Self Help

The New Geography of Jobs - Enrico Moretti

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Matheus Puppe

· 49 min read



Here is a summary of the Table of Contents for the book:

The book contains standard elements like a title page, table of contents, copyright, and dedication. It has an introduction that provides context for the cities of Menlo Park and Visalia in California and how they have diverged economically over the past few decades.

The main body of the book is divided into 7 chapters that delve into topics like the transition of the US economy from manufacturing to technology and services, the impact of technological innovations on labor markets, the growing economic divergence between US communities, the forces driving economic agglomeration, inequality of opportunity and cost of living across places, poverty traps and location choices, and how education is shaping the new “human capital century”.

In addition to the main chapters, the book includes acknowledgments, notes, references, and an index. Footnotes are also listed in the table of contents. The book is copyrighted to Enrico Moretti from 2012.

  • The United States is experiencing widespread economic anxiety as middle-class incomes decline, good jobs are scarce, and income inequality rises. There is uncertainty about America’s economic future.

  • However, the economic picture is more complex than suggested by current debates. The U.S. labor market is undergoing major shifts as some sectors decline while others grow or emerge. Jobs are also shifting geographically across cities and regions.

  • Long-term economic forces like globalization, technology, and immigration are changing the geography of jobs and prosperity in the U.S. in profound and irreversible ways. Some places are thriving as new “innovation hubs” while old manufacturing centers decline.

  • Understanding these long-term trends, driven by basic economic principles, is important as they will shape the economy and lives of Americans for decades. The book examines trends in the U.S. labor market over 30 years and looks ahead at future trends.

  • Places like Shenzhen, China have grown enormously from manufacturing jobs relocated due to factors like lower costs. At the same time, the U.S. has shifted toward an innovation-driven knowledge economy centered on human capital and creativity.

  • The majority of the value of products like the iPhone comes from innovation - the original idea, unique engineering, and design. This is why Apple earns $321 per phone vs suppliers who do physical production.

  • Innovation includes advanced manufacturing, IT, life sciences, etc. but also innovations in services, entertainment, finance, etc. - anything that creates new products/ideas.

  • Innovation drives productivity and wage growth over time, benefiting both innovative and local service sector workers. Innovative companies pay higher wages.

  • Innovation clusters attract high-paying jobs that create additional jobs (multiplier effect). Each new tech job creates 5 additional local jobs. This benefits communities more than manufacturing.

  • However, the rise of innovation is increasing inequality between “brain hub” cities with strong innovation sectors that are growing, and declining manufacturing cities losing jobs. Many areas could go either way.

  • Contrary to predictions, innovation jobs have not dispersed widely. Being near similar companies and workers enhances innovation more than lower costs alone. This clustering is causing greater divergence between communities over time.

  • The US transitioned from a low-income society to a middle-class society in the decades following WWII, driven by good manufacturing jobs that boosted productivity and wages. Cities like Detroit thrived as manufacturing hubs.

  • Rising productivity in manufacturing industries from the 1940s-1970s allowed workers to produce more per hour, fueling substantial wage growth across the economy. Higher productivity also made goods more affordable.

  • This enabled the growth of a mass consumer culture and rising living standards as average families could now afford appliances, cars, etc. Material well-being increased significantly.

  • However, manufacturing employment plateaued in 1978 and then began a steep decline that continues today. Higher oil prices in 1979 exacerbated job losses across industries as costs rose.

  • The decline of manufacturing as an employment engine has been staggering. Manufacturing jobs today represent only half of their peak in 1978, even as the US population has grown. This has contributed to regional economic divergence.

So in summary, manufacturing previously drove broad-based prosperity but its decline has reshaped the economy and society in profound ways, fueling geographic divisions in incomes and opportunities. Understanding new sources of job growth is now key.

  • Manufacturing jobs in the US have been declining for decades, losing on average 372,000 jobs per year since 1985. Currently fewer than 1 in 10 American workers have manufacturing jobs.

  • This decline has hit Rust Belt cities like Detroit, Cleveland, and Pittsburgh particularly hard, with many losing over 10% of their populations between 2000-2010. Once thriving manufacturing hubs, many now face decay, poverty, and high crime rates.

  • For each manufacturing job lost, an estimated 1.6 additional jobs are also lost in related sectors like construction that supported the manufacturing industry and workers. This has devastated local communities and economies.

  • Polls show rising economic anxiety and a sense that the US no longer produces enough goods. Cities and regions that used to manufacture feel left behind as factories close.

  • Globalization and technological progress, not greedy financiers, are the primary causes of the manufacturing decline. Offshoring to lower cost countries and increasing automation have made many US production jobs uncompetitive.

  • Iconic American brands like Levi’s have closed their US factories and moved production entirely overseas to Asia where costs are far lower. This mirrors the wider shift away from US manufacturing to foreign countries.

Here are the key points from the passage:

  • Globalization has led to a large shift in manufacturing away from high-cost countries like the US to lower-cost developing countries. This is because labor is much cheaper in places like China.

  • Factories in developing countries tend to use fewer machines than in the US, making them more flexible and adaptable to changes. They can quickly adjust production plans or designs.

  • The impact of competition from Chinese imports on US jobs depends on the local economy. Cities with manufacturing similar to China’s faced more job losses, lower wages, etc.

  • Globalization spurs technological progress by companies to compete, but low-tech firms struggle. It increases demand for skilled workers but reduces demand for unskilled labor.

  • Some high-end/artisanal manufacturing is returning to urban areas in the US targeting local/niche markets. Cities like NYC and SF see small scale production of goods like clothing, food, etc.

  • However, these local initiatives cannot replace large-scale job losses. Their jobs depends on wealth created elsewhere, and production remains niche and difficult to meaningfully scale up. They are not drivers of broader job growth.

So in summary, globalization led factory jobs overseas but drives innovation, while some niche localized production has emerged but cannot compensate for broader manufacturing declines.

  • American Apparel relies on its unique business model of producing garments in urban U.S. areas as its main competitive advantage. However, this model cannot easily be replicated by other companies on a large scale.

  • By definition, American Apparel’s business model depends on it being the only (or one of few) companies producing in the U.S. If many companies adopted this model, American Apparel would lose its uniqueness and competitive edge.

  • For American Apparel to maintain its advantage, it needs to remain one of the only companies producing domestically. If domestic production became common rather than unique, it would undermine American Apparel’s ability to compete on that basis.

So in summary, while American Apparel has found success with its domestic production model, this model is difficult to replicate widely without undermining American Apparel’s competitive differentiation based on that unique production approach.

  • Automation has greatly reduced the labor intensity of producing PCs and semiconductors, similar to what happened in the automobile industry. Production has also moved abroad to cheaper locations, as seen with the iPhone.

  • Technological progress and innovation are the main drivers of increases in labor productivity and standards of living over the long run. However, this has hollowed out the middle of the job market in developed countries.

  • New technologies especially benefit high-skill, nonroutine jobs but replace middle-skill, routine jobs. This has polarized the US labor market into low-wage, low-skill jobs and high-wage, high-skill jobs, declining middle-wage jobs.

  • Once-stable manufacturing jobs providing middle-class livelihoods and pride have been replaced with more precarious low-wage service jobs with high turnover. This hollowing out is seen across developed economies.

  • While some reshoring of manufacturing is occurring, the long-term decline in US manufacturing employment is unlikely to reverse as forces like globalization and automation are difficult to stop or turn back. Fighting these historical trends through protectionism will not work in the long run.

The passage discusses the changing nature of jobs and work in the U.S. economy away from traditional manufacturing and towards innovation and knowledge-based work. It provides examples like Dominic Glynn’s job at Pixar using math and technology to create colorful animated films.

Jobs in innovation are growing and take many forms beyond just high-tech, including roles that support creative fields like movies. While some internet companies have fewer direct employees than older manufacturing firms, the number of internet sector jobs has grown dramatically over the past decade. Studies also find that new technology fields like information technology have been major drivers of employment, productivity and investment growth.

Overall, the passage argues that innovation jobs, not manufacturing, will be the main engine of economic prosperity going forward. It seeks to address skepticism about whether growth in these newer fields can offset losses in traditional jobs. The data presented suggests employment in some innovative industries like internet has expanded very rapidly.

Here is a summary of the growth of the American economy between 2004 and 2008:

  • The software sector grew significantly, with U.S. jobs in software growing 562% over the past two decades. Life science research employment also grew 300% over 20 years, driven by fields like biotech.

  • Advanced manufacturing constituted another important part of the growing innovation sector. While job growth was slower than younger sectors, it was more stable. Pharmaceutical manufacturing in particular saw steady gains over 30 years.

  • The mix of jobs in advanced manufacturing was changing, with fewer blue-collar roles and more engineers, designers, and marketers as supply chains moved production abroad.

  • Emerging sectors also contributed, like financial technology (“FinTech”) which attracted $2 billion in venture capital in just 3 years, creating “tens of thousands of jobs.”

  • Digital entertainment grew rapidly, with the film, music, and video game industries all expanding and converging. Special effects and games in particular transitioned to digital formats, supporting many jobs.

  • Overall, the innovation sector drove America’s economic prosperity during this period through traded sector jobs producing innovative goods and services for national and global markets. While a minority of total jobs, these traded roles were key to competitiveness and wage growth.

  • Labor productivity grows much more slowly in the non-traded sector compared to the traded sector due to technological progress. Jobs like yoga instructors or therapists have not fundamentally changed, while manufacturing jobs now require far fewer worker hours.

  • Higher productivity in the traded sector leads to higher wages not just in that sector, but others as well, as other industries need to match wages to retain skilled workers.

  • Innovative, traded sector jobs in a city create many additional local jobs in non-traded services through a multiplier effect. A local bookbinder’s business closely tracked the growth of the local tech sector.

  • Research shows each new high-tech job creates 5 additional local service jobs on average through this multiplier, benefiting professionals and non-professionals alike. The effect is much larger than for manufacturing.

  • High-tech workers’ high salaries means they spend more locally on services, supporting more jobs. Clustering of tech companies further increases this multiplier effect through additional economic activity.

  • While small businesses create most jobs, their existence ultimately depends on the strength of larger, innovative companies in the traded sector that drive local economic prosperity and wage growth.

  • The passage discusses jobs in the innovation sector and how they differ from traditional manufacturing jobs.

  • While manufacturing jobs have been replaced by robots and machines, jobs in innovation like software development and digital entertainment remain very labor-intensive as they depend on human creativity and problem-solving.

  • However, over time even these jobs will likely become standardized and mechanized through advances in technology, reducing the need for human labor just as in manufacturing.

  • Some “new” innovation jobs just replace existing jobs in other sectors. For example, online travel sites and Netflix created tech jobs but eliminated many retail travel agency and video store jobs.

  • Nonetheless, the churn of new and replaced jobs in innovation has yielded a net job gain overall according to studies. New job growth is concentrated in innovation hubs while job losses are widespread.

  • A key reason innovation jobs keep increasing is the rising value of human capital and new ideas. Globalization allows innovative companies to mass produce high-R&D products at low cost, increasing economic returns on new ideas. This fuels demand for talented innovators and job growth in the sector.

  • In most innovative industries, the main costs are upfront research and development investments. The variable costs of actual production and manufacturing are relatively low.

  • Access to global markets dramatically increases returns on innovation by allowing companies to earn profits from much larger markets without increasing costs. This has driven unprecedented levels of investment in R&D.

  • Globalization benefits innovative industries more than traditional manufacturing, as fixed costs are higher for manufacturing but variable costs also scale up significantly with production volume.

  • The expanding global middle class, especially in countries like China, India, and Brazil, increases demand for high-end innovative products and favors innovative industries.

  • While outsourcing may cause job losses in traditional manufacturing, it can actually increase jobs in innovation industries. Offshoring lower-skilled jobs frees up resources to hire more high-skilled R&D, engineering, and design jobs in places like the US.

  • Countries like India and China are increasing their own innovation capabilities over time, but the US still dominates in higher quality patents and R&D jobs. Outsourcing some stages of R&D to lower-cost countries can further drive job growth in US innovation hubs.

  • Successful innovations allow companies to earn economic rents by charging above production costs. This extra value ends up benefiting workers through more and higher paying jobs as companies expand production following innovations.

  • Seattle used to be a declining city in the late 1970s, heavily dependent on manufacturing and struggling with job losses and high crime rates. It was considered a “city of despair”.

  • In 1979, Microsoft moved its headquarters from Albuquerque, New Mexico to the Seattle suburb of Bellevue. This was more of a personal decision by founders Bill Gates and Paul Allen to return to their hometown, rather than a strategic business one.

  • Microsoft’s relocation helped kickstart Seattle’s transformation into a major tech hub. The city’s economy, workforce skills, and salaries diverged significantly from similar cities like Albuquerque that did not attract a major tech company.

  • Seattle saw growing investment in new tech companies, cultural amenities, and an increasingly skilled workforce. It became one of the top cities for innovation and high-paying jobs. Meanwhile, Albuquerque struggled without Microsoft and did not develop a strong tech cluster.

  • Today Seattle thrives as a vibrant, growing city with a thriving tech sector, while the move of Microsoft four decades ago set it on a radically different economic trajectory than other Northwest cities of its era.

  • Jobs at large innovative companies like Microsoft have a large multiplier effect on the local economy, creating many additional jobs indirectly through increased demand for services.

  • While Albuquerque attracted a customer service center which provided many low-paying jobs, it had a smaller multiplier effect than jobs in innovation industries.

  • As a result, Seattle and Albuquerque’s economic trajectories diverged over time, as Seattle attracted more high-tech firms and high-skilled workers through cluster effects around Microsoft. This led to rising incomes, cultural amenities, and quality of life in Seattle.

  • Albuquerque saw its violent crime rates and murder rates rise above Seattle’s as its economy underperformed relatively. Economic success tends to breed further success through clustering, while economic stagnation leads to further decline.

  • Microsoft’s presence attracted other tech companies like Amazon to Seattle, even though Amazon’s founder Jeff Bezos had no prior connection to the city. The cluster effects around Microsoft made Seattle appealing for high-tech startups.

  • Microsoft also spawned thousands of spinoff companies founded by former employees, further boosting Seattle’s economy. Its high-paying jobs also supported over 200,000 additional jobs in services through multiplier effects.

  • Silicon Valley remains the top innovation hub in the world due to its ability to attract talent and ideas from around the globe. It accounts for over 1/3 of venture capital investment.

  • Austin has emerged as a strong high-tech center, with many tech companies establishing offices there. It complements rather than competes with Silicon Valley due to talent flowing between the two regions.

  • Raleigh-Durham and Boston are also top performers, driven by life sciences innovation stemming from research universities.

  • San Diego transformed from a small community to a major biotech cluster around institutions like Scripps Research Institute.

  • While New York City lacks lab space, it has over 300,000 tech jobs and is a leader in digital media and financial innovation.

  • Washington D.C. has doubled its high-tech workforce to nearly 300,000, attracted by proximity to institutions like NIH.

  • Salaries for many occupations are highest in innovation hubs like San Francisco, Boston, San Jose rather than other large cities. Location matters more for pay than individual resumes. This suggests innovation hubs have a highly skilled workforce and productive traded sectors.

  • 40 years ago, richer areas in the US were manufacturing centers with abundant physical capital. Now, human capital (education) is a better predictor of high salaries for individuals and communities.

  • Metropolitan areas vary greatly in percentage of workers with college degrees. The Northeast and coastal California generally have higher rates than the South and Midwest. Within regions there are also differences between metro areas.

  • Table 1 lists metro areas with the highest rates of college-educated workers, like Washington D.C., Boston, San Jose. Table 2 lists those with the lowest rates, like Flint, MI and Visalia, CA.

  • Major differences exist - the top area has 5 times more college grads per capita than the bottom. This gap is larger than between the US and many developing countries.

  • Areas with more college grads have economies focused more on innovation and higher salaries both for college and non-college grads. A non-college grad in Boston earns more than a college grad in Flint.

  • Today there are essentially three Americas - brain hubs with high salaries for all, areas with declining markets and low skills, and some in-between places that could go either way.

  • Surprisingly, the presence of skilled workers increases salaries for unskilled workers too, through impacts on the local economy and cost of living. This shows geographic wages differences are as important as differences by education level.

  • The cost of living is higher in cities like San Jose, Raleigh-Durham, and Austin compared to places like Flint and Merced. However, cost of living does not fully explain differences in salaries and economic prospects between cities.

  • There is a strong positive relationship between a city’s level of educational attainment (percentage of college graduates) and the salaries of its less educated residents (high school graduates). Cities with more college graduates see higher salaries for all.

  • This is because educated and less educated workers complement each other, cities with more education adopt newer technologies faster, and there are “human capital externalities” - people gain skills and knowledge from interacting with educated individuals.

  • Less educated workers benefit more from being around more educated coworkers. Their salaries increase more in response to higher education levels in their city.

  • However, this means educated individuals are not fully compensated for the social benefits their education provides. Their education has spill-over effects on the whole city.

  • Differences between U.S. cities in education levels have been diverging further over time. Already highly educated cities are increasing their lead, while others are falling further behind relatively. This is deepening inequality between areas.

  • The share of college-educated workers has increased substantially in the top 10 most educated cities since 1980, while growing much less in the bottom 10 least educated cities.

  • US cities are more racially integrated than in the past, but are increasingly segregated by education level, with economic and social implications.

  • The divergence in education levels is causing a striking divergence in wage levels - college graduates in top cities have seen salaries increase over $30k since 1980, while one city saw a $11k decline.

  • Life expectancy varies greatly by county, from 81 years in top counties to 66 years in bottom counties. This 15 year gap is larger than in other developed countries. If bottom US counties were their own country, they would rank with Nicaragua and Philippines for life expectancy.

  • The gaps in life expectancy, education, wages between top and bottom areas have continued to increase, not decrease, reflecting growing socioeconomic divergence across US communities.

The passage discusses how socioeconomic factors like education and income drive differences in health, lifestyle choices, and political participation across communities in profound ways. Lower levels of education and income are associated with poorer health outcomes.

Additionally, there is a “social multiplier effect” where people tend to adopt behaviors and lifestyles similar to those around them. This exacerbates health differences based on where one lives. For example, smoking and exercise rates are influenced by what others in one’s social network do. Living in low-income areas makes unhealthy behaviors like smoking and lack of exercise more common.

This social effect means differences in health based on one’s own education/income are increased even more by the average characteristics of their community. Studies like Moving to Opportunity show moving to better neighborhoods significantly improves health.

Similar social dynamics drive differences in divorce rates and political participation across communities. Places with struggling economies tend to have higher divorce. And higher education levels within a community correlate with greater civic engagement like voting. As areas become more segregated by income/education, these discrepancies are amplified through social influences.

  • The passage examines why innovative industries tend to cluster in certain expensive cities like San Francisco, Boston and New York rather than dispersing to lower-cost areas. This geographic concentration is puzzling given today’s low transportation costs.

  • It notes that the locations of innovation hubs do not seem to be driven by natural resources as in some traditional industries. And the high-cost cities are the absolute worst places from a business cost perspective.

  • Yet innovative firms continue clustering near each other in these expensive locations despite opportunities to locate anywhere. The passage aims to understand what makes cities like Silicon Valley special and drives this clustering behavior.

  • It briefly describes visiting San Jose but finding no obvious visual clues to explain the high salaries. The area is mostly parking lots, offices and homes like many other metro areas.

  • As an example, the passage looks at Walmart which is based in low-cost Bentonville, AR fitting its frugal culture. However, it notes Walmart is now expanding heavily in expensive cities, suggesting other forces must be driving location decisions.

  • In summary, the passage sets up the puzzle of why innovative industries cluster in high-cost hubs and aims to understand the economic forces behind this geographic concentration of activity.

  • While Walmart is known for aggressively cutting costs, it located its e-commerce division in expensive San Francisco rather than lower-cost locations like Bentonville or Bangalore.

  • This seems counter to Walmart’s cost-cutting approach, but locating in San Francisco provided important competitive advantages related to “agglomeration forces” - thick labor markets, access to specialized service providers, and knowledge spillovers.

  • Thick labor markets, where there are many employers and employees in a specific field, are advantageous as they facilitate better matching between demand and supply. This leads to higher productivity, wages, and innovation.

  • Studies show wages are higher and specialization deeper in larger labor markets. Companies also perform better due to better matching with ideal employee skills.

  • Knowledge spillovers occur as ideas spread more easily between clustered companies and workers. This fosters creativity and faster innovation in thick markets.

  • Agglomeration forces ultimately determine where innovative companies and workers choose to locate, and shape the economic success of communities. Understanding these forces is key to economic development.

  • Large labor markets provide benefits to both workers and firms compared to small markets. Early in their careers, people change jobs more often in large markets due to better matching opportunities. Later, people change jobs less often in large markets as they are more satisfied.

  • Large markets also provide unemployment insurance as they have more potential employers. This reduces unemployment duration if a layoff is firm-specific rather than recession-driven. It also facilitates filling vacancies.

  • The thickness of large labor markets is a major driver for innovation clusters globally. Dense matching networks attract more employers and workers, fueling clusters’ growth advantages.

  • Assortative mating - people partnering with similar peers - increases relationship search costs. Large cities mitigate this by providing thicker dating pools where specific partners can be found.

  • Two-career families increasingly require large labor markets that provide opportunities for both spouses. This is fueling concentration of skilled professionals and jobs in large cities.

  • Innovation ecosystems in locations like Silicon Valley provide specialized services that boost productivity and reduce burdens for tech firms. Proximity to clients is important for these service providers, reinforcing cluster strengths through networking effects.

  • High-tech firms locating in a city increase the number of local jobs not just at the firm directly, but also suppliers and service providers, strengthening the economy. This is the high-tech multiplier effect.

  • Being located near other innovators increases a firm’s attractiveness for recruiting and investing. Even large firms like Ericsson and Nokia see value in having significant presences in Silicon Valley’s innovation hub.

  • Venture capital is crucial for funding young entrepreneurs and ideas. The concentration of VCs in Silicon Valley makes financing more accessible. Proximity allows for close mentoring, nurturing and monitoring of startups, which increases their chances of success. This is why location still matters even in a globalized world.

  • Colocating encourages “knowledge spillovers” as ideas diffuse through social interactions. This increases innovation, productivity and ultimately wages as workers gain from being surrounded by highly skilled colleagues. Clustering provides competitive advantages that encourages more firms to locate near innovative hubs and partners.

  • Knowledge and innovation spread more easily among people who are located near each other, as proximity facilitates informal interactions and idea sharing. This “home bias” or local knowledge spillovers have been documented through patent citation analysis.

  • Knowing people who work nearby, whether in the same company or city, leads to more citations and collaborations on patents. Ideas spread more rapidly over short distances, with an effect seen within 25 miles but disappearing beyond 100 miles.

  • Even within companies, proximity matters for creativity and innovation. Video calls can’t replace face-to-face interactions for generating new ideas, as serendipitous conversations are important.

  • Being around talented peers raises one’s own productivity and quality of work. When “academic superstars” die, their collaborators see declines in publishing rates, showing the impact of knowledge spillovers.

  • Colocating innovators together in “coworking spaces” aims to maximize these spillovers through interactions. Such facilities foster collaboration and connections that help grow new businesses. The growth of Square shows how this approach can lead to successes.

  • The article argues that “brain drain”, where a company’s smartest employees leave to start their own ventures, is actually beneficial for the local community overall.

  • While it is costly for individual companies to lose employees, these new startups created by former employees often stay in the local cluster and create more jobs there over time. As these new companies spawn further startups themselves, it leads to a net job gain for the local area.

  • This spawning process, combined with the three forces of attraction that keep companies and workers clustering together, results in diverging economic performances between different cities and regions over time. Established clusters become stronger magnates that attract more innovation activity, widening gaps compared to areas without clusters.

  • Once an innovation cluster is established, it is very difficult to move or recreate elsewhere due to path dependency and chicken-and-egg problems in attracting companies and skilled workers. However, this also provides some insulation for the US innovation sector against foreign competition.

  • For long term prosperity, clusters must constantly adapt and reinvent themselves as industries mature, citing examples of how technology frontiers have shifted from TV to computers over time through “creative destruction.”

  • Cities like Detroit and Rochester used to be major hubs of innovation and economic activity, centered around industries like auto manufacturing and photography. However, they failed to adapt and diversify as those industries declined.

  • Detroit in particular clung to the auto industry for too long rather than reinventing itself. By the time it tried to change, it no longer had a robust local ecosystem to build something new. This led to a rapid and dramatic economic collapse.

  • In contrast, the San Francisco Bay Area has continually reinvented and diversified its economy over time. As different technologies and industries rose and fell, the local ecosystem shifted focus from industries like shipping to tech sectors like software, internet, clean tech, biotech, etc.

  • This constant adaptation has allowed the Bay Area to sustain its position as a leading innovation hub, while other clusters like Detroit declined after failing to transition to new industries. Diversification protects against overreliance on any one sector.

  • However, economic mobility between regions is uneven in the US. Not everyone readily moves to take advantage of better opportunities elsewhere. This impacts inequality levels across different communities.

  • Mobility and migration have long been important factors in America’s economic prosperity and development. Americans have traditionally been more likely to relocate in search of new opportunities than residents of other developed nations like Europe.

  • In the 19th/early 20th centuries, migration from rural to urban areas fueled industrialization as workers provided crucial labor. Later waves like the Great Migration saw many African Americans leave the South.

  • Today about half of Americans change addresses every 5 years, and 1/3 live in a different state than where they were born, compared to just 20% historically. This mobility benefits the economy by allowing people to pursue opportunities elsewhere when local conditions are poor.

  • However, mobility rates vary significantly by education level. College graduates are the most mobile, while high school dropouts are the least mobile and most similar to Europeans. Lack of mobility harms individuals’ careers and the overall economy.

  • Unemployment rates also differ, with college grads consistently facing the lowest rates thanks to their willingness to relocate. Less educated workers face higher barriers to mobility like lack of savings/credit to fund a move, worsening inequality.

  • Providing relocation vouchers could help address this by helping lower-skilled workers invest in moving to areas with better job opportunities, lowering unemployment gaps. Mobility is key to mitigating economic inequality.

  • Unemployment rates vary significantly between areas with different levels of economic opportunity in the US. This spatial mismatch limits the mobility and job prospects of less educated workers.

  • Some lack of mobility is due to personal constraints, but for many it reflects limits on resources needed to relocate for work. The current unemployment insurance system does not incentivize or support mobility between regions.

  • A proposed policy reform is to provide mobility vouchers as part of unemployment benefits. This would help cover moving costs for those willing to relocate to areas with better job markets, benefiting both movers and those who remain through reduced local competition.

  • Well-educated workers are very mobile, weakening the impact of state investments in higher education on local skill levels and economies. Mobility divides are an underappreciated factor in growing inequality between US cities and regions.

  • Housing costs are a major barrier preventing mobility, as wages vary greatly between cities but living expenses often do not scale accordingly when relocating for work opportunities.

  • Norilsk, Russia was built as an artificial, forced labor city during the Soviet era to develop precious metal reserves in an extremely harsh and inhospitable climate. Over 100,000 political prisoners died building and working in the city.

  • In contrast, cities in the U.S. form organically based on free market forces as workers choose where to live. However, this freedom has a tradeoff - desirable locations with good jobs, weather, schools, etc. have high real estate prices as people bid up land values.

  • Improvements like reduced pollution benefit homeowners through increased property values, but can hurt renters through higher rents. Similarly, a strong local job market raises incomes but also housing costs.

  • Measures of cost of living show places like San Jose, Boston and D.C. have the highest costs due to strong economies, while declining areas like Johnstown, PA have much lower costs of living.

  • Differences in incomes between cities are reduced (around 25%) after adjusting for cost of living variations. Homeowners benefit more from economic improvements through wages and property values gains, while renters experience smaller wage gains offset by rent increases.

  • When a local labor market strengthens, bringing higher wages, it’s better if rents increase only small amounts. Large rent increases effectively transfer wealth from renters to homeowners.

  • Local governments have power to manage cost of living increases. They can determine if homeowners or renters benefit more from a strong job market.

  • Differences in consumption between rich and poor are smaller than income gaps, partly because where people live affects costs. Housing costs have grown much faster for college graduates, who live in expensive cities near jobs, than high school graduates. This acts like higher inflation for college graduates.

  • As cities like Boston transformed economically over decades, gaining innovative and finance jobs, it resulted in demographic and cultural changes too. Many long-time residents were priced out, while new residents tended to be college-educated professionals.

  • Gentrification has social costs as it displaces the poor. However, original homeowners often benefit greatly from increased property values.

  • Restricting new housing and jobs through stringent land use laws is misguided and unlikely to effectively manage gentrification. It reduces jobs and harms the very people it aims to help. The real solution is encouraging new housing development to mitigate rising costs while promoting innovation.

Here are the key points:

  • The formation of major biotech clusters in Boston, San Francisco, and San Diego in the 1970s-80s was not pre-determined. Many other cities had top universities and research capabilities.

  • Proximity to university research alone does not fully explain where biotech clusters formed. Many cities had nearby universities but did not develop clusters.

  • The presence of “academic stars” - individual researchers who published breakthrough discoveries in relevant fields like gene sequencing - better predicts where private biotech firms clustered.

  • Cities like Cambridge, San Diego and the Bay Area were lucky to have these academic stars residing in their universities when biotech emerged. Their location was somewhat random.

  • However, once clusters started forming near these stars, the dynamic became self-reinforcing as clusters attracted more startups and talent through knowledge spillovers and involvement of academic entrepreneurs.

  • The lesson is that individual scientific luminaries and pioneers can have outsized impacts on local economic development by catalyzing high-tech clusters in their areas.

  • Biotech clusters like those in Cambridge, San Diego, and the Bay Area form in an unplanned, organic way, driven initially by “star” scientists and entrepreneurs. Their early success attracts more companies and workers through agglomeration effects.

  • Hollywood followed a similar pattern, originally centering in New York but rapidly shifting to Los Angeles around 1915. Key events like D.W. Griffith’s blockbuster film “The Birth of a Nation” attracted more talent and businesses, driving LA’s growth.

  • These clusters are hard to predict and difficult to engineer intentionally. Silicon Valley emerged from serendipitous events like William Shockley establishing a company there, not from deliberate plans.

  • While universities can play a role, they are not sufficient on their own to seed clusters. Location matters more than planners often recognize. Attempts to manufacture clusters through policies have often failed, like Henry Ford’s planned community Fordlandia. Organic growth is harder to guide than template-based planning assumes.

The passage discusses different approaches to revitalizing struggling cities - namely demand-side approaches that try to attract companies, and supply-side approaches that try to attract skilled workers by improving amenities. It analyzes Richard Florida’s influential argument that investing in amenities to attract the “creative class” can drive economic growth.

While some cities like Seattle succeeded after first building an economic base, many others have spent heavily on amenities without success. Cleveland and Berlin are used as examples - both have attractive cultural amenities but have failed to establish strong innovative industries or generate good jobs. Overall, the passage argues that amenable cities often prospered because strong demand for talent preceded, not resulted from, their cultural attributes. So while amenities may help retain talent, demand from employers is generally more important for economic revitalization. Understanding when government intervention makes sense is key to setting sound policy.

  • Cities often try to recreate successful innovation hubs like MIT’s by increasing the supply of skilled workers through universities. However, proximity to a university alone is usually not enough to create a sustainable cluster of innovative companies.

  • Universities can boost local economies by directly spinning off companies from research, generating knowledge spillovers, and operating large hospitals. But most cities with universities do not develop large high-tech sectors.

  • An alternative is directly attracting employers through targeted incentives, hoping to jumpstart an industrial cluster that becomes self-sustaining over time. Ping Wang faced this challenge as head of Washington University’s struggling economics department.

  • Poverty traps occur when low demand perpetuates low wages, which in turn discourage new employers from entering a market. Big pushes try to break this cycle by coordinating large investments to counteract market failures and coordination problems.

  • Overall, simply increasing the skilled workforce or offering incentives is usually insufficient. Successful clusters require a supportive ecosystem including labor, services, knowledge spillovers, and demand-side interventions to overcome poverty traps.

  • transforming a weak economics department into a strong one is difficult due to academics preferring to work with other productive colleagues, creating a “poverty trap” where weak departments get weaker.

  • The dean of Washington University’s economics department broke this trap with a “big push” strategy - offering two star academics extremely high salaries of $600k to join the department. This attracted other good economists and improved the department’s rankings.

  • A similar challenge faces declining cities stuck in poverty traps. The only way to shift them to a better equilibrium is a coordinated “big push” bringing in skilled workers, employers, and services through government subsidies.

  • The Tennessee Valley Authority in the 1930s is considered the largest big push effort in US history, investing billions in infrastructure like dams and roads to modernize the region. However, critics argue such top-down development is unnatural and often fails in practice.

  • Evaluating big push policies is difficult but should assess if the investment generates long-term private sector growth after subsidies end. The TVA succeeded in shifting the region from agriculture to manufacturing but did not raise local wages significantly.

  • Modern development is harder as success depends on human capital rather than infrastructure. Local officials struggle to pick promising companies to invest in, unlike national leaders in the TVA era. Most major innovation hubs in the US and world emerged organically rather than from big push plans.

  • Taiwan successfully transformed its economy through large-scale government-sponsored research and development in the 1960s-70s, bringing back top scientists and building an R&D cluster. This initially public effort eventually supported private companies and semiconductor industry growth.

  • The government’s early investment in semiconductors paid off as it became the core of Taiwan’s high-tech sector and driver of prosperity. Taiwan has embraced newer technologies like life sciences as well.

  • Fremont, California transformed from a manufacturing to innovation-driven green economy, attracting solar and electric car companies after a large auto plant closed. However, a major solar company, Solyndra, went bankrupt after receiving $535M in government loans, underscoring risks of picking winners.

  • While green jobs growth has lagged overall job growth, Fremont still sees R&D-driven cleantech growth. Government subsidies best support early R&D due to spillover benefits, rather than production, as experiences in Germany and Spain show cluster policies do not ensure long-term industry concentration.

  • States and local governments offer billions in subsidies each year to attract private companies to build facilities in their jurisdictions, like tax breaks, loans, infrastructure, workforce training, and marketing assistance. Some deals provide over $100,000 per job.

  • Critics argue this is a huge waste of public money and it would be better to directly help residents. However, studies show successful deals can generate productivity spillovers that increase wages and jobs.

  • Competition for deals can lead to overbidding, so the costs end up exceeding the benefits. Deals may boost a local economy but not the national economy.

  • The Empowerment Zone program targeted struggling urban neighborhoods and was more successful than other place-based policies. It increased jobs 15% and wages 8% through tax subsidies and redevelopment funds.

  • Key to its success was addressing externalities from investment, not targeting specific companies, leveraging private investment, and incentives for existing residents rather than shifts from other areas. It generated economic and social returns without significant gentrification.

So in summary, while business subsidies are widely used, competition can cause overspending and taxpayer waste. Targeted programs to address neighborhood externalities like Empowerment Zones achieved economic gains without simply shifting jobs between locations.

  • The passage discusses how the global economy is shifting from a focus on manufacturing goods to producing new ideas, knowledge, and technologies through human capital and innovation. Good jobs and high incomes will increasingly depend on this.

  • While the US economy and labor market are strong in many ways that support innovation, there are also weaknesses that limit future economic potential and increase inequality.

  • The two main structural weaknesses are underinvestment in human capital and research. Public and private funding for basic research has declined even as returns on new knowledge have increased, creating a market failure. Knowledge spillovers between companies are also substantial.

  • This underinvestment occurs because individual firms and researchers cannot fully capture the social returns and benefits from their innovative activities, which also spill over to other players. More funding is needed to correct for this market failure and optimize investment in knowledge and human capital for long-term economic growth and prosperity.

  • Governments subsidize R&D through tax breaks to compensate for external benefits to the wider economy that companies may not capture fully themselves. This aims to increase economic efficiency, not fairness.

  • The social return on innovation is much higher than the private return, indicating underinvestment in R&D. The US is investing barely half the socially optimal level in R&D.

  • Tax credits for corporate R&D spending need to be increased. More support is also needed for academic research and private R&D from federal and state/local governments.

  • Some sectors like computers/telecom generate more social returns than others like pharmaceuticals, so subsidies shouldn’t be equal across industries.

  • A key problem in the US is lack of sufficient human capital/skilled workers. College attainment rates have not risen enough, contributing to inequality and companies struggling to find qualified employees.

  • Inequality is largely driven by rising demand for college-educated workers outpacing the supply, not just policies. More needs to be done to increase the supply of skilled labor through higher education levels.

While wages for college graduates have increased significantly more than for those without a college degree, the supply of skilled labor in the US has slowed. One major factor limiting more people from pursuing college is the huge increase in tuition costs at both public and private institutions over the past few decades.

However, from an economic perspective, investing in a college education is actually one of the best investments someone can make. College graduates will earn significantly more over their lifetime and have better health and social outcomes compared to those with only a high school diploma. Yet other obstacles still limit college enrollment, including a lack of access to loans to pay for the upfront costs of education, increasing segregation where fewer low-income youth see college as an option, and inadequate primary and secondary education preparation for college-level work. Improving early childhood education in particular is key to boosting higher rates of college enrollment going forward.

  • The PISA study showed that Shanghai students outperformed those in wealthy nations like Canada, Japan, and Australia in math and science. Shanghai and other Asian nations were at the top.

  • European nations like the Netherlands, Germany, and UK scored just below the top. Poor countries like Tunisia, Peru, and Indonesia scored at the bottom.

  • The US scored in the middle, below countries like Poland, Slovenia, and Taipei. In math, the US was closer to the bottom than top.

  • Educational achievement and rates of high school and college graduation in the US have declined since the 1970s when they were the highest.

  • The US has one of the largest gaps between high- and low-performing students, undermining equal opportunity.

  • The declining graduation rates are limiting the growth of skilled workers and holding back productivity and increasing inequality.

  • While research universities are still top, more skilled workers are needed. Immigration helps fill this gap by bringing in highly educated and skilled immigrants that the US education system is failing to produce.

  • Cities are diverging in terms of the educational levels of immigrants they attract. Some cities like New Haven, Minneapolis, and San Francisco attract many high-skilled immigrants with college degrees, while others like Phoenix, El Paso, and cities along the southern border attract more low-skilled immigrants with little schooling.

  • This divergence is both caused by and reinforcing of differences in innovation sectors between cities. Innovation hubs attract skilled immigrants who fuel more innovation, while other cities attract less skilled immigrants.

  • Studies have found a link between increases in skilled immigrants in a state and increases in patent activity there, showing immigrants directly and indirectly boost innovation.

  • Visiting Silicon Valley companies highlights how much of the US’s innovation comes from immigrant employees.

  • Limiting skilled immigrants could significantly hurt the US economy by reducing the talent pool for innovative companies and startups, which in turn provide many jobs. Skilled immigrants also have positive spillover effects that raise incomes of native-born workers.

  • While unskilled immigrants may lower wages of native-born low-skilled workers to some extent, skilled immigrants complement and benefit low-skilled native workers through their economic impacts.

  • Immigrants who arrive through family connections tend to integrate and perform as well economically as native-born Americans.

  • It is in America’s self-interest to reform immigration policies to favor highly skilled immigrants with college degrees or higher. Currently 60% of engineering students in the US are foreign-born but many have difficulty staying due to visa policies.

  • Tech companies say the current policies constrain their ability to hire needed high-skilled workers from abroad. The H-1B visa program is too small given company demands, with slots filling up immediately each year.

  • Some qualified immigrants with advanced degrees from top US schools still struggle to stay due to visa delays and backlogs, going against America’s economic interests.

  • Going forward, the US faces a choice between dramatically reforming immigration to attract more skilled foreigners, or investing heavily in education to develop human capital domestically, though the latter involves considerable short-term taxpayer costs. Doing nothing risks losing innovative advantage.

  • The passage talks about the ability of cities and regions to attract talented individuals from around the world, and how dynamic workplaces and “brain hubs” give certain places an advantage in the new global economy. However, it is up to these places to keep this advantage by continuing to foster innovation and creativity.

  • It acknowledges senior academic economists for typically writing technical papers rather than popular books. The author wanted to reach a broader audience after years of research, and this book project allowed that. Spending a year thinking broadly also generated new ideas for future research.

  • The author thanks various people who provided feedback on drafts and insights from conversations, including colleagues, readers, researchers who assisted, friends in Silicon Valley, and his agent and editors who helped shape the manuscript. Ultimately, he is most grateful to his partner for her constant support of trying new things.

Here is a summary of the key points from Reenen’s paper “The Creation and Capture of Rents”:

  • Economic rents are profits above what is needed to keep a firm in a certain industry or activity. They arise from monopolistic advantages like patents or location.

  • Some of the economic rents from innovation are captured by innovative workers in the form of higher compensation. This makes sense as human capital, not physical capital, drives most innovation.

  • Paying innovative workers more than standard salaries helps attract creativity and engagement needed for innovation. Sharing rents with workers provides incentive for greater effort and commitment.

  • It is difficult for firms to inspire creativity through standard pay packages alone. Rent sharing develops a more personal involvement by workers that fosters more innovation.

  • While firms invest in R&D, most spending goes toward research staff salaries rather than labs/equipment. Workers capture much of the rents because innovation jobs require unique creative skills and ingenuity.

So in summary, the paper argues that innovative workers reasonably capture some of the economic rents from innovation through higher pay, as an incentive mechanism that encourages greater creativity critical to the innovation process. Rent sharing develops stronger personal investment by workers in firms’ innovative success.

Here is a summary of the key points from the sources:

  • Biotech clusters emerged and concentrated in certain areas like Boston and San Francisco due to the presence of top research universities and scientists. This helped attract venture funding and private labs.

  • Geographic proximity facilitates collaboration, knowledge spillovers and spread of ideas between firms and researchers. Being close to innovators and other startups provides benefits.

  • Cities that foster vibrant industries like film, arts and high tech can attract young creative workers and become hubs for new ideas and clusters to form. Amenities and culture play a role in attracting human capital.

  • Economic development policies aiming to mimic clusters often fail if they lack the organic growth and conditions that made other places successful clusters initially. Forced initiatives struggle without established research institutions, funding sources and human capital.

  • Local demand from being a hub can further feed cluster growth over time through supply chain firms, startups and spinoffs building on the foundation of ideas and people in the core cluster. This self-reinforcing process concentrates an industry spatially.

Here is a summary of the key points from the provided text:

  • The text discusses three cases of metropolitan high-tech industry clusters that developed in Portland, Boise, and Kansas City over the long term due to local companies advocating for policy changes. Public policy has become more important in supporting these clusters in recent years.

  • Clean tech saw significant growth in patents filed worldwide in the early 2000s, especially for solar energy. However, the growth of the clean tech industry in the US has faced challenges, and many American clean tech companies still maintain headquarters abroad despite growing operations at home.

  • Studies have found evidence that technology spillovers from investment and innovation in one firm can boost productivity in other proximate firms. However, these agglomeration benefits tend to be localized within metropolitan or even narrower industry clusters.

  • Immigration, especially of high-skilled immigrants, has been found to boost patenting and entrepreneurship in US regions and metros. Immigrant innovators are drawn to areas with strong co-ethnic inventor networks, and their presence and ideas can stimulate further innovation among co-located Americans.

  • In summary, the text discusses the development of high-tech industry clusters, challenges in clean tech, evidence for localized spillovers from firms’ innovation investments, and how immigration has supported regional innovation and entrepreneurship in the US. Local policy advocacy and long-term efforts are seen as important to building sustainable high-tech clusters.

Here is a summary of the papers:

  • Broda and Romalis (2010) examine the welfare implications of rising price dispersion across varieties of a good using insights from modern trade theory.

  • Busso, Gregory and Kline (2010) empirically assess the impact of the federal enterprise zone program on economic outcomes.

  • Calvey (2012) discusses how cash-rich Bay Area startups are courting creditworthy companies to acquire their engineers.

  • Card, Hallock and Moretti (2010) study the impact of corporate headquarters location on local charitable giving.

  • Card and Moretti (2007) analyze whether touchscreen voting technology affected election outcomes in the 2004 presidential election.

  • Carrell et al. (2011) examine whether poor health/fitness is socially contagious using randomly assigned friendships.

  • Clark (2011) discusses how overseas tech firms are ramping up hiring in Silicon Valley.

  • Cockburn and Slaughter (2010) analyze global patterns of biopharmaceutical research activity.

  • Costa and Kahn (2000) study how the location choices of college-educated Americans changed between 1940-1990.

  • Currie and Moretti (2003) examine the intergenerational transmission of human capital using college openings as a source of exogenous variation.

  • Friedman (1962) lays out his influential arguments about the virtues of free market capitalism and individual liberty.

  • Greenstone et al. (2010) study agglomeration spillovers using plant openings and neighboring counties.

  • Greenstone and Looney (2011) compare investment returns for stocks, bonds and college degrees.

  • Gregg and Machin (2000) study how child development affects success or failure in the youth labor market.

  • Hansons, Mataloni and Slaughter (2003) analyze patterns of foreign affiliate activity by U.S. multinational firms.

  • Heckman and LaFontaine (2008) document trends in U.S. high school graduation rates.

  • Hunt (2011) analyzes immigrant innovation and entrepreneurship by visa category.

  • Jaffe (1989) studies knowledge spillovers from academic research using patent citations.

  • Kline and Moretti (2011) examine local development and agglomeration effects of the TVA.

  • Krueger et al. (2010) summarize important cross-sectional facts for macroeconomists.

  • Ludwig et al. (2011) evaluate a randomized social experiment on neighborhood effects and obesity.

  • Lucas (1988) develops an influential model of long-run growth driven by external increasing returns.

That covers the key topics and findings from the papers based on the limited summaries provided. Let me know if you need any part of the summaries expanded upon.

This passage summarizes over 100 academic papers and publications related to economics and business. It provides the title and authors for each source cited in the text, but does not provide individual summaries of the articles. Some key sources summarized include:

  • More Money Than God: Hedge Funds and the Making of a New Elite by Sebastian Mallaby (2010)

  • “Why Do Most Italian Youths Live with Their Parents? Intergenerational Transfers and Household Structure” (Manacorda and Moretti 2006)

  • “The Great Transformer: The Impact of the Internet on Economic Growth and Prosperity” (Manyika and Roxburgh 2011)

  • “Peers at Work” and “Racial Bias in the 2008 Presidential Election” (Mas and Moretti 2009)

  • Various publications by Enrico Moretti on topics like local labor markets, education spillovers, productivity, and wage inequality

  • The Offshoring of Engineering report by the National Academy of Engineering (2009)

  • Publications by Lynne Zucker and others on topics like knowledge stocks/flows, commercializing university research, and biotech industry development

It provides a comprehensive listing of citations for further research but does not summarize individual studies. The focus is on cataloging the sources rather than analyzing or extracting key findings.

Here are the key points about local-investment subsidies for the solar-panel industry in Fremont, California:

  • Fremont provided local subsidies to attract solar panel manufacturers to the area, hoping to build a clean-tech cluster like other areas had for high tech.

  • Subsidies included tax breaks, low-interest loans, help securing land and facilities. This is an example of local governments using targeted incentives to try to attract and develop new industries.

  • Fremont succeeded in attracting several solar panel manufacturers, helping the city develop a small clean-tech cluster. This created new jobs and economic activity in the renewable energy sector.

  • However, competition from cheap Chinese solar panels put pressure on the US solar industry. Some of the Fremont manufacturers ultimately closed their plants as they couldn’t compete on costs.

  • Still, the subsidies achieved their goal of initially developing the industry locally even if it didn’t become permanently sustainable. It’s an example of local governments trying to shape their economies through strategic investment incentives.

  • Venture capitalists provide funding for startups and innovation hubs. The Ford Foundation also provides funding.

  • Cities and regions discussed in terms of costs of living, industry presence, economic growth include Fort Collins-Loveland, CO, Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood-Pompano Beach, FL, Fort Smith, AR/OK, Fremont, CA, and its solar industry, Frederick & Nelson department store in Seattle.

  • Globalization impacts different workers and cities differently. It has led to loss of manufacturing jobs in the US but also high-skilled job and industry growth. The iPhone assembly relies on global supply chains.

  • Inequality exists between and within cities/regions in terms of factors like divorce rates, life expectancy, political participation. Mobility and human capital investment can help reduce these gaps.

  • Cities with high-tech industries and skilled jobs see multiplier effects that benefit other local industries and jobs. Innovation hubs concentrate in some cities due to factors like universities, industries, quality of life.

  • Immigration provides human capital and fuels innovation, but policies need to account for impact on different workers. education levels vary between immigrant groups and cities.

  • Government policies like R&D funding and place-based initiatives can help industries cluster and regions benefit from productivity gains. But effects depend on existing industry presence and other local strengths.

Here is a summary of key points about turing:

  • Alan Turing was a pioneering computer scientist and mathematician who made major contributions to the fields of artificial intelligence and computer science. He is considered one of the founding fathers of artificial intelligence.

  • During World War II, Turing worked at Bletchley Park cracking German ciphers. His work is credited with shortening the war and saving countless lives.

  • In 1950, Turing proposed an “imitation game” that was meant to determine whether a machine could exhibit intelligent behavior equivalent to, or indistinguishable from, that of a human. This test came to be known as the “Turing test.”

  • Turing played a key role in the development of early computers and computational theory. He wrote the first paper that described what is now known as the “Turing machine,” a theoretical device that manipulates symbols on a strip of tape according to a table of rules. This established the idea of a programmable computer.

  • Turing made seminal contributions to mathematical biology and chemical morphogenesis. He investigated the mathematical theory behind morphogenesis and hypothesized a system of reactions and diffusing chemical substances as an explanation for many patterns in biology.

  • Despite his enormous achievements, Turing was prosecuted for homosexuality in 1952, when it was still illegal in the UK. He accepted treatment with chemical castrating injections as an alternative to prison. He died in 1954 apparently from cyanide poisoning in an apparent suicide.

  • Turing has been honored for his scientific achievements and his legacy of pushing the boundaries of artificial intelligence remains immense. He is widely considered one of the most important and influential mathematicians and computer scientists of all time.

Here is a summary of the key points about the y paradox from the passage:

  • The y paradox refers to the observation that US metropolitan areas with higher median incomes tend to have lower average life expectancies. This seems paradoxical since higher income usually correlates with better health outcomes.

  • Possible explanations for the paradox include higher costs of living in wealthier cities limiting residents’ actual disposable incomes and access to health care. Wealthier cities also tend to have greater income inequality, which is associated with worse health.

  • Lifestyle factors like more sedentary jobs, air pollution, traffic congestion, and stress in vibrant, high-cost cities take a toll on physical health relative to slower-paced, lower-cost places.

  • Additionally, wealthier cities attract more single and childless residents who lack the social support structures of families. Social ties are strongly linked to longevity.

So in summary, the y paradox refers to the counterintuitive finding that higher-income US cities have lower life expectancies on average, which seems to result from factors like higher costs of living, income inequality, urban lifestyles, and weaker social ties in wealthier metropolitan areas. Higher absolute income does not necessarily translate to better health or longevity.

Here is a summary of the key points about the United States:

  • The US labor market has been hollowing out, with losses of middle-skill jobs. This has negatively impacted less educated workers.

  • The US attracts many immigrant innovators who start high-growth companies. Immigration overall increases human capital.

  • Improving education, both K-12 and higher ed, is important for increasing human capital. However, US performance on international math tests is poor.

  • Post-WWII, the US saw strong economic growth due to factors like government research spending. But inequality has grown significantly since the 1970s/80s.

  • The US has three distinct regional economies - coastal innovation hubs, a struggling middle, and dynamic Sunbelt cities. Mobility between regions is relatively low.

  • Increasing trade and globalization has largely benefited the skilled coastal regions while harming less-skilled inland areas through job losses.

  • Universities play a key role in cluster formation and attracting human capital through research and educated graduates. Land-grant colleges in particular boosted local economies.

In 25 percent more college graduates and significantly higher wages.

This summarizes the key points that having 25 percent more college graduates leads to significantly higher wages at both an individual level for college graduates themselves and at a societal level through higher productivity and economic growth. It captures the core idea that greater investment in higher education translates into meaningful monetary returns.

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