, which must have intact features for interpretation.

  2. Traces are immobile and cannot themselves be attracted by movement operations. Only the head of a chain can be attracted.

  3. These assumptions lead to conditions on movement operations, including that only the head of a chain can attract or be attracted. Traces can only attract features under narrow conditions.

  4. However, problems arise with cases like ECM constructions where the associate raises in violation of the Head Movement Constraint.

  5. The status of the Head Movement Constraint is unclear within this framework. While attraction of the closest feature is expected, skipping intervening heads is still possible in some cases.

  6. Questions are also raised about what constitutes a checking configuration and whether feature mismatch leads to checking or crashes the derivation.

So in summary, the core ideas around features of traces and movement operations are outlined, but several open questions and problems remain regarding cases like ECM constructions, the status of the HMC, and the precise details of feature checking configurations. The author acknowledges these issues and leaves further investigation for future study.

Here is a summary of the key points in the passage:

  1. Early work assumed that feature mismatch in checking domains causes the derivation to crash (107). This includes cases where a verb has an optional object, requiring distinct lexical entries.

  2. We now know this assumption was incorrect. If a feature is not checked, the derivation crashes. All formal features must be checked (105b).

  3. Therefore, the authors strengthen the claim to say that feature mismatch cancels the derivation (108). This reduces computational complexity.

  4. The authors distinguish between a checking configuration and a checking relation. A configuration involves features in the same domain, while a relation requires the features to match.

  5. If features mismatch in a configuration, the derivation is canceled. This bars alternative derivations involving feature mismatch.

  6. Arguments need to raise for feature checking, satisfying the Chain Condition. Elements like ‘whether’ and ‘there’ do not satisfy the Chain Condition, despite being in a checking configuration.

  7. The authors consider two options to account for this: 1) restrict Attract/Move to non-arguments or 2) allow attraction by strong features only. They adopt the first option.

In summary, the key point is that the authors argue feature mismatch in checking domains cancels the derivation, which reduces complexity and bars alternative derivations. They distinguish checking configurations from relations based on feature matching, and consider how this applies to arguments vs. non-arguments.

Here is a summary of the key points in the provided text:

  1. The theory of θ-roles and θ-theory is largely independent of and complementary to the theory of movement and feature checking. θ-roles are not formal features that drive movement.

  2. Only elements in their base positions can assign or receive θ-roles. Elements that undergo movement cannot assign or receive θ-roles in their derived positions.

  3. There is no “raising to a θ-position” - elements cannot move to obtain a θ-role. This derives the P&P principle that there is no raising to a θ-position.

  4. A violation of the θ-Criterion, where an argument lacks a θ-role or a θ-role is not assigned, results in the derivation crashing. This follows from the assumption that shorter derivations block longer ones.

  5. The text adopts a version of Hale and Keyser’s approach to θ-theory, assuming a double-VP structure for transitive verbs with an external light verb “v”. The external argument is in the specifier of vP.

  6. Under this analysis, failure of a transitive verb to assign an external θ-role is essentially meaningless, as the external θ-role is defined by the vP-VP configuration.

  7. The remaining question is whether failure of an argument to receive a θ-role results in nonconvergence or deviant convergence of the derivation.

Does this cover the key points accurately? Let me know if you need any clarification or have additional questions.

Here is a summary of the provided text:

The text discusses the operation Move and why it exists in human languages. It starts by noting that Move is needed to explain linguistic displacement, where items appear displaced from their canonical positions.

The text then poses two questions regarding Move: What is the nature of Move? And why does it exist in natural languages?

It argues that Move is needed as an operation distinct from Merge to form chains and satisfy LF interpretations.

It notes that early attempts to explain Move invoked pragmatic factors like facilitation of parsing, but the text is more concerned with minimizing Move as much as possible.

It discusses attempts to restrict Move by making it independent of elements that undergo it and by restricting structural conditions for transformation rules.

However, these attempts still have problematic aspects that the Minimalist Program seeks to resolve. For example, constraints like the Structure Preserving Hypothesis introduce unwanted redundancy.

The text then discusses some remaining questions regarding adjunction under Move. It argues that assumptions like Morphology dealing only with X0 elements and constraints on checking domains can help limit possible cases of adjunction.

In summary, the text makes a case for restricting Move as much as possible while still satisfying interpretive requirements, and it discusses some residual issues regarding adjunction under Move.

Here is a summary of the provided text:

  1. XP-adjunction has been an important part of transformational generative grammar since its beginnings. However, two main approaches to XP-adjunction can be identified:
  • One focused on operations like wh-movement and NP-movement. For these, XP-adjunction was marginal and introduced for theory-internal reasons.

  • The other sought to understand phenomena like extraposition, right-node raising, scrambling, etc. which involve rearranging and “displacement” of phrases.

  1. As theoretical understanding has progressed, the two approaches have diverged. XP-adjunction seems increasingly heterogeneous and does not readily incorporate core computational properties.

  2. Baker’s “polysynthesis parameter” languages suggest that XP-adjunction of the second type may involve quite different mechanisms, with arguments attached as adjuncts associated with internal elements of words.

  3. The distinction between “stylistic” and other rules seems quite real: core computational properties differ from many other linguistic operations. XP-adjunction of the second type may not really belong to the same system.

  4. The approach focusing on operations like wh-movement and NP-movement, which minimally involves XP-adjunction, corresponds more closely to the minimalist program discussed in the text.

In summary, while XP-adjunction has historically been important, the text argues that a more restricted view of XP-adjunction, focused on operations like wh-movement, better fits current minimalist theories. XP-adjunction of the broader sort, involving phenomena like scrambling and rearranging, may involve quite distinct mechanisms and not properly belong within the same framework.

Here is a summary of the key points in the given passage:

  1. Resort movement refers to movement driven by feature checking within the numeration (N) to logical form (λ) computation.

  2. The properties highlighted by minimalist guidelines seem to come from this core component of the language faculty, suggesting it can be distinguished from other components.

  3. There was a proposal that participial agreement could occur with adjuncts, but this was found to be problematic in long-distance movement cases. This suggests agreement is limited to specifier positions.

  4. Improper movement cases can be explained on principled grounds, e.g. improper raising is ruled out by mismatch.

  5. Reconstruction in A-chains seems to be barred, based on evidence from Condition B and quantifier interactions.

  6. Some overt cyclicity effects can be derived from strength or economy considerations. Relativized minimality effects fall under the Minimal Link Condition or involve strong features.

  7. The extension condition from Chapter 3 may not need to apply to overt operations, as properties like strength and PF conditions can account for cyclicity.

In summary, the passage discusses resort movement driven by feature checking and how it relates to various properties of cyclicity, improper movement, reconstruction and participial agreement. It argues that many of these phenomena can be captured within the minimalist framework.

Here is a summary of the conclusion:

The computational system CHL is considered uniform from N to LF in that no pre- versus post-Spell-Out distinction is stipulated. Bare output conditions are satisfied as well as possible.


  • Adjuncts and shells are analyzed without resorting to XP adjunction via movement. Base adjunction by Merge is allowed only to X’ or phrases headed by functional categories, avoiding conflicting with the invisibility of X’ to CHL.

  • Edge constructions and scope effects of adjuncts are analyzed using Larsonian structures. No stipulated operations like verb raising are required.

  • Shell structures are considered unnecessary. Additional phrases are supported by empty heads below the main verb.

  • Similar Larsonian structures are proposed for verbal constructions with NP arguments and adjuncts, placing adjunct phrases within the internal domain of the verb.

However, questions remain regarding related phenomena like scope ambiguities and extraposition, indicating the need for better empirical understanding. The conclusions drawn here are speculative to some extent.

Here is a summary of the relevant section:

The text discusses the role of ordering in the grammar. It first assumes that ordering applies at the phonological component and does not affect the CHL computation.

It then considers the head parameter approach, where languages are head-initial or head-final. Fukui’s account of this with optional versus motivated movement is mentioned.

Next, Kayne’s Linear Correspondence Axiom (LCA) is discussed. The LCA states that asymmetric c-command imposes a linear ordering.

The text then tries to incorporate the LCA into the bare phrase structure theory. It notes that while some conceptual arguments for the LCA rely on X-bar theory, the conclusions can be drawn directly in bare phrase structure.

It proposes two ways to address structures that violate the LCA: weaken the LCA to allow non-total ordering under conditions, or convert those structures into “phonological words” before the LCA applies.

The text argues that exempt traces from the LCA, allowing elements that raise to escape being ordered. This allows single-terminal complements to raise via cliticization or incorporation, satisfying the LCA.

In summary, the section discusses different approaches to ordering and how the LCA can be incorporated into bare phrase structure theory, with certain modifications.

Of the three possibilities you propose for the strong feature that expresses the EPP, it seems you favor option (3): a general nominal feature, either D or N. You argue that:

  1. The specifier of AgrS is filled by the expletive, suggesting its strong feature allows [D] category.

  2. The specifier of T is filled by a nominal, which you argue may be NP rather than DP, accounting for the definiteness effect.

  3. Since AgrS and AgrO are the same element in different positions, if AgrS has a strong D-feature, then AgrO should as well, explaining why object raising favors definite nominals.

You also note that theories of expletive constructions often posit that the associate (the “logical” subject) is a nonspecific NP, not a DP.

Overall, you argue a general nominal feature (either D or N) best accounts for the different properties of specifiers of AgrS, T, and AgrO. The data support option (3) over options (1) or (2) exclusively. Does this sound like an accurate summary? Let me know if you’d like me to clarify or expand on any part of the summary.

Here is a summary of the key points in the excerpt:

  1. The text discusses multiple-subject constructions (MSCs), where more than one subject occurs in the same clause, either transitive (TEC) or intransitive.

  2. MSCs are possible within the options already available using functional category features. They also provide evidence that expletives lack case or phi features, as expected.

  3. Jonas’ generalization is that overt MSCs require overt verb raising. Languages without overt verb raising, like English, don’t allow overt MSCs.

  4. This raises two questions: a) Why do some languages allow MSCs while others do not? b) How are MSCs permitted by economy principles?

  5. The text suggests that covert MSCs may be possible in languages like English, though they are marked and restricted. This possibility could help explain the cross-linguistic variability in MSCs.

  6. Economy principles, especially Procrastinate (favoring covert movement), must explain why some MSCs are allowed while others are not. The text provides analyses for some examples using Procrastinate and theta theory.

In summary, the excerpt discusses multiple-subject constructions and how their distribution across languages can potentially shed light on functional categories, verb raising, and principles of movement and economy.

Here is a summary of the key points in the provided text:

  1. Agr is a functional category that consists only of non-interpretable formal features. In contrast, categories like T, C, and D have interpretable features that provide instructions at the interface levels.

  2. It is proposed that Agr lacks both Case-assigning features and phi-features. Phi-features would instead be added to predicates as they are selected from the lexicon.

  3. In expletive and raising constructions, there is evidence for two Agr projections: AgrS and AgrO. AgrS is strong and allows V-raising and expletive subjects. AgrO allows object raising.

  4. Both AgrS and AgrO attract DPs, suggesting they have a [nominal-] feature. Expletive constructions then show a definiteness effect and object raising is restricted to definite DPs.

  5. However, the definiteness effect for object raising is only a strong tendency, not an absolute restriction. This casts some doubt on the claim that Agr attracts only DPs.

  6. The conclusion is that Agr only exists when it has a strong feature, providing a position for T- or V- raising (adjunction) or DP raising (substitution). If Agr has no strong feature, there is no evidence for its presence.

That’s my attempt at a concise summary of the key claims and reasoning regarding the status of Agr according to the minimalist framework outlined in the text. Let me know if you would like me to expand or clarify any part of this summary.

Here is a summary of the key points in the passage:

  1. The author argues that the functional category Agr (agreement) can be eliminated from the lexical inventory.

  2. For object raising, the author proposes that the light verb v can instead be assigned a strong nominal feature that requires the object to raise overtly. This provides checking for case and phi features without needing Agr.

  3. For predicate adjectivals, the subject of the adjective can raise overtly to the outer specifier of the adjective, again eliminating the need for Agr.

  4. For main clause subjects (MSCs), the author suggests that T can instead be assigned a strong nominal feature that requires the subject to raise overtly. This explains the expletive-subject order without needing Agr.

  5. In summary, the author argues that overt feature-driven movement can account for a range of raising phenomena traditionally attributed to Agr, suggesting that Agr itself may not be necessary in the lexical inventory.

So the key idea is that assigning strong nominal features directly to heads like v and T can drive overt movement of subjects and objects, accomplishing the same goals as functional projections like Agr but in a more constrained way. The analysis aims to eliminate Agr from the computational system.

Here is a summary of the key points in the passage:

  1. The authors argue that the earlier conceptions of equidistance and closeness based on Agr projections need to be simplified to accommodate the new theory of multiple specifier structures.

  2. They propose dropping chains from the definition of closeness and relying on features and immobility of traces instead. Only the head of a chain can be “seen” by K when determining which element to attract.

  3. They propose simplifying the notions of equidistance and closeness by keeping only to the trivial chain CH = H(K) and its minimal domain. Two elements are equidistant from a third if they are in the same minimal domain.

  4. An element β is closer to K than α unless β and the target τ of raising are in the same minimal domain, or β and α are in the same minimal domain.

  5. The authors discuss some examples involving object and subject raising, and argue that economy conditions can block longer, less economical derivations.

  6. They consider an alternative where either specifier of vP can host the external argument, which would simplify the theory by dropping the notion of equidistance entirely.

  7. They discuss some of the possibilities and consequences of this alternative approach.

So in summary, the key move is simplifying the notions of equidistance and closeness to accommodate the new theory, and the authors discuss some alternative possibilities and their implications.

  1. Covert operations at the LF interface should be as simple as possible to maximize simplicity of interpretation. This favors LF outputs that are as uniform as possible.

  2. This implies that adjunction at LF is always to the maximal X’ projection, not “internally” to subconstituents. Heads also raise before their complement domains.

  3. T’ max at LF should have the same form across languages to maximize similarity of LF outputs. This favors raising of elements in a certain order.

  4. Output conditions at LF may require certain c-command relations between elements in T’ max, which in turn requires some elements to raise overtly.

  5. Expletives can only appear in [Spec, T]. When merged elsewhere, the derivation crashes or yields ungrammatical expressions.

  6. Expletives merged in [Spec, v] will remain there at LF. They are then eliminated because they lack semantic features and have an uninterpretable D-feature.

So the key idea is that covert operations and LF outputs should be as simple as possible in order to minimize the complexity of interpretation at the LF interface. This favors restricting adjunction, raising heads before complements, and achieving uniformity across languages.

The summary is as follows:

  • The [D] feature of expletives cannot be erased through checking because that would eliminate the expletive category completely.

  • Instead, the [N] feature adjoins to [D] to form [DN Exp], checking and deleting the [D] feature but not erasing it. This is analogous to N raising to D in regular D-NP construction.

  • For expletives in object position, no [N] feature can raise to adjoin to the expletive. This is because:

  1. The [N] feature would have to raise from the subject, but the subject’s features must first raise to T, leaving a trace.
  2. Traces of A-movement are inaccessible for further movement.
  3. If the subject remains in situ, its features would have to raise along with the [N] feature, but raising a trace is barred.
  • The analysis suggests an even stricter condition, preventing any element with a trace from undergoing further movement. Though this rules out some cases, it may be too strong.

  • In short, expletives can only appear in subject position because that is the only position where an [N] feature can adjoin to check and delete the expletive’s [D] feature.

  • Some issues remain regarding multiple specifier constructions and the apparent flexibility in the order of expletives and subjects, but this may be due to linearization at PF.

The key takeaways are that expletives are checked and deleted through adjunction of an [N] feature, and restrictions on their possible positions fall out of this requirement and more general constraints on movement.

Here is a summary of the main points in the passage:

  1. T and V heads have interpretable features that must be checked, like Case and φ-features. They may also optionally have a strong [nominal-] feature.

  2. Checking takes place when a Merge or Move relation is established, either by substitution or adjunction. Features are erased when checked.

  3. The first checking relation occurs when the object moves to the outer Spec of v to check v’s strong [nominal-] feature. Subject raising to this position would leave the object’s Case unchecked.

  4. Next, the subject raises to the first Spec of T to check T’s EPP feature. This establishes checking relations with T and V.

  5. In multiple specifier constructions (MSCs), the structure is argued to be [Exp [Subject [T0max XP]]] where the expletive checks T’s strong [nominal-] feature.

  6. Some issues remain with restricting MSCs to this structure, including how to explain the options of no, one or two Specifiers of T.

  7. It is proposed that expletives have a strong [N-] feature rather than a general [nominal-] feature. This rules out *Exp-Exp constructions and explains the association with nonspecific phrases.

So in summary, the focus is on explaining how checking relations work in deriving basic and MSC word orders, and some of the conceptual and empirical issues that remain. The proposal is that expletives have a strong [N-] feature rather than [nominal-], which helps rule out unwanted options.

Here is a summary of the key points in the excerpt:

  1. Only DP-NP structures are possible with expletive-associate pairs, not Expletive-Expletive structures.

  2. The associate, like a man, can raise its N-features to embed T to check features. The expletive there1 survives to LF, crashing the derivation.

  3. The author assumes that Argument-Expletive structures are impossible in successive Specs. Expletive must precede associate at some point for its D-feature to be deleted.

  4. Allowing two Specifiers does not work because it would allow both Subject and Object to raise to [Spec, T], violating the ban on Argument-Expletive pairs.

  5. The proposal of parameters with options for 0 Specs, 1 Spec, or multiple Specs also does not work.

  6. A better proposal is to distinguish violations of Procrastinate - forced violations needed for convergence vs. unforced, “true” economy violations.

  7. The key parameters are then: (a) T may be strong or weak and (b) T may or may not tolerate an unforced Procrastinate violation.

  8. Languages are distinguished based on their setting of these parameters, capturing the typological range.

  9. Another option of tolerating arbitrarily many unforced violations might capture polysynthetic languages, but more exploration is needed.

  10. The ban on double Argument [Spec, T] structures is explained by the parameter options.

  11. The assumption that expletives are restricted to [Spec, T] follows from independently motivated economy conditions.

  12. The discussion does not address quantifier raising.

Hope this helps! Let me know if you have any other questions.

The summary can be broken down into the following key points:

  1. The framework proposes that the computational system (C HL ) maps a numerational selection from the lexicon to both PF (phonetic form) and LF (logical form) representations.

  2. Spell-Out separates phonological features, which then undergo morphological and linearization operations for PF. The LF derivation proceeds independently.

  3. C HL consists of two operations: Merge and Attract/Move (which incorporates Merge).

  4. Economy conditions select between convergent derivations.

  5. Functional categories and their features play a central role in C HL .

  6. Only features that survive to the interfaces (PF and LF) are interpreted.

  7. T, C and D are the only functional categories that remain. Strong features are narrowly distributed.

  8. N and V categories do not have strong features. Strength is limited to T and v.

  9. The refinements and simplifications reduce economy calculations, conceptual problems and are empirically confirmed. They emerge naturally from minimalist assumptions.

  10. The overall goal is to develop a “perfect” language system that satisfies constraints in the optimal way. Many open questions and avenues for further research remain.

So in summary, the framework proposes a minimalist approach to the computational system that derives phrase structure, movement and economy from basic operations and feature-driven processes. It aims to develop an optimal linguistic theory within the bounds of the given constraints.

Here is a summary of the relevant sections:

  1. Traditional approaches dating back to Pāṇini focus on “faithfulness” in terms of possible phonological rules and economy considerations. McCarthy and Prince (1994) argue for restricting faithfulness to input-output conditions, but this seems to have little relevance to actual problems involving intermediate stages.

  2. Optimality Theory approaches have not clearly differed from other approaches, apart from particular case studies. Further questions relating to lexical items at LF are complex and not well understood.

  3. The minimalist approach only allows new formal objects when forced by empirical properties of language.

  4. Checking strong features renders them inactive but does not eliminate them. Features of a chain are considered a unit, so if one feature is affected, all are.

  5. Cyclic operations may access elements at an earlier stage, resulting in violations of inclusiveness.

  6. Selectional and binding relations reduce ideally to local relations between heads and their complements.

  7. Checking of features establishes a local domain within which further operations may apply, subject to economy considerations.

  8. Covert operations are constrained by c-command, though this has been questioned in some cases.

In summary, the text discusses questions around “faithfulness” and feature checking within the context of minimalist and Optimality Theory approaches. It touches on issues like cyclicity, lexical items at LF, and constraints on covert operations.

Here is a summary of the key points in the excerpt:

  1. The theory assumes that movement occurs to check uninterpretable features. When features are checked, they are erased.

  2. Overt and covert movement achieve the same end - feature checking - but differ in their timing and manifestation.

  3. Generalized pied-piping may occur with overt movement, but not covert movement.

  4. Structural Case features on verbs and T must be checked and eliminated for the derivation to converge.

  5. φ-features and categorial features allow for A-movement from positions with inherent Case.

  6. Expletives like “there” and “it” may have residual semantic content beyond simply acting as placeholders.

  7. I-to-Q movement in questions may have a different origin from feature-checking, possibly within the phonology.

  8. The argument-adjunct distinction does not accurately predict possibilities for reconstruction.

In summary, the text discusses the idea that movement occurs to check uninterpretable features, and details some aspects and exceptions to this general approach. It highlights differences between overt and covert movement, as well as limitations of the theory regarding expletives, movement from inherent Case positions, and reconstruction.

• Inhart suggests a multiple-Spec analysis and Tsai a covert raising analysis to account for obligatory presence of the non-null variant.

• The multiple-Spec analysis appeals to some phonological property to account for the facts, while government-based explanations are no longer available.

• Economy considerations suggest that trace interpretation could be accessible at LF before traces become invisible, allowing analysis of problems involving anaphora and the ECP.

• Argument traces cannot be raised, explaining stronger islands for arguments.

• Clitic placement favors c-commanding PPs due to proximity to I, supporting Spec-Head configuration.

• There must be something that extracts overtly from VP, though the details are unclear for English.

• Burzio’s generalization follows from Case requirements - intransitive verbs do not assign Case, requiring the object to raise for Case.

• Early transformational analyses lacked principled explanations for many constructions, remaining as a “huge mass” of unanalyzed phenomena.

• There are questions regarding whether adjunction is X0-adjunction or Xmax-adjunction, and the analysis allows either freely.

The summary of the relevant passages is:

  • Condition (130b) partially generalizes a conclusion that there be no adjunction to arguments.

  • The analysis of participial phrases reanalyzed within a minimalist framework distinguishes a participial phrase from Agr o .

  • The apparent lowering of quantifiers that affects their scope is argued to be a secondary effect, not the basic mechanism.

  • Operator phrases formed from adverbials can move, raising their wh- feature to check.

  • Raising to object position can satisfy the Case Filter, placing it in a more general context.

  • The upper segment of an adjunct being “invisible” for the Linear Correspondence Axiom and at the interface is motivated.

  • Clitics must raise overtly even if the verb raises, since the phrase they cliticize to will still be a complement.

Hope this summary helps! Let me know if you have any other questions.

Here is a summary of the provided excerpt:

  1. The author is omitting a class of cases involving raising of expressions (Exp) to specifier positions after adjunction of nouns (N) has occurred, deleting their sole feature.

  2. The author is ignoring possibilities involving subject raising to specifier of T. In these cases, the only source for N raising to Exp would be from DP in the VP complement. But any such DP would have prevented Exp from raising from a lower clause.

  3. One remaining possibility is covert object adjunction to Exp merged in a specifier position, where the object could have its Case feature checked. But there is not yet a satisfactory way to exclude this.

  4. The author skipped one case involving unaccusatives. They will return to it and show that an economy condition is again established.

  5. The author is overlooking matters of object agreement, which would require elaboration with a broader typological range.

  6. The proposal is deemed too narrow as it only applies to a specific type of multiple specifier construction. In other constructions, the situation is different in several respects.

  7. The earlier argument barring merger of Exp in this position for transitive VPs does not hold for unaccusatives, as the economy condition is not relevant here.

  8. In summary, the author admits to ignoring, skipping or overlooking several possibilities in the discussion for the sake of focusing on specific cases, though they claim these omissions can ultimately be accounted for within the proposed framework.

Here is a summary of the provided references:

  • The references discuss various topics related to principles and parameters in generative grammar, including syntactic categories, phrase structure, argument structure, binding theory, lexicon, morphology, phonology, semantics, language acquisition, and parametric variation across languages.

  • Key researchers mentioned include Chomsky, Higginbotham, Grimshaw, Hale and Keyser, Huang, and Lasnik. Their works focus on theories like principles and parameters, Government and Binding, and the Minimalist Program.

  • The references examine concepts like X-bar theory, A-chain formation, movement operations, argument structure projections, binding dependencies, reflexives and pronouns, natural and lexical categories, tense and agreement features, morphology and phonology, language acquisition devices, and parametric variation across languages.

  • The works demonstrate how principles and parameters can account for syntactic phenomena in individual languages as well as cross-linguistic differences, examining evidence from languages like English, Arabic, Chinese, Basque, Russian, Icelandic, Ewe, Tashlhiyt Berber, Greek, Japanese, and others.

That covers the main topics and high-level details contained within the provided list of references relating to principles and parameters in generative grammar. Let me know if you need any clarification or would like me to expand or modify the summary.

The summary is as follows:

  • The texts discuss Jackendoff’s work on syntax, semantics and cognition from 1977 to 1990. They cover:

  • His 1977 book X syntax

  • Semantics and cognition (1983)

  • The status of thematic relations (1987)

  • On Larson’s treatment of the double object construction (1990a)

  • Semantic structures (1990b)

  • The texts also mention some other authors’ works that Jackendoff edited or wrote prefaces for, such as:

  • Jaeggli (1980)

  • Jaeggli and Safir (1989)

  • Johns (1987)

  • And several papers by Jonas, Kayne, Lasnik and others.

The main focus seems to be Jackendoff’s influential contributions to syntax and semantics from the 1970s to the early 1990s. The summaries briefly mention some of his key works and ideas during that period.

Here is a summary of the key points regarding accusative and Inuktitut languages from the sources provided:

  • Inuktitut is an Eskimo-Aleut language spoken in Northern Canada. It has an ergative-absolutive case system.

  • Ergative languages mark the subject of intransitive verbs with absolutive case and the subject of transitive verbs with ergative case. The object of transitive verbs takes absolutive case.

  • This differs from accusative languages like Japanese which mark the subject of both intransitive and transitive verbs with nominative case and the object of transitive verbs with accusative case.

  • Murasugi (1992) analyzed NP movement in accusative versus ergative languages and found some asymmetries. For example, object shift appears to be more restricted in ergative languages.

  • Muysken (1982) argued that Inuktitut has a head-final phrase structure, unlike the head-initial structure of Japanese. This difference relates to the parameter of how head and phrase are ordered.

  • Several sources discussed degree expressions, case assignment, reflexivization, pronoun systems, and alignment typology comparing accusative Japanese and ergative Inuktitut. Overall, they highlight the structural differences between these two types of languages.

Here is a summary of the key points in “Index: Summarize: – 114.”

• The index covers many important concepts in syntactic theory, including anaphor binding, binding theory, Case theory, chains, checking theory, derivations, economy principles, empty categories, expletives, features, government, headedness parameter, interpretability, movement, phrase structure, and traces.

• Binding theory concerns the binding of anaphors and the relationship between antecedents and R-expressions. It includes the binding conditions and principles at different levels of representation.

• Case theory deals with Case assignment to arguments and how chains interact with Case. It covers phenomena like Exceptional Case Marking and the Case Filter.

• Checking theory explains how features are checked in syntactic structures through checking domains and Spec-head configurations.

• Derivations refer to the step-by-step syntactic operations that generate syntactic representations from the numeration. Derivations strive for representational and derivational economy.

• Features that are relevant to the semantic and phonological interfaces are discussed, including how features can undergo covert and overt movement.

• Government and binding relations play an important role in licensing empty categories and determining locality and attracting elements in movement.

• Movement operations restructure phrases and constituents in the derivation, and principles like closest c-command, equidistance, and the ECP constrain these movements.

That covers the main highlights from the index pertaining to syntactic theory. Let me know if you need any clarification or would like me to expand on any part of the summary.

Here is a summary of the key aspects of movement and Minimalist Program discussed in the passage:

  • Movement involves forming chains through traces left by moving constituents. Adjunction and Case are closely related to movement.

  • The economy of derivation and locality conditions constrain movement operations. Locally superfluous movements are avoided.

  • The Minimalist Program examines interpretability through checking theory, feature movement, and the minimal link condition.

  • Movement is analyzed in terms ofMove operations likeMove F. Projection of movement targets and Last Resort problems are discussed.

  • The Minimalist Program outlines concepts like the minimal domain, Minimality Condition, and the Minimal Link Condition.

  • Functional categories, expletives, and economy play a role in multiple subject constructions. Labeling and order are also addressed.

  • Core concepts of the Minimalist Program include the language faculty, phrase structure theory, and the transformational component. Empirical expectations are discussed.

  • Movement of heads, morphology, and interpretation at the LF interface are explored within the framework of the Minimalist Program.

That summarize the key aspects of movement and the Minimalist Program according to the passage. Let me know if you would like me to expand or modify the summary in any way.

Here is a summary of the key points regarding terface, 119 and the other topics:

  • Tinterface, 119 refers to the C-I (conceptual-intentional) interface, which deals with semantic features and mapping from syntactic structures to meaning.

  • Optional features of FF(LI) refers to optional features of the Faculty of Language in the Broad Sense. These include phonological, morphological, and syntactic features that are optional in a language.

  • Phonology and phonological features discuss phonology and phonological features that can be used to characterize linguistic units.

  • Order discusses order relations within the computation system, including linear order of features and phrases.

  • Phrase markers refer to phrase structure representations used in phrase structure theory.

  • Phrase structure rules are rewriting rules that generate hierarchical structures in phrase structure theory.

  • X-bar theory discusses the hierarchical structure of phrases in terms of projections and specifiers. It also discusses the relation between X-bar theory and other syntactic phenomena like case, binding, and government.

So in summary, the key concepts are the C-I interface which deals with semantic features and mapping to meaning, optional features in the language faculty, phonology and phonological features, order relations in syntax, phrase structure and phrase structure rules, and X-bar theory.

Author Photo

About Matheus Puppe