Self Help

The Pornography Industry What Everyone Ne - Shira Tarrant

Author Photo

Matheus Puppe

· 48 min read

• Pornography is ubiquitous in today’s digital world and easily accessible via smartphones, tablets, laptops, etc.

• While pornography is popular, people are generally more comfortable using it privately than discussing it openly. This contributes to misinformation and taboo around sexuality.

• This book provides fact-based information on the pornography industry to increase readers’ knowledge and comfort in discussing this controversial topic.

• The book covers the history of pornography, the industry basics, legal issues, medical research, social issues, political debates, and more.

• Key topics include:

› The development of pornography from early erotic art to today’s online videos

› The structure of the pornography industry, including mainstream vs. indie porn, production costs, revenue, piracy issues, and industry awards

› Porn performers, including pay rates, working conditions, reasons for entering the industry, health and safety issues, and transitioning out of the industry

› Pornography viewership demographics, including age, gender, relationship status, religion, and global usage

› Debates around the impacts of pornography, including links to violence against women, sexism, racism, relationships issues, and addiction

› Legal issues, including First Amendment protections, obscenity laws, and significant court cases related to pornography

› Health issues, including STI testing policies, other physical risks, and concerns around “pornography addiction”

› Issues around minors accessing pornography, including statistics on teen usage, concerns about effects, sexting, and methods for parental controls

› The potential future of pornography, including the growth of feminist porn, queer porn, porn education, and new technologies

› Whether it’s possible to reach a consensus on such a controversial and polarizing topic

The author aims to provide an objective overview of the debates around pornography. They recognize that defining pornography is challenging and subjective. Generally, pornography refers to visual material intended to arouse the viewer sexually. Erotica is considered softer and depicts sex between equals, while pornography can illustrate dominance or abuse.

Pornography matters because it is ubiquitous in culture and reveals ideas about gender, sexuality, race, and society. It has been central to legal and political controversies regarding free speech. Pornography impacts both public and private life. Although often dismissed as meaningless, it exerts power over culture and imagination.

The legal status of pornography depends on the type and location. Child pornography is illegal in most places. Laws on other styles like revenge porn, zoophilia, and online pornography vary internationally. Some consider pornography a sin or vice, particularly conservative religious groups who see it as lustful or adulterous. Others view it as a matter of personal choice and freedom.

In summary, many perspectives on pornography should be considered objectively and rationally. Understanding this complex topic is essential to navigating relationships, sexuality, and society.

  • Pornography, as we know it today, originated around the 1600s in Europe. While explicit depictions of sex and nudity have existed in some form since ancient times, contemporary pornography involves violating social taboos and arousal.

  • Early Christianity emphasized procreative sex between spouses and condemned other expressions as sinful. However, the Renaissance still produced sexually explicit art. The Catholic Church banned some publications but also contained erotic art.

  • The Marquis de Sade in the 1700s wrote violent sexual fantasies and philosophies criticizing religion. His work influenced the terms “sadism” and “sadist.”

  • Novels became popular in the 1700s and often focused on sex. Printing presses in the 1800s made books more accessible. Pornography grew into a business, though still limited to upper classes.

  • In the Victorian era, pornography was illegal but demand grew secretly. New technologies like photography spurred new forms of porn. Some claim the era’s sexual repression and “Our Two Cultures” essay led to this.

  • Pornography diversified in the 1900s with new technologies. It became a large-scale business, though still facing legal issues. The sexual revolution brought greater acceptance and demand. Porn reflected cultural issues around gender, race, and sexuality.

  • The internet era has made pornography ubiquitous, diverse, and globally connected. This brings issues around children’s exposure, addiction, relationships, and consent. However, others argue porn can be educational or empowering. The debate continues.

Pornography has evolved from early explicit art and writing to a massive global industry. It has always reflected the cultural issues and taboos of its time. Though controversial, it endures because it is built upon the human drive for fantasy, pleasure, and pushing boundaries. The debate around porn is as complex as human sexuality itself.

  • There were many famous erotic works published in Europe during the Victorian era (1837-1901), including The Pearl, Gamiani, and Venus in Furs.

  • The Sins of the Cities of the Plain (1881) was one of the first publications featuring gay male sex. It traces the awakening of a young male prostitute.

  • Much of the erotic literature during this time was very graphic, depicting themes like incest, homosexuality, and orgies. Many works were published anonymously due to obscenity laws.

  • Simultaneously, masturbation and female sexuality were considered immoral and medically problematic. “Female hysteria” was treated by inducing orgasms.

  • Technology has dramatically impacted the production and distribution of pornography:

  • The printing press made producing and distributing erotic books and pamphlets easier. Pulp magazines featured softcore porn and pin-ups.

  • Photography and film were used to produce pornography almost immediately after their inventions. Early films became increasingly explicit between 1907 and 1915.

  • Distribution methods (like theaters, home video, and the Internet) have influenced the style, content, and business practices of pornography. Censorship battles often follow changes in distribution.

  • Notable 20th-century erotic works include Story of the Eye (1928), Tropic of Cancer (1934), Tropic of Capricorn (1938), and Story of O (1954).

  • Stag films, porn loops, and feature films were popular in the early-mid 20th century. Home video impacted the porn industry in the 1980s.

  • The sexual revolution of the 1960s and 1970s brought porn into the mainstream. The “porno chic” era saw more hardcore films gain mainstream theatrical release and critical attention.

  • The advent of the Internet - especially the development of streaming video technology and tube sites - has revolutionized pornography, making all types of content widely available and fundamentally impacting the business model of the porn industry.

  • The original stag films were short, silent, black-and-white films featuring hardcore sex that were popular from 1900 to 1940. They were shown privately to all-male audiences.

Historical Questions 23

  • The “golden age of porn” or “porno chic” era was from the 1970s. Films like Deep Throat (1972) and The Devil in Miss Jones (1973) were commercially released and found mainstream popularity and acceptance.

  • Penthouse magazine pushed boundaries by showing female pubic hair in the 1970s. This led to competition with Playboy called the “Pubic Wars.” Hustler magazine went even further, offering more explicit content.

  • Early porn films were often screened in secret locations like brothels. They featured burlesque-style teasing and flirting, as well as hardcore sex scenes.

  • The appearance of porn stars became more toned and sculpted over time, reflecting changing beauty standards. The content of porn also became more hardcore and transgressive over time.

  • Feminist critiques argue that porn promotes the sexual exploitation and objectification of women. However, some see it as liberating or empowering female sexuality. Porn views are complex and multifaceted.

  • Porn has complexly influenced mainstream media, fashion, and culture. It reflects and shapes societal attitudes about gender, sexuality, and beauty.

Does this summary cover the key highlights regarding the history of pornography? Let me know if you wantwant me to clarify or expand on any summary part.

The pornography industry became established alongside advancements in technology, economics, and changes in social views. The industry produces and distributes pornography, which involves creating explicit sexual content and profiting from it. The pornography industry started developing in the 1970s with the rise of pornographic films and magazines. Today, the Internet has enabled massive growth and access to pornography. The sector operates legally in some areas but also continues illegally in others. Legal production requires permits, health testing, and transparency. However, some aspects of the industry remain neither lawful nor transparent. Overall, the pornography industry has become a massive and controversial enterprise.

The mainstream pornography industry primarily produces content catering to heterosexual audiences and featuring white performers. Independent or “indie” porn aims to create more ethical and egalitarian content, often focusing on queer, feminist, or niche audiences.

Mainstream porn uses a traditional business model to maximize profits, while indie porn aims for “fair trade” agreements and to empower performers. However, indie porn faces major financial challenges due to banking policies, payment processing issues, and lack of funding. Some indie porn is growing, especially content focused on underserved audiences.

There are three main styles of porn:

  1. Features: Scripted films with plots, costumes, and sets. Some feature parodies of mainstream media.

  2. Gonzo: Unscripted, minimal plot. Focuses directly on sex acts. Can involve violence but that is not definitive. Breaks the “fourth wall” between performers and the audience.

  3. Unscripted: Little to no direction given. Performers freely choose what sex acts to engage in—which some indie porn producers use.

Hentai is Japanese animated pornography, often depicting taboo or extreme content that would be unethical to produce with real people.

Major organizations and publications in the porn industry include:

  • Free Speech Coalition: Non-profit trade association of the adult entertainment industry. Lobbies against censorship and obscenity laws.

  • XBIZ: Industry news, events, and award organization. XBIZ Awards are major annual awards honoring porn films, performers, and technicians.

  • AVN: Adult Video News, major industry news publication. AVN Awards are another major annual awards event.

  • XRCO: X-Rated Critics Organization. Gives annual “Heart-On Awards” to top pornographic films and performers.

  • Pleasure For All: Non-profit seeking to support indie porn and make the adult industry more inclusive, feminist, and ethical.

Various trade organizations and publications support the pornography industry. Major adult industry trade shows include Venus Berlin and AdultEx. Leading industry organizations in the U.S. include Xbiz, which provides news and information relevant to the adult industry, and Adult Video News (AVN), which promotes video releases, performers, and industry events. The Association of Sites Advocating Child Protection (ASACP) works to prevent child pornography. The Licensed Adult Talent Agency Trade Association (LATATA) promotes licensed talent agencies and their client’s interests. The Adult Performer Advocacy Committee (APAC) represents adult performers. The Free Speech Coalition (FSC) is a trade association that opposes censorship and obscenity laws.

Federal law requires producers of pornography to keep extensive records on models and productions. Top performers may have contracts with major studios, but most are independent contractors. Porn shoots typically involve paperwork, STI testing, filming sex scenes and ejaculation, taking breaks, and cleanup. Producers review profiles and analytics to cast talent. Scheduling and filming require long hours. Performers can stop locations if they are uncomfortable. Professional companies aim to treat work professionally despite social stigma.

The pornography industry has established procedures and structures, though it operates in a legal and social gray area. Performers face difficult working conditions with little regulation or protection. But some organizations do aim to advocate for performers and prevent abuse.

  • Pornography production involves various crew members and costs, though much of today’s mainstream porn is low-budget “gonzo” shoots with minimal crew. Costs include paying crew, talent, locations, equipment, etc. and can range from a few hundred to tens of thousands of dollars per shoot, depending on the scope.

  • It is difficult to determine the exact revenue of the pornography industry due to the lack of official records and oversight. Estimates range from $3 billion to $14 billion annually in the U.S. alone. Revenue comes from many sources, including DVD sales/rentals, streaming sites, live webcam shows, sex toys, and more.

  • The revenue and cost figures take a lot of work to verify due to the nature of the industry. Many productions are unpermitted, records need to be better kept, and there are too many producers to track. The actual size of the industry and its economic impact remain mysterious.

  • The traditional center of porn production is the San Fernando Valley in California. However, more shows seem to be moving to other locations like Florida and Las Vegas to avoid regulations like mandatory condom use. However, it’s unclear if porn production in California has declined significantly.

  • A “day in the life” of a porn shoot, as described by one director, involves various pre-production activities like paperwork, photos, planning the scene with talent, setting up equipment, and the set. The actual filming typically only takes a few hours. After filming, there are post-production activities like interviews before the crew goes home.

That covers the key highlights and main takeaways regarding what is known about how pornography is produced and the associated costs and revenues. Let me know if you want me to explain or expand on any summary part.

  • Revenue figures for the porn industry are difficult to determine precisely due to a lack of transparency. Estimates range from $5 to $12 billion.

  • Revenue from cable T.V. porn and print magazines has declined significantly due to free Internet porn. Porn magazines like Playboy and Hustler have suffered significant losses.

  • The tube site Pornhub is one of the most popular porn sites, with 78 billion page views in 2014. Pornhub likely contributes to the industry’s decline by hosting stolen content.

  • Online piracy costs the porn industry an estimated $2 billion annually. Types of pirated porn include bootlegged copies, unauthorized DVD sales, torrent files, and tube sites.

  • The industry has tried lawsuits, threats, and digital fingerprinting to combat piracy. Some partner with tube sites to gain revenue, but critics say this only incentivizes piracy.

  • A new strategy is to produce high-quality, plot-driven porn that can’t easily be pirated in short clips. This may entice consumers to pay for content again.

  • In summary, the porn industry faces significant challenges from online piracy and shifting technologies/consumer habits. Developing sustainable business models is critical to the industry’s future.

Porn performers are paid based on the type of scene they perform in. Rates vary widely, but salaries are lower than commonly assumed. Most performers make between $200 to $1,200 per scene. Pay depends on factors like gender, the specific sex acts performed, experience, popularity, and the hiring company.

The average career of a porn performer only lasts 4-6 months. However, some well-known performers, especially women, can make $40,000 to $100,000 per year by performing frequently. Higher-risk sex acts like anal creampies tend to pay more.

Porn pay is highest in the U.S. compared to other countries. There are no regulated rates, so pay varies significantly between performers and companies.

Although men perform more frequently, women earn more on average. Men earn $200 to $600 per scene for straight porn; women earn $300 to $900 for solo or lesbian scenes and up to $1,500 for locations with male partners.

Some factors like gender, race, and body type can impact rates, with performers of color and more prominent performers sometimes earning less. Rates should be openly discussed, which can lead to lower pay for new performers.

Gay male porn stars earn $500 to $5,000 per scene. Rates depend on the type of scene and a star’s popularity. “Gay-for-pay” performers make the same as gay performers, although some object to them taking jobs from gay men.

In summary, while a few popular performers, especially women, are highly paid, most performers earn a modest income for the short time they are in the industry. Pay is highly variable and opaque.

  • The pay for a male porn performer ranges from $600 to $1,400 per scene. The rate depends on the types of sex acts and whether the scene includes extras like kink or internal cumshots. Oral-only scenes typically pay less. There is also a pay disparity based on the performer’s race, with black performers earning 50-75% of what white performers make. Performers in poor countries may pay relatively high but often face intense exploitation.

  • Transwomen performers can make the same as ciswomen if they are topping in a scene. Pay is similar for locations between transwomen and ciswomen as for scenes between ciswomen and cismen. There are no standard rates for transmen performers.

  • Magazine shoots and product licensing provide additional income for some performers. In the 1970s, models earned a few hundred dollars for a multi-page spread in a magazine like Hustler. Today, Playboy pays $25,000 for their centerfolds. Product licensing, like that for sex toys modeled on a performer’s genitals, provides a percentage of sales as income. Some performers also crowdsource extra income from fans.

  • Cam site work, like live webcam shows, provides income for many performers. Performers run webcams, chat with viewers, perform solo sex acts, and go into private paid chats. Performers get a percentage of the fees, often 30-80% depending on the site. Top earners can make $300-$1000 in a night, but many make closer to $10. Most cam models are from poor countries and earn very little, around $8-15/hour.

  • Working in porn presents challenges like maintaining erections for long periods. While “fluffers” are a myth, many male performers use erectile medication to help. However, the frequency of use can lead to health issues, and some performers have had to retire early due to problems caused by the medications. Other challenges include the physical demands of long shoots and stigma around the work.

  • According to Tracy Clark-Flory, erectile dysfunction drugs and injectables are more commonly used in gay porn because male performers, especially inexperienced ones, need help getting aroused. Meanwhile, straight porn tries to downplay E.D. drug use to appear more macho.

  • Performing in porn presents many physical challenges like maintaining erections for hours, doing physically demanding scenes like bondage, risk of injury, STDs, etc. Some activists like Shelley Lubben and Gail Dines claim that porn causes rampant injuries and health issues, though others dispute these claims.

  • Whether porn performers enjoy their work varies. Some say they hate it and find it physically revolting. Others say they love it, see it empowering, and argue that no one would do it if they didn’t enjoy it at least somewhat, given the low pay and costs like frequent STD testing. For some, porn is a chance to explore their sexuality. For others, it’s just a job.

  • There are many reasons why people get into porn, like paying bills, paying off debt, exploring sexuality, or earning money for a specific goal. Porn performers have lives outside their jobs, but the industry cultivates a fantasy that makes it easy to forget they are real people.

  • In summary, while the porn industry presents some unique physical and health challenges, whether performers enjoy their work and why they choose this career varies considerably based on the individual. It’s an oversimplification to broadly generalize the porn industry and those who work in it.

  • There are various reasons why people enter the adult entertainment industry, including financial need, curiosity, political statement, and sexual exploration. For some, there is coercion or lack of choice.

  • The “damaged goods” hypothesis suggests that women become porn performers because of childhood sexual abuse, drug addiction, and psychological problems. However, research studies have found little evidence to support this stereotype.

  • A 2012 study compared 177 female porn performers with a matched sample of women outside the industry. The study found no significant difference in rates of childhood sexual abuse. Porn actresses reported higher self-esteem and life satisfaction. They were more likely to identify as bisexual and had more sexual partners, but these factors are not inherently problematic.

  • Porn actresses were more likely to have experimented with some drugs but not necessarily to be addicted. Marijuana use was slightly higher among porn actresses, but the use of other medications was comparable between the groups.

  • Some concerns remain about the well-being and safety of porn performers, as they can face stigma, stereotyping, and assumptions that they lack education or boundaries. However, the research does not support the “damaged goods” stereotype.

  • Antipornography advocates like Gail Dines claim that pornography depicts violent and degrading sex that harms women. Still, scientific research on the adult entertainment industry does not support these arguments.

In summary, while the well-being of porn performers merits reasonable concern and support, the stereotype of the “damaged goods” porn actress is a myth not supported by evidence. People enter and continue in the adult entertainment industry for diverse and complex reasons.

  • There is no conclusive evidence that men are inherently more visually aroused than women. Evolutionary psychology arguments that suggest men are hardwired to enjoy pornography fall short.

  • Stereotype threat research shows that people behave gender-stereotypically when given stereotypical prompts. Men tend to perform higher on visual-spatial tasks when told men are better at them; women tend to perform lower.

  • The assumption that men are naturally more drawn to pornography due to being visual creatures is not strongly supported. Both men and women respond to romantic and sexual stimuli.

  • It is difficult to collect accurate data on who watches pornography and why due to social taboos and privacy concerns. But our research suggests the issue is complex, and both men and women watch pornography, especially today with online access.

  • Many factors shape an individual’s interest or disinterest in pornography, including personal history, values, curiosity, accessibility, and more. Gender alone does not determine who watches or does not watch pornography.

  • There are difficulties in gathering accurate demographic data on pornography use due to social desirability bias, especially for women.

  • Estimates of Internet porn use in the U.S. range from 12% of adults (Pew Research Center) to 70 million individuals per week (2004 Congressional report).

  • Some data suggests women ages 18-24 watch slightly more porn than men in that age group.

  • Approval of porn use differs by education level, religion, age, and other factors. Millennials and those with higher education tend to be more approving of porn.

  • Online porn use seems to differ significantly by age, with younger adults much more likely to report watching porn, especially those 18-29. Some data suggests porn use among more youthful women is increasing.

  • Reasons for watching porn include enjoyment, exploration, lack of sex partner, voyeurism, boredom, etc.

  • Estimates of employees watching porn at work range from 3-70%, depending on the study. Government employees and those in financial roles have been found watching porn during work hours. Several disciplinary actions have resulted.

  • Surveys of H.R. professionals and companies found widespread discoveries of porn on work computers, with some reporting frequent occurrences.

  • Studies show 63% of men and 36% of women watch porn at work. 75% of men ages 31-49 and those earning over $75K watch at work. 50% of women ages 31-49 also watch at work.

  • Studies show 90% of young men and 1/3 of young women use porn. Men use porn more frequently and view different types. Women prefer porn fiction and couple-focused porn.

  • Surveys of couples show 3-15% use porn together. 36% of men and 6% of women view Internet porn. 4% of couples view it together. 1/3 of men consider it alone, and 2% of women.

  • Religiosity correlates to more porn searches. Conservative, religious states have more porn searches. This may be due to taboo, preoccupation with sex, or liberals in those states.

  • Pornhub data shows global porn use but only measures their site. The data shows general indicators and issues with stolen porn and derogatory terms.

In summary, while more men view porn than women, many women do view porn, especially Internet porn. Porn use is often solo, but some couples view it together. Religious and conservative areas contradictorily have high porn use. Pornhub data provides a limited look at global porn patterns.

  • Pornhub and PornMD can track global demographic patterns of who watches porn thanks to the massive traffic volume on their sites. PornMD tracks real-time keyword searches to see trends.

  • Top global searches are for terms like compilation, teen, MILF, hentai, anal, amateur, mom and son, Japanese, mom, and POV. Investigations differ slightly by region and country.

  • Surveys and content analysis are used to collect data on porn use but have limitations. They rely on self-reporting, have vague response options, and are subject to the biases of researchers. More precise data on frequency of use would help.

  • Stigma and stereotypes about gender, sex, and porn likely impact the data. Studies often assume that porn is harmful, promotes aggression, or degrades without considering other perspectives. This can skew results.

  • Research methods also impact findings. Some studies define activities like spanking or gagging as inherently violent or degrading without discussion. Effects research also often assumes porn leads to violence against women or negative views of sex.

  • Estimates of what percentage of the Internet is porn vary but are often exaggerated. Accurately measuring this isn’t easy. Focusing only on the most popular sites may provide a more realistic sense of someone’s likelihood of encountering porn.

  • It’s hard to know who consumes porn or repeats viewing habits in a household. Circulation numbers don’t show how often a magazine is read or how specific content is viewed.

  • Challenges include reluctance to disclose porn use, multiple users per device, downloading and repeat viewing, and the range of ways people engage with porn. Acknowledging porn as variegated and potentially positive for some is essential.

The summary hits on the key points around how data on who watches porn is collected, the limitations and challenges, how stigma and stereotypes may skew results, issues with research methods and effects studies, the wide range of estimates on how much of the Internet is porn, and difficulties in getting an accurate sense of specific viewing habits and repeat use. The key takeaway is that data on porn viewership should be interpreted with caution, given these many confounding factors.

  • There is an ongoing debate about whether pornography causes violence against women. Some anti-porn advocates argue that pornography promotes violence by portraying the abuse and degradation of women. However, studies on the impact of pornography have found no conclusive evidence that it causes rape or violence.

  • Two recent content analyses of mainstream porn videos found differing results. A study by Klaassen and Peter found that violence was relatively infrequent while women were more often objectified. However, Bridges et al. found more aggression and degradation, especially in scenes featuring ass-to-mouth (ATM). They suggest ATM is linked to verbal aggression.

  • The debate highlights the complex relationship between pleasure and danger in pornography. While some see pornography as promoting the abuse of women, others argue that some mainstream porn portrays mutually pleasurable activities between consenting individuals. There are debates over what constitutes “violence” or “aggression” in pornography.

  • In summary, there is no consensus on the impact of pornography. More research is needed to determine the effects of mainstream pornography on viewers and society.

  • The research on the impact of pornography is mixed and inconclusive. Some studies find a link between pornography and negative attitudes like sexism, while others find no such association or even the opposite effect.

  • The type and severity of pornography likely matter. Violent or degrading pornography may have different effects than other types. But even then, the results depend on the individual and other factors.

  • Many intervening variables determine how pornography influences attitudes and behaviors. Personality, beliefs, relationships, and the ability to distinguish fantasy from reality are all relevant factors.

  • Anecdotal evidence from antipornography activists suggests pornography promotes harm, but more rigorous research is needed to establish clear connections. Some activists dismiss the need for scientific evidence altogether.

  • There is little evidence that the type of pornography a person enjoys reflects their true desires or attitudes. Sexual fantasies often do not translate directly into real-world desires or behaviors. People can engage with the story without endorsing it.

  • The effects of pornography may differ based on gender. Some research finds past pornography use linked to more sexist attitudes in men but not women. But personality also plays a role, with more disagreeable men most susceptible to these adverse effects.

  • The portrayal of men and women in some pornography could be seen as sexist or degrading. But critics typically focus more on the effects on women. The implications of pornography on conceptions of masculinity are under-examined.

  • The working conditions of those producing BDSM pornography have faced legal challenges, raising questions about professional standards and oversight. But some former models also report on-the-job satisfaction.

So, in summary, the research on how pornography influences attitudes and society is mixed and complex. There are many mediating factors and no simple answers. But certain areas warrant concern and further investigation.

  • A study found that sexist people tend to become more sexist after viewing pornography. This suggests that pornography may reinforce or amplify sexist attitudes but does not necessarily cause sexism in all viewers.

  • Other research found links between pornography viewership and decreased willingness to intervene in sexual violence, increased intent to rape, and belief in rape myths. However, the study from Copenhagen suggests these effects may depend on a viewer’s preexisting attitudes and personality.

  • Pornography often depicts and promotes racist stereotypes, especially stereotypes of Black women and other women of color as hypersexual. However, some sex workers of color are working to counter these stereotypes and have more control over their image and work.

  • The tags and categories used to classify pornography online frequently promote racial stereotypes and privilege whiteness as a default. They also delineate “other” non-heterosexual and non-cisgender types.

  • There are concerns that some pornography may involve trafficked or coerced performers, especially pornography produced in Eastern Europe and Asia. However, the extent to which this occurs is unclear.

  • Views on pornography’s effects and ethics are complex, with some arguing it inherently promotes harm and others arguing that pornography can be ethical and even empowering when produced under fair working conditions and with the consent and agency of all participants.

Poverty-stricken people from developing countries are often forced into the pornography industry. Estimates of people trafficked globally for sex work range from 600,000 to 4 million annually. Most trafficking victims are female, typically between 12 to 14 years old. While it is difficult to determine how many people are trafficked explicitly into pornography, some argue that all forms of sexual labor, including pornography and strip clubs, constitute human trafficking.

Opinions differ on whether pornography negatively impacts relationships. Some research finds an association between pornography use and relationship problems, but the evidence is mixed, and correlation does not prove causation. The main factor seems to be honesty and communication between partners.

Pornography also has potential benefits. Historically, it has been linked to avant-garde art and countercultural movements. Pornography is also related to healthy sexuality for some. Surveys show that many women feel optimistic about pornography and report benefits like learning new sexual techniques, feeling sexier, and stimulating libido. Pornography may also have clinical uses, helping with arousal or trauma. However, antipornography rhetoric and moral panic may undermine these potential benefits.

The First Amendment protects pornography as free speech, allowing the open exchange of ideas fundamental to democracy. Banning or censoring expression, even if some find it offensive, undermines this open exchange. However, pornography that is obscene or involves minors is not protected. Defining obscenity is challenging and open to interpretation. The Supreme Court has set a high bar for what constitutes obscenity. As views on sexuality change over time, definitions of obscenity may also evolve.

In summary, while arguments for restricting or banning pornography are often moral, censorship threatens the democratic principles of free expression. Regulation needs to balance these principles with other concerns like exploitation and harm. Defining and enforcing obscenity and indecency laws remains complicated, with many open questions.

  • Free speech is crucial for democracy, but not all forms of expression are protected. Pornography is legal but obscenity is not.

  • The Roth v. United States (1957) case established the Roth Test to determine if the material is obscene. It said the material could be banned if the “average person, applying contemporary community standards,” finds that the “dominant theme taken as a whole appeals to the prurient interest.”

  • The Miller v. California (1973) case replaced the Roth Test with a new three-part Miller Test for obscenity. Material is obscene if:

  1. An average person would find that it appeals to “prurient interest” based on contemporary community standards.

  2. It depicts sexual conduct offensively as defined by state law.

  3. It lacks “serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value.”

  • Pope v. Illinois (1987) modified part 3 to say obscenity should be judged based on whether a “reasonable person” would find value in work as a whole, not based on “community standards.”

  • In summary, for material to be legally obscene, it must meet all three parts of the Miller Test, as modified by Pope v. Illinois. Pornography that does not meet this threshold is still protected by free speech.

  • The cases show how the courts have attempted to balance free speech rights with limiting obscenity, a complex issue. The standards have evolved but aim to define restrictions on expression narrowly.

Does this summary accurately reflect the key legal concepts and cases related to distinguishing pornography and obscenity? Let me know if you wantwant me to clarify or expand on any summary part.

The debate around pornography often centers on whether it should be legally obscene or protected as free speech. Catharine MacKinnon argues that the issue is not obscenity, but the harm pornography causes to women. She says pornography eroticizes the subordination of women and makes inequality and violence sexy.

MacKinnon and Andrea Dworkin drafted model legislation defining pornography as the graphic depiction of women’s subordination. Their proposed antipornography civil rights ordinances allowed women to file civil suits against those producing, distributing, or forcing pornography on them. Though passed in Minneapolis and Indianapolis, the laws were struck down in federal Court as violations of free speech.

Many critical legal cases have shaped pornography law:

• In California v. Freeman (1989), the C.A. Supreme Court ruled making adult films was not prostitution, allowing the porn industry to thrive in L.A.

• In Hustler Magazine, Inc. v. Falwell (1988), the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the First Amendment protects parody and satire that causes public emotional distress. Hustler had published a fake ad parody interview with Jerry Falwell discussing his “first time” - a crude joke implying incest with his mother.

• In Miller v. California (1973), the Supreme Court set the “Miller test” to determine if the material is obscene and unprotected by free speech. It must appeal to “prurient” interests, be “patently offensive” by community standards, and lack serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value.

• The PROTECT Act (2003) bans virtual child pornography, even if no actual children are involved in production.

• The Communications Decency Act (1996) bans obscene or indecent material on the Internet to protect minors. Parts were struck down as overbroad, but other sections criminalizing the transmission of obscene materials to children remain.

• The Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act (2006) increased penalties for creators and distributors of child pornography.

• United States v. Williams (2008) upheld the PROTECT Act, ruling that offers to provide, or requests to obtain child pornography are illegal, even if no pornography changes hands.

So, in summary, while there have been attempts to curb pornography through legislation and in the courts, very little has been successfully restricted due to First Amendment protections of free speech. The primary exceptions are child pornography and obscenity. But determining what counts as obscene remains problematic.

  • In 1988, the Supreme Court ruled in favor of Larry Flynt in the Hustler Magazine v. Falwell case. The Court found that reasonable people would understand an ad parody about Jerry Falwell was a joke, not meant to be taken literally. The Court said the First Amendment protects free speech, even if some find it offensive.

  • In the early 2000s, the Bush administration launched an “Obscenity Prosecution Task Force” to crack down on pornography. Two high-profile cases had different outcomes: John Stagliano was acquitted, while Max Hardcore was convicted of obscenity charges and sentenced to prison. His extreme content was seen as victimizing performers.

  • Child pornography is illegal and not protected by the First Amendment. Laws aim to protect children from abuse and exploitation.

  • Measure B was a 2012 Los Angeles law requiring condom use in pornography. Supporters said it would reduce disease, but critics saw it as censorship and said testing was already adequate. The industry said condoms reduce demand and that sex scenes take too long, risking discomfort. Some companies require condoms, but most avoid them. A judge said porn performers are employees covered by workplace laws. A new bill aims to repeal parts of Measure B.

The summary is:

Porn performers may be at higher risk of contracting STIs and HIV due to frequent exposure to body fluids and the physical demands of the work. However, the adult film industry claims lower transmission rates due to regular testing. Some public health experts argue testing does not eliminate risk and rates are higher. There is debate over comparative risk to the general population.

  • Studies from Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and UCLA found high rates of chlamydia and gonorrhea infections among porn performers, much higher than the general population. Female performers were especially at risk of repeat infections.

  • Between 2004 to 2008, 8 porn performers tested positive for HIV, raising concerns. But actual on-set transmissions of HIV are disputed. Some point out that infection rates are lower than the general LA population.

  • Porn industry rejects mandatory condom laws and prefers voluntary testing every 14 days. Performers enter test results into a PASS database that producers check before shoots.

  • Gay male porn did not require testing historically due to HIV stigma concerns. Some gay studios now require testing, while others allow barebacking scenes.

  • Porn industry strategy includes testing, condoms (optional), visual inspections, and PrEP pill that prevents HIV infection. Condoms alone are 70-87% effective at preventing HIV; PrEP is over 92% effective.

  • Most porn is made in L.A., so the region is essential in monitoring health practices. There is little known about global porn health practices, though Brazil is a significant hub with mixed condom use.

  • There are disputes over how well voluntary testing prevents infections. Some argue diseases will continue regardless of testing; others say there have been no on-set HIV transmissions since 2004 under the current system.

  • The CDC endorses PrEP, a daily pill to prevent HIV infection. In 2015 Los Angeles began providing PrEP to high-risk groups like black and Latino gay men. Michael Weinstein opposed this and delayed the program for five years.

  • The adult film industry tests performers every 14 days for STIs like chlamydia, gonorrhea, HIV, etc. They use a sensitive blood test to detect HIV within 6-10 days. However, there is still a “window period” where infection may not be detected. The CDC says testing alone is insufficient, and diseases can still be transmitted.

  • There are issues with the current testing system. Performers pay for their tests, contrary to workplace standards. Urine-only and blood tests may miss some infections. Not all STIs are tested for. There are no global standards for testing and safety.

  • Changes have been made, like switching from a 30-day to a 14-day test cycle. Plans were made to start testing oral and anal swabs. In 2010, a health official warned many STIs to go undiagnosed in the industry due to risky practices. Critics argue his evidence was flawed.

  • In 2015, a proposal mandated protective equipment like condoms, gloves, and goggles. The industry and public health groups largely opposed this. Officials argued the industry was not fueling HIV rates. Michael Weinstein claimed performers threaten public health, though critics say this stigmatizes them.

  • When an infection is detected, a moratorium on filming is issued to prevent spread. Suspensions have been issued for HIV and syphilis scares. Though often from private activity, any detection means on-set transmission risk. Positive results are entered into a database to alert recent partners. The set may be disinfected and retested.

  • The PASS database tracks the health of adult film actors. If an actor tests positive for an STI, filming is halted until doctors determine it is safe to resume.

  • A moratorium is a complete film halt for two weeks after a positive test. A precautionary hold is a shorter pause pending test results. During a lull, doctors retest the initial positive case and their contacts. Once cleared, filming resumes.

  • There are concerns about health issues in the adult industry beyond STIs, including increased rates of cosmetic surgery, anal sex, and pubic hair removal. However, the evidence does not conclusively prove that pornography causes these practices.

  • Labiaplasty is the surgical trimming of the labia. Rates have increased, but porn’s role is unclear. A study found no link between porn viewing and labial dissatisfaction. The increase could be due to other factors.

  • There are concerns that anal sex in porn leads to coercion and health risks. However, a study found other factors also motivate young people to have anal sex. Porn is not the sole explanation.

  • Pubic hair removal is standard but may pose risks like irritation or injury. However, it is also an aesthetic choice subject to cultural trends outside pornography.

In summary, while the adult film industry does present some health issues that merit concern, the evidence does not prove that pornography alone causes harmful practices like cosmetic surgery, unsafe sex, or pubic hair removal among viewers or society in general. Other factors are also at play.

The demand for adult women to remove their pubic hair to look like prepubescent girls are demeaning and takes away women’s agency. This demand also sexualizes young girls and contributes to child sexual abuse.

Men are more likely than women to prefer hairless sexual partners. More women report unpleasant side effects from hair removal. Risks include infections, increased STI risk, burns, and skin conditions.

There is debate over whether excessive pornography use constitutes an addiction. Some experts, like Patrick Carnes, view it as a type of sex addiction with signs like losing control, severe consequences, and inability to stop. The DSM does not recognize hypersexuality or porn addiction as an official diagnosis. A study found similar brain activity in compulsive porn users and drug addicts, but experts warn against equating the two.

Other experts disagree that pornography is inherently addictive. A UCLA study found that alleged “porn addicts” had decreased brain activity in response to sexual images, unlike typical addicts. They argue compulsive sexual behavior may be a better framework.

Frequent pornography use is believed to cause erectile dysfunction in men by promoting unrealistic ideas about sex and women’s bodies. However, the research found that more frequent porn use was unrelated to erection issues and increased the desire for real sexual partners.

There is concern about children and teens accessing pornography, but also debate. Some worry it causes harm, like sexism, risky behavior, and relationship issues. Others argue collective moral panic is unhelpful and that open conversations and digital literacy education are better solutions. Research shows most exposure is unintentional and that parental involvement is critical.

  • Researchers disagree on the average age of first exposure to pornography, with some dubious claims that it is as young as 11. More reliable research indicates first exposure is typically in the early- to mid-teens.

  • About 25-30% of teens report first seeing porn by age 12. Boys are more likely to seek out porn intentionally, while about 1/3 of teens say the first exposure was accidental.

  • There are concerns that early porn exposure can negatively impact teens by promoting unrealistic sexual expectations, risky behavior, objectification of women, and even addiction. However, teen pregnancy, STDs, and sexual assault have declined in recent decades, even as Internet porn has become widely available.

  • The impact of porn on teens is complex, with some adverse effects but also expressions of normal curiosity. More research is needed, but open conversations about healthy sexuality are also meaningful.

  • There are meaningful distinctions between preteen children, teens, and legal adults that are important to consider regarding pornography. Exposure to preteens and unwanted exposure at any age can be abusive. But for older teens, some porn use may be a regular part of exploring sexuality.

  • Research does not conclusively prove that porn use increases sexual assault or aggression in teens. Most teens can distinguish between porn and reality.

  • A Swedish teen study found that most could navigate porn in a “sensible manner” and separate fantasy from genuine relationships. Girls were more ambivalent about porn but feared being slut-shamed if they admitted interest.

  • A study of black and Hispanic U.S. teens found they mainly watched one-on-one sex but had also seen extreme porn. They watched porn out of boredom, entertainment, arousal, and learning. Some felt pressure to imitate porn in relationships.

  • Research has focused more on boys, but some studies found that most boys seek out porn by the age of ten and watch three times a week for 40 minutes (less for those in relationships). However, the average first exposure age maybe 14. Some argue porn is “rewiring” boys’ brains, but the evidence is limited.

  • Researchers disagree on porn’s impact. Some say it promotes unhealthy attitudes, but the effect depends on the context and other factors like education. Most teens are unaffected, but vulnerable teens may be at risk. Experimenting with taboos is normal for teens; porn is unlikely to be harmful for most.

  • No clear link between underage porn use and risky sex behaviors. The scientific consensus is we have little idea of porn’s impact on teen sexual development.

  • Sexting refers to sending/receiving explicit messages, photos, or videos via devices. Up to 30% of U.S. teens have sent nude photos. 12% of U.K. youth made explicit videos. But sexting is not necessarily pornography.

  • Many teens use social media to share sexually explicit images of themselves, and 60% have been asked to send nude images.

  • These images can go viral and lead to cyberbullying, causing anxiety, depression, and isolation in victims. Some teens have committed suicide as a result.

  • The problem is not consensual sexting but nonconsensual sharing of these images. The legal system has been slow to respond. Some courts have used child pornography laws to criminalize teens involved in sexting.

  • Parental controls like filtering software are ineffective at limiting teen access to pornography. Engaged parents teaching online safety are more impactful. Porn literacy education is a better approach.

  • Porn literacy promotes understanding consent, body image, and healthy sexuality. It gives teens skills to identify problems in media, like sexism and racism.

  • Many teens learn about sex from porn, leading to misconceptions. Porn abstinence education does not work. Honest conversations about porn and sexuality are needed.

  • Discussing pornography in sex education could make teens more critical consumers of porn. Some propose showing porn in class and analyzing it. Open conversations are better than scare tactics.

  • Teens want to discuss porn and have lots of questions about it. Conversations about pornography and sexuality are needed to promote sexual health and consent.

  • Playboy is moving out of producing pornography and licensing its brand. Crowdfunding platforms are enabling individuals to produce their pornography.

  • Internet porn use and mobile access to it are growing exponentially. This is enabling more people to consider working in the porn industry.

  • Some see pornography becoming more independently produced, with performers creating and distributing their content.

  • There is a push for fair trade pornography that ensures safe working conditions, fair pay, and performers’ consent. Advocacy organizations are pushing for the rights and protections of sex workers, including those in pornography.

  • Some are aiming to produce ethical, educational pornography. Make Love Not Porn aims to provide sex education and feature real couples having consensual sex.

  • There is a growing demand for pornography that appeals more to women and challenges stereotypical and patriarchal representations of gender and sexuality.

Here is a summary of the critical human rights issues discussed:

  1. Fairtrade and anti-trafficking efforts are challenging due to the decentralized and hard-to-track nature of pornography production and distribution. Removing the stigma around sex work and supporting grassroots efforts of ethical producers are needed.

  2. Consumers must research to find ethical porn and pay for the porn they consume. Some sites like Piggy Bank Girls claim to produce “fair trade” porn, but their content is still largely heteronormative.

  3. Feminist porn is rising, focused on consent, female pleasure, and diverse representation. But the term is misunderstood, as it’s not just for women. It aims to empower all performers and challenge stereotypes.

  4. Porn for women is also misunderstood as necessarily “vanilla.” Women have a range of interests, and feminist porn explores power dynamics and taboos in ethical ways.

  5. Queer porn aims to challenge heteronormativity and make space for LGBTQ desires and experiences. It depicts a diversity of genders, sexualities, and relationships.

  6. Some argue porn is scapegoated for society’s issues when censorship is not the answer. We need more diverse and positive depictions of sex to reflect its beauty and complexity.

  7. There are calls for more documentaries and journalism to show the diversity in the porn industry and counter stereotypes.

In summary, while there are indeed human rights issues regarding fair labor practices, consent, and representation in porn, many argue censorship and stereotyping the entire industry is not the solution. Supporting ethical producers, diversifying content, and educating audiences about the realities of porn production may be better approaches. But determining what constitutes “good” or “bad” porn remains complex with no consensus.

  • There is a long history of feminist, queer, and lesbian porn performers creating content to shift problematic social norms in mainstream pornography.

  • In the “Golden Age of Porn,” performers like Candida Royalle recognized a market for sex-positive films. In the 1980s and 1990s, lesbian porn directors launched companies to produce content for queer audiences.

  • The queer porn genre emerged in the mid-1990s to represent diverse gender identities and body types. Directors include Shine Louise Houston, Courtney Trouble, and Madison Young. Performers include Jiz Lee and Buck Angel.

  • Some colleges and universities now offer courses on pornography, though it remains an under-taught topic. Professor Constance Penley has taught film and media courses on pornography at UCSB since the 1990s. Studying pornography in an academic context allows for analysis of its historical and cultural significance.

  • While teaching pornography can be seen as taboo or risky, it allows discussion of important issues like consumer culture, free speech, and sexuality. Porn literacy promotes an understanding of sexual politics and challenging normative standards.

  • There is a tradition of educational porn films, slideshows, and video roadshows dating back decades, representing various political views. New books, blogs, and journals also discuss pornography and sexuality.

  • In summary, efforts are to shift problematic aspects of mainstream porn and promote sex positivity. Studying porn in colleges and producing queer/feminist porn are ways of challenging norms and advocating for inclusive representations of gender and sexuality.

The field of porn studies has gained increasing academic legitimacy. 2014 the journal Porn Studies launched, despite opposition from some anti-porn scholars and activists. Soon after, another journal called Sexualization, Media, and Society also found, featuring anti-porn scholars on its editorial board.

The porn industry is closely related to technology and is often an early adopter of new technologies. Virtual reality and interactive porn are emerging frontiers, though some argue the content must improve. Pornhub has even proposed filming the first porn scene in space, though many technical and physical challenges exist to overcome.

There are long-standing debates about the ethics and effects of porn that will likely continue. The arguments are often polarized, framing porn as either good or bad. Moving forward, more nuanced discussions that recognize the potential benefits and downsides of porn are needed. Pornography raises complex questions about sexuality, politics, and human agency that defy simplistic answers.

  • According to Nate Gates, the porn industry is struggling with the issue of content piracy and intellectual property theft. However, the industry gathered to celebrate the AVN Awards, known as the Oscars of the adult entertainment industry, according to EJ Dickson.

  • Performer and writer Stoya discussed issues within the porn industry, like STDs and lack of privacy. Aurora Snow wrote that performers in the adult film industry are not paid as much as commonly believed. According to Tracy Clark-Flory, performers struggle to maintain erections due to the difficulty of porn shoots. Nina Hartley argued that porn could be educational and aid sexual exploration.

  • A documentary called “Hot Girls Wanted” highlighted the economic hardships of performers in amateur porn. Anti-porn feminist Gail Dines argued that pornography has hijacked human sexuality. An interview with former performer Belladonna revealed the difficulty of her experiences in porn. An article by Susannah Breslin discussed the challenges of male porn performers.

  • People use porn for sexual pleasure, education, fantasy, and more, according to a study. Surveys found people in conservative or religious states consume more porn. Data from a live porn search engine provided insight into popular porn searches. Some argue that porn’s effects are exaggerated or negligible. Porn likely does not rewire the brain or undermine relationships.

  • Some analyses found aggression or sexist content in a portion of popular porn videos. However, the impacts of such content are debated. Some argue that porn promotes violence against women or sex trafficking. However, these arguments are controversial and not supported by evidence. Pornography is diverse and complex.

  • Pornography is protected as free speech, but some laws restrict or regulate obscene content. Feminist debates over porn censorship centered around whether it degrades women. U.K. laws banned some acts of porn. Revenge porn, or sharing explicit images without consent, has been outlawed in some places.

  • The adult film industry has dealt with health regulations and testing issues. Two performers tested positive for HIV, highlighting concerns over testing standards. A law called Measure B required condom use, though it faced criticism.

Here is a summary of the article:

  • A major porn producer in Los Angeles announced that he would require performers in his films to wear condoms after an HIV scare. The porn industry has been resistant to requiring condoms.
  • The producer, Brazzers, shut down its film productions for a week to test performers. Performers were not allowed to work on other films during that period.
  • There were conflicting reports about how many performers tested positive. According to gossip reported in online porn forums, two performers reportedly tested positive, but health clinic officials would not confirm this due to patient confidentiality.
  • The porn industry’s system of STD testing every 28 days is inadequate to prevent the spread of diseases that can be transmitted through skin-to-skin contact, according to health experts. They argue condoms are necessary to prevent transmission.
  • The porn industry has argued that condoms can irritate performers, and some viewers prefer films without condoms. They say STD testing is sufficient to ensure health and safety.
  • California health regulators have tried unsuccessfully to enforce condoms on porn sets. In 2009, a law was passed to require them, but it is tied up in Court. Regulators inspect fewer than half the permitted porn sets per year.
  • Some performers and producers do support condom use, saying the health risks without them are too high. But the majority of the industry remains opposed.

The key points are:

  1. A significant porn producer will require condoms after an HIV scare, but the wider industry remains primarily opposed.

  2. There are conflicting reports about whether any performers tested positive in this case. Health clinics cannot confirm due to privacy laws.

  3. Health experts argue the porn industry’s STD testing every 28 days is insufficient and condoms are necessary to prevent disease transmission.

  4. The porn industry argues condoms irritate performers, and some viewers prefer films without them. They say testing alone ensures health and safety.

  5. California passed a law to require condoms in porn, but it is tied up in Court, and regulators inspect only a fraction of sets.

  6. Some performers and producers support condom use due to health risks, but most industries oppose it.

Here is a summary of the suggested readings:

The book examines issues surrounding pornography, privacy, and protection. It includes multiple perspectives on pornography, including feminist, antipornography, and human rights views. Topics include the mainstream adult entertainment industry, independent (indie) pornography, fetish and niche pornography, transgender and queer pornography, and pornography made by and for women. There are also discussions of the legal regulations surrounding pornography, privacy, and data concerns, issues of access and consumption, education and pornography literacy, and pathways for ethical and empowering pornography.

The list of readings covers similar issues and debates. These include historical overviews of pornography, analyses of the adult entertainment industry and economies of pornography, and studies of particular genres like feminist pornography or pornography featuring Black women and LGBTQ performers. There are also readings on privacy, censorship, and free speech issues regarding pornography and feminist debates over pornography and sexuality. The suggested readings provide interdisciplinary perspectives on pornography from media studies, sociology, history, law, and sexuality studies.

In summary, the book and readings explore the issues involved in critically thinking about pornography and its role in society. They examine both mainstream and independent pornography, questions of regulation and freedom of expression, and debates around ethics, empowerment, and pleasure. The resources provide an overview of the complex topic of pornography in the 21st century.

Here is a summary of the outline:

Introduction: Defines pornography and critical issues surrounding it.

Chapter 1: Overview of pornography. Differentiates erotica and porn. Discusses pornography as a crime, sin, vice, or choice. Explains why it’s important to discuss publicly.

Chapter 2: History of pornography. How it’s changed over time with technology. Discussion of stag films, the golden age of porn, and the digital era. Examples of famous porn.

Chapter 3: The porn industry. Differences between mainstream and indie porn, features, gonzo, and unscripted porn. Costs to produce porn and revenue generated. Efforts to address piracy. Porn awards.

Chapter 4: Porn Performers. Pay rates and how they vary. Pay for other work like magazines and cam sites. What it’s like to work in porn. Why do people become performers? Concerns about well-being. We are transitioning out of the industry.

Chapter 5: Porn viewership. Data on who watches porn. Challenges in data collection. Gender and age differences. Porn is used at work and globally in how views correlate with religion and politics.

Chapter 6: Pleasure and Danger of porn. Debates on whether porn causes violence against women, sexism, and racism. Links to sex trafficking. Impacts on relationships. Potential benefits.

Chapter 7: Legal issues. Why porn is protected as free speech. Differences between porn and obscenity. Key legal cases. Measure B. Global porn laws.

Chapter 8: Medical issues. Health and safety of performers. STI testing requirements and changes. What happens if a test is positive? Other health concerns like labiaplasty, anal sex, and waxing. Debates on porn addiction and links to erectile dysfunction.

Chapter 9: Youth and porn. How many teens watch porn, and how young do they start. Concerns about impacts. Whether sexting constitutes porn. Parental controls and their effectiveness. Porn literacy education.

Chapter 10: The Future of porn. Will porn become fair trade or focus more on women and feminism? Growth of queer porn. Porn in colleges and how tech may change it. Porn in space. Will debates on porn ever end?

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About Matheus Puppe