Self Help

The Psychology Book

Author Photo

Matheus Puppe

· 127 min read

Here is a summary of The Psychology Book:

  • The field of psychology has philosophical roots going back to ancient philosophers like Plato. In the 19th century, psychology emerged as a scientific discipline.

  • Early schools of thought in psychology included structuralism, functionalism, psychoanalysis, behaviorism, and gestalt psychology. These schools explored areas like consciousness, the unconscious mind, the role of the environment, and perception.

  • Key figures include Wilhelm Wundt, William James, Sigmund Freud, B.F. Skinner, Jean Piaget, and many others. They studied areas like perception, memory, child development, learning, social psychology, and mental disorders.

  • Major branches of psychology today include cognitive psychology, social psychology, developmental psychology, clinical psychology, and neuropsychology. They explore topics like thinking, emotion, relationships, growth, mental health, and the biological bases of psychology.

  • Key concepts in psychology include perception, memory, emotion, motivation, intelligence, personality, cognitive biases, psychological disorders, nature vs. nurture, and the unconscious mind.

  • Psychology aims to understand and explain thought, feeling, and behavior. The main research methods are empirical observation, experimentation, and the scientific method.

That covers the essence and scope of the field of psychology according to the book. Let me know if you would like me to elaborate on any part of the summary.

  • Psychology evolved from philosophy and became established as a scientific discipline in the late 19th century.

  • Early psychology was divided into speculative, theoretical approaches focused on concepts like consciousness, and more scientific approaches studying mental processes under controlled conditions.

  • Behaviorism emerged in the early 20th century, focusing on how behavior is shaped by the environment. Ivan Pavlov and John Watson were key figures.

  • Sigmund Freud developed psychoanalysis, which focused on the unconscious mind and inner experiences. His ideas revolutionized thinking and inspired new approaches.

  • In the mid-20th century, behaviorism and psychoanalysis declined, and cognitive psychology emerged. It studied mental processes like memory, thinking, and language.

  • Cognitive psychology led to new therapies like cognitive and cognitive-behavioral therapy. Humanist psychology focused on healthy individuals and a meaningful life.

  • Developmental psychology studied how people change over the lifespan. It influenced education and a more holistic view of individuals.

  • Early psychology focused on individuals, but later expanded to study social behavior, conformity, aggression, altruism, and the impact of urban life and communication.

  • The field of psychology grew rapidly in the 20th century with many branches, but its history builds on successive theories that remain relevant today.

The key points are:

• The study of the mind was historically the domain of philosophy.

• The scientific revolution of the 17th century provided models for studying the mind scientifically. Key figures like Descartes distinguished mind and body.

• The debate around “nature vs. nurture” brought questions of personality, development, learning, and free will to the fore.

• Psychology emerged as an experimental science in the late 19th century. Wilhelm Wundt founded the first psychology lab in 1879.

• Early psychology developed differently in Germany, the US, and France. The German school was experimental, the US school more philosophical, and the French school focused on hysteria and the unconscious.

• Although early psychology relied on introspection and subjectivity, it established the scientific study of perception, consciousness, memory, learning, and intelligence.

saw an analogy for the mind or soul,


which has the ability to manipulate

Descartes studied law at the

• René Descartes proposed that the mind and body are separate.

the flow of spirits through nerves

University of Poitiers, gaining

and muscles, like an hydraulic

his licentiate in 1616. He

• The mind is nonmaterial, but connected to the body. Descartes located the mind (or soul) in the pineal gland of the brain.

engineer controls the flow of water.

served in the army of the

• The body operates according to mechanical principles, like a machine. The

Catholic League for a short

flow of “animal spirits” through the nervous system causes movement

time, then traveled in Europe

and sensation.

from 1617 to 1628.

• The mind can influence the body by controlling the flow of animal spirits. The body can also influence the mind, as the mind becomes aware of sensations from the flow of spirits.

• Descartes used the analogy of the elaborate French formal gardens, with their hydraulic systems controlling the flow of water, to illustrate how the mind controls the flow of animal spirits in the body.

• Descartes’ theory of mind-body dualism and interactionism through the pineal gland dominated thinking for centuries.

In 1628, Descartes had a

series of visions that led him to devote his life to the search for truth through philosophy and science. He spent most of the 1630s in the Dutch Republic, where he wrote Discourse on the Method (1637). He died in Stockholm, Sweden, at the age of 53.

Key works

1637 Discourse on the Method 1641 Meditations on First Philosophy 1649 The Passions of the Soul




JOHN LOCKE (1632–1704)


There is no innate


knowledge or ideas.


Before any ideas, the mind

Experience and environment

is like a “blank slate” (tabula

shape the development of


the self and personality.

Knowledge comes from

experience, through the

senses. The mind builds

The self has free will and

ideas from simple sensations.

chooses the experiences that shape personality.

The mind is not passive,


1641 In Meditations on First

Philosophy, René Descartes

argues for innate ideas and

knowledge that exist in the

mind prior to experience.

1668 John Locke’s friend

Robert Boyle publishes The

Theories of personality in the 17th

rather it actively goes out to

century were dominated by René

gain experiences and build

Descartes’ theory of mind/body

semi-popular work of prose

dualism and innate ideas. The English

exposing key concepts of the

philosopher John Locke countered

new methodology of natural

this view. In his Essay Concerning

philosophy, or science.

Experience. This is a

knowledge. The mind shapes

itself through this process.


David Hume develops

Human Understanding (1689), Locke

Locke’s empiricism, arguing

proposed that there are no innate

that experience is the sole

ideas, and that the mind is a tabula

source of knowledge.

rasa—a blank slate—at birth. All

knowledge comes from experience,

1739 In A Treatise of Human

Nature, the Scottish philosopher

1748 In An Enquiry Concerning

Human Understanding, Hume

through the senses. Simple ideas

criticizes the idea of innate

build into more complex ones.

knowledge and free will.

The self is constructed through

experience and the environment,

shaped by choices and actions,

1835 Auguste Comte

not by innate factors. This view is

establishes positivism,

known as empiricism. Unlike

a philosophical approach

Descartes, who saw the mind as

based solely on sensory

passively receiving innate ideas,

experience and scientific method.

Locke argued that the mind actively engages with experience. Free will means we can choose experiences, influencing how we develop.


See also: ■ René Descartes 20–21 ■ David Hume 32–33 ■ William James 38–45

The mind has no

Locke believes that the mind is

“furnished with a large stock

innate ideas—it is

of simple ideas” gained through

born as a tabula rasa,

sensation and reflection. For example,

or blank slate.

through vision we gain the simple idea

John Locke

of colors; through hearing we gain

simple ideas of sounds. The mind then

actively combines, compares, and relates

these simple ideas into more complex ones, building knowledge and concepts.

John Locke was born in

Wrington, Somerset, England,

the son of a country lawyer.

Locke was christened, like all

children in 17th-century England,

in the Anglican Church. He

studied classics and philosophy

at Christ Church, Oxford. After

graduating, he lectured there

and was a tutor. In 1667, he

met Lord Anthony Ashley Cooper

These complex ideas are constructed by the mind, not innate. Even the idea of God is

(later the Earl of Shaftesbury),

built from ideas gained through experience, Locke says. The mind chooses experiences

who became his patron. Locke

and constructs knowledge, thus shaping itself, through the use of free will. Our

accompanied Shaftesbury to

personalities emerge from this ongoing process of experience and construction.

the Netherlands and France.

Experience and environment thus shape development far more than any innate factors.

In 1683, he fled to the

They expose us to simple ideas, and the mind actively builds knowledge from them.

Netherlands to avoid

The active mind uses free will to choose experiences, and so determines how it will

persecution due to his radical

develop. As Locke puts it, “The mind is not altogether passive… it is not like a smooth

views. He returned to England

blank sheet of white paper on which anything may be written.” Rather, it “operates on

in 1688 and published An

its own distinguishing, comparing, combining, applying, discarding, and improving”

Essay Concerning Human

the simple ideas it gains from experience. In this way, Locke says, the mind makes itself.

Understanding in 1689.

Locke opened up philosophical

Mind and experience

debate from relying solely on

The most fundamental point in Locke’s

common sense and religious

empiricism is that the mind is shaped

doctrine to relying on evidence and

by experience, not innate ideas. At birth,

reason. His ideas influenced

the mind is a tabula rasa—a blank slate.

the 18th-century Enlightenment

All knowledge comes from experience,

and empiricism. He died in

and through sensation (seeing, hearing,

1704 in Oates, Essex.

etc.) and reflection (the perception of what passes in our own minds), we gain

Key works

simple ideas. The mind is active, not

1689 An Essay Concerning

passive; it builds complex ideas from

Human Understanding

these and organizes them. Personality emerges from this constructive process, shaped by the experiences we choose through free will. In this way, Locke says, “Every man has freedom to frame his own model.” The mind makes itself. Locke’s empiricism and concept of the active, experience-based construction of

the self and knowledge challenged Descartes’ views. It influenced Enlightenment thinkers and subsequent philosophies of the self, knowledge, and human nature. ■

1693 Some Thoughts Concerning Education






Personality develops in


stages, based on cognitive




6th century BCE In The Republic,

Plato proposes that morality

The ability to reason about

develops in four stages of

moral issues progresses

increasing wisdom and virtue.

through a series of six

identified stages.

to the University of Göttingen

to describe ideas was Vorstellungen,

• Johann Friedrich Herbart was a German philosopher interested in how the mind works.

where he remained until

which translates as “representations. ”

• He proposed that the mind has a system for organizing and storing the many ideas we have.

his death in 1841.

These are active and dynamic—they

• Similar ideas can coexist, but dissimilar ideas contradict each other and become forces in conflict.

interact with one another in several

• The conflicting ideas repel one another, and one is forced out of consciousness into the unconscious.

ways. According to Herbart, they can

• Herbart saw the unconscious as a “state of tendency” where latent ideas continue to exist.

combine to form new concepts (fusion),

• He believed that ideas are active and energetic, interacting like magnets to attract or repel one another.

coexist in association (complication),

The key concepts Herbart proposed include the organization and storage of ideas, the conflict between

or contradict one another (resistance).

contradictory ideas, and the existence of an unconscious realm of “latent” ideas.

• Thoughts and feelings contain energy, acting on each other like magnets. • Two incompatible ideas repel each other, pushing one out of conscious awareness.

ment—what he termed “fortunate

rejected his views as racist. ■

though he never completed a degree. A keen sportsman and explorer, Galton traveled extensively in Africa and wrote several books on his experiences. He died at the age of 88.

• Personality traits come from two influences: nature (inborn) and nurture (learned experience).

Key works

• Nature sets limits on a person’s abilities and talents. Nurture allows skills and abilities to be developed, but only

1869 Hereditary Genius

within those limits.

1883 Inquiries into Human

• Francis Galton studied twins and family histories. He found strong evidence that nature plays the bigger role in

Faculty and Its Development

determining personality. Nurture seemed to have little influence.

• Galton coined the term “nature vs nurture” and believed nature was the more significant factor. His views supported eugenics—the idea that breeding could be used to enhance certain traits.

• Galton was a pioneer of using scientific methods to study human psychology and influenced later thinkers, though his views are now controversial.

• The debate over the influence of nature vs nurture on human development continues today. Most believe both play a role, though their relative importance remains contentious.





CARL JUNG (1875–1961)


Carl Jung argued that we have two “attitudes”: the outward-

facing conscious attitude that we show to the world and


Analytical psychology


the inward-facing unconscious attitude that reflects our true

1873 Mark Twain’s The Prince

hidden self.

and the Pauper suggests we all

have hidden motives.

The conscious mind is exposed

1900 Freud’s Interpretation

of Dreams proposes the

and concerned with establishing

existence of an unconscious

a relationship with the outer world.

source of thoughts and impulses.


1957 Wilhelm Reich’s The Mass

The unconscious is turned inward

Psychology of Fascism.

1962 Thomas Szasz’s The Myth

of Mental Illness questions Freud’s views.

and concerned with establishing a

relationship with our inner world:

1975 Julian Jaynes’ The Origin

of Consciousness suggests

consciousness is an illusion.

our dreams and instincts, complexes,

and archetypes.

Through therapy and dream analysis,

1980s Popularization of

“inner child work.”

we can uncover the unconscious, gain

insight into our true motivations and

needs, and achieve psychological

balance and wholeness.

Our outward-facing conscious attitude is shaped by society’s expectations, but our true inner self lies


See also: Sigmund Freud 20–25 ■ Alfred Adler 52–53 ■ Wilhelm Reich 141 ■ Thomas Szasz 150

hidden in the depths of the unconscious mind.

Carl Jung Carl Gustav Jung was born near

of Zurich. He spent the rest of his

Basel, Switzerland. The son of a

long life expanding on Freud’s

Swiss Reformed pastor, he originally

ideas and developing his own

The ego represents our conscious self. The personal

trained as a psychiatrist and studied

distinctive approach to psychology,

unconscious contains memories and feelings of which we are

with Sigmund Freud. Jung parted

which he called “analytical

company with Freud, however,

psychology.” Unlike Freud, Jung

disagreeing over the central role of

focused on individuation, spiritual

sexuality and the unconscious. In

growth, and finding meaning. He

1912, Jung resigned as editor of

emphasized the collective

Freud’s Jahrbuch and founded his

unconscious, which contains

The collective unconscious is the deepest level and

own journal. That same year, he

ancient symbols and archetypes

contains archetypes: primodal images and patterns that

published Symbols of Transformation,

shared by all humanity.

portraying psychology as a

Jung continued to work until his

we share with all humanity. Archetypes include things like the

spiritual quest.

death in 1961, at the age of 85.

Great Mother, the Wise Old Man, and the Hero.

In 1919, Jung left the University

His extensive writings cover topics

of Zurich to establish a private

ranging from psychiatry to religion,

practice and founded the C.G. Jung

mythology, philosophy, and art.

unaware. Complexes are emotionally charged clusters of ideas in the personal unconscious that can influence behavior.

The shadow contains primitive animal instincts and repressed emotions like anger or lust. The anima/animus represents the opposite gender in the psyche.

Institute of Analytical Psychology. In

Key works

1933, the rise of the Nazis led him

1916 Psychology of the

to resign from the International


Psychoanalytic Association. He

1921 Psychological Types

continued practicing in Küsnacht,

1953 Memories, Dreams,

near Zurich, where he founded The


Clinic of Analytical Psychology.

2002 The Red Book (posthumous)

Jung’s model of the psyche consists of three levels. The first is the ego, our conscious self. Beneath that lies the personal unconscious, containing hidden memories, feelings, and complexes that affect our thoughts and behavior. Deeper still is the collective unconscious, comprising archetypes that are shared by all humanity. To achieve psychological wholeness, or “individuation,” we must bring the unconscious into awareness, confront our shadow aspect, and integrate the anima/animus. Jung believed that through dream analysis and psychotherapy, we can gain insight into the unconscious mind. This helps us understand our true motivations and achieve balance between the inner and outer world. Unlike Freud, Jung focused on spirituality and personal growth rather than sexuality and neurosis. His ideas about archetypes, the collective unconscious, and individuation have been very influential. ■





WILHELM WUNDT (1832–1920)



Science developed rapidly during the 19th century. Wilhelm

Experimental psychology


Wundt sought to apply scientific methods to study the human

mind and the notions of freedom and determinism.

Determinism is the belief that all events are predetermined and cannot be changed.

1796 Erasmus Darwin in Zoonomia claims all thought is based on

the associations of ideas in the

mind, which follows determinism.

Free will is the ability to make choices of our own volition,

1839 Sir William Hamilton argues

unfettered by determinism.

that we perceive our choices

as being free, but this is an

illusion: determinism truly rules.

Wundt rejected strict determinism, arguing that the workings of the mind are compatible with some degree of free will.


1861 Herbert Spencer argues for

a compromise: our will seems free

but operates within constraints.

1874 William James suggests

that free will and determinism

are both present in the brain.

1975 A study by Benjamin Libet

Wundt claimed that the process by which the will makes choices

uses EEGs to suggest our sense

is not itself subject to determinism, and the choices are free in

of free will follows our brain’s

their quality though conditioned in their direction.

decision-making, challenging

the notion of free will.

The will is thus free, but never in an absolute sense. Free will and determinism coexist. The will is both autonomous and conditioned.

2019 Neuroscience studies show

that brain activity can predict

decisions seconds before

we are aware of making them.


See also: William James 38–45 ■ G. Stanley Hall 46–47 ■ Benjamin Libet 316 ■ Daniel Wegner 317

Experimental psychology was

Wilhelm Wundt believed science

established as an academic

could be applied to the study

discipline by Wilhelm Wundt.

of the human mind as well as

The workings of the mind, he said,

the physical world. Free will and

stem from mental connections and

determinism were two opposing

the flow of consciousness. He saw

ideas that intrigued him. He

the conscious will as being partly

sought to reconcile them through

free and partly determined.

experimental research, which laid the groundwork for psychology.

Wilhelm Wundt

Here is a summary of Wundt’s key ideas:

  • Consciousness exists in all living things, from the simplest animals to humans. It arose as life itself arose.

  • Psychology should study the mind through scientific experimentation and observation. Wundt established the first psychological laboratory to study consciousness experimentally.

  • Consciousness is inner experience. It includes sensations, perceptions, feelings, and thoughts. Wundt studied consciousness by observing people’s reactions in controlled experiments.

  • Although consciousness exists on a continuum across species, humans have unique cognitive abilities like reasoning, creativity, and self-awareness.

  • Wundt viewed psychology as the scientific study of the mind and mental life. His approach helped establish psychology as an independent field.

  • Wundt argued against Descartes’ view that animals lack consciousness and are merely automatons. Observing animals could provide insight into human behavior and mind.

  • Wundt believed that by experimenting on the mind and observing behavior, psychology could yield quantitative data and scientific knowledge about consciousness and mental life.

So in summary, Wundt established a scientific approach to psychology focused on studying consciousness through experimentation and observation. He saw consciousness as a fundamental part of life itself, existing in all living things but reaching its highest levels in humans. Wundt helped turn psychology into an independent scientific field.

Here is a summary of Wilhelm Wundt and his experiments:

  • Wilhelm Wundt was a German psychologist who is considered the father of experimental psychology.

  • He set up the first psychology laboratory in 1879 at the University of Leipzig.

  • Wundt studied conscious experiences through introspection and trained observers reporting their sensations.

  • He examined basic sensory processes and mental components like sensations, perceptions, and feelings.

  • Wundt proposed that consciousness has three categories: sensations, perceptions/representations, and feelings.

  • He believed that psychology should focus on direct observations and measurements of the mind and behavior.

  • Wundt recognized the role of culture and language in shaping human consciousness and mental life.

  • His work helped establish psychology as an independent scientific field separate from philosophy.

  • William James compared consciousness to a flowing stream, with thoughts following one after another.

  • Though thoughts seem separate, they combine to give us a sense of unified consciousness. This is because thoughts that enter our awareness at the same time form “pulses” within the stream.

  • These pulses jolt us from one conclusion to another, but the stream continues flowing. Our consciousness is constantly evolving.

  • James found it difficult to grasp how separate thoughts combine into a unified consciousness. He used the analogy of 12 men each thinking of one word in a sentence but none being aware of the whole sentence.

  • James concluded that thoughts are combined in “single pulses” of the stream of consciousness. Some thoughts are connected, like hearing a noise and feeling pain at once.

  • James saw consciousness as a process, not a thing. Its purpose is to help us reflect on the past and future, plan and adapt, and survive. But there is no final conclusion; consciousness constantly evolves.

  • James said consciousness is personal - thoughts belong to individuals and are never independent of a thinker. Each thought is “owned” by someone.

  • In summary, James defined consciousness as an ever-changing process that combines our thoughts and sensations to help us navigate the world, though he struggled with how exactly separate thoughts fuse into a seamless whole. His ideas influenced later thinkers.

• G. Stanley Hall was a pioneering American psychologist who studied human development.

• Hall believed that human development is largely determined by nature and evolution. He saw development as repeating humanity’s “ancestral record.”

• According to Hall, a child has innate “animallike” tendencies and goes through several stages of growth, including infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood.

• Hall viewed adolescence as a crucial stage of development. He said adolescence marks a time when a person’s evolutionary momentum slows down, allowing for individual change and growth.

• Hall helped establish adolescence as a distinct stage of human development in Western culture. Before him, adolescence was not formally recognized as a separate developmental period.

• Hall took an evolutionary perspective on development that emphasized nature over nurture. His view contrasted with other theorists of his time who focused more on environment and experience.

• Hall made important contributions to the study of educational psychology and founded the American Psychological Association. However, some of his beliefs, like his emphasis on recapitulation theory, are now discredited.

• Hall’s work helped establish psychology as an academic discipline in the U.S. He promoted psychology’s potential for improving education, child-rearing, and society.

That covers the key highlights and contributions of G. Stanley Hall’s theory of human development. Let me know if you would like me to explain anything in the summary in more detail.

Here is a summary of Alfred Binet’s key ideas:

  • Intelligence is not fixed but can be developed. Binet rejected the notion that intelligence is inherited and unchangeable.

  • Intelligence is complex and multi-dimensional. Binet developed intelligence tests to measure a range of mental abilities, not just a single quality.

  • Intelligence tests can be used to identify students who may need additional support. Binet designed his tests to help identify children who were struggling in school so they could receive remedial education.

  • Intelligence involves judgment, comprehension, and reason. Binet focused on higher-level thinking skills rather than just sensory abilities or rote learning.

  • Education and environment influence a child’s mental development. Binet believed that a child’s intelligence is shaped through experience, not set at birth. With support and education, children can strengthen their cognitive abilities.

  • Intelligence testing can be imperfect and subject to bias. Binet recognized that intelligence tests may favor certain groups and that results depend partly on a child’s background. Tests should be interpreted cautiously.

In summary, Binet pioneered the modern intelligence test but saw intelligence as malleable rather than fixed, shaped by education and experience as much as inheritance. His tests were designed to help identify students who needed more support, not to label them in a definitive or permanent way. Binet took a developmental and educationally oriented view of children’s cognitive growth rather than a narrow or static notion of intelligence.

Does this summary accurately reflect Binet’s key concepts? Let me know if you would like me to clarify or expand on any part of the summary.

  • In the late 19th century, Alfred Binet devised intelligence tests to measure individual mental abilities.

  • Binet collaborated with Theodore Simon to create the Binet-Simon Scale in 1905 to identify learning disabilities in children.

  • The Binet-Simon Scale consisted of 30 tasks of increasing difficulty to assess a child’s mental age. It was revised in 1908 and 1911.

  • Binet stressed that intelligence evolved over time and was influenced by environment. He saw intelligence tests as only measuring ability at one point in time.

  • Binet’s work was adapted by others, like Lewis Terman, who created the Stanford-Binet Scale. Binet criticized these adaptations that promoted a fixed view of intelligence.

  • Binet viewed intelligence as multifaceted, developing at different rates in individuals, and changed by circumstances. He opposed the idea that it was biologically determined.

  • The Binet-Simon Scale introduced the concept of the intelligence quotient or IQ. Although limited, it formed the basis of modern intelligence testing.

In the late 19th and early 20th century, psychology emerged as an independent scientific discipline, separate from philosophy. In the US, psychologists sought to establish psychology as an objective science. They reacted against the introspective, philosophical approach and argued that psychology should focus on observable and measurable phenomena.

The behaviorists proposed studying the mind—conceptualized as behavior—under controlled laboratory conditions. They designed experiments to observe animal behavior in response to carefully controlled situations and stimuli. From these, they inferred theories about learning, memory, conditioning, and human-environment interaction.

A key influence was Ivan Pavlov’s study of conditioning in dogs. Pavlov showed how animals learn to associate one stimulus with another (classical conditioning), providing a basis for behaviorism. Behaviorists focused on observing responses to external stimuli while ignoring inner mental states and processes. They conceptualized psychology as the study of behavior, defined as “the doings and sayings, both learned and unlearned.” Key early behaviorists include Thorndike, Tolman, and Guthrie.

The behaviorist approach dominated psychology for much of the 20th century. It aimed to put psychology on an objective, scientific footing by focusing on observable and measurable behavior.

Edward Thorndike was an early pioneer in the study of animal behavior and learning. For his PhD thesis in 1898, he investigated how chickens learn to escape from cages. He found that chickens learned through trial-and-error, and came to associate certain behaviors with rewards or punishments. From this, Thorndike proposed his “law of effect” - that behaviors followed by satisfaction will be “stamped in” and likely to recur.

Thorndike rejected the prevailing idea that animals can learn through reasoning or insight. Instead, he argued that learning is a gradual process of making connections between stimuli and responses that lead to positive outcomes. His research and theories were highly influential and helped lay the foundation for behaviorism. However, Thorndike’s work differed from later behaviorists like Skinner in that he believed mental processes do play a role in learning, in addition to environmental factors.

Thorndike made several other contributions, including theories of transfer of learning and the development of the first standardized tests to measure intelligence and learning ability in animals. His research using puzzle boxes, where animals had to manipulate objects to escape, demonstrated that learning is driven by reinforcement and reward. Thorndike’s “law of effect” and research into how associations are formed and strengthened was groundbreaking, and influenced subsequent behaviorists.

In summary, Edward Thorndike was a pioneer in the study of learning and helped establish the field of animal psychology. His theories emphasized trial-and-error learning, the reinforcement of associations, and the role of consequences in shaping behavior. Thorndike laid the foundation for behaviorism, though his ideas differed in acknowledging a role for mental factors in learning. His influential work shaped the development of learning theory and psychology in the early 20th century.

John B. Watson promoted the application of classical conditioning to human psychology. He believed that human behavior, like that of animals, is determined primarily by environmental factors rather than innate tendencies or free will.

Watson studied under James Mark Baldwin and James McKeen Cattell at Johns Hopkins University, where he earned his Ph.D. in psychology in 1903. He became director of the university’s psychology laboratory in 1908.

Watson rejected introspection and the study of unconscious mental processes. He argued that observable behavior should be the sole subject matter of psychology. In his 1913 article “Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It,” he outlined his behaviorist position, which held that psychology should be an objective science concerned only with observable behavioral responses to external stimuli.

Watson promoted an environmentalist theory of development. He believed that behavior is shaped primarily by experience, not inborn tendencies or instincts. In his famous 1920 experiment, he conditioned an infant known as Little Albert to fear a white rat. This demonstrated that emotional responses could be learned through conditioning.

Watson left academia in 1920 and had a successful career in advertising, where he applied behaviorist principles to persuade consumers. His work helped establish behaviorism as a leading school of thought in 20th-century psychology. Although his strict focus on observable behavior was later broadened, his emphasis on learning and environmental influence shaped behaviorism and modern psychology.

In summary, John B. Watson established behaviorism as a dominant school of thought in 20th-century psychology. He argued that psychology should focus on observable behavior rather than mental processes. Believing that behavior is primarily learned and shaped by environment rather than instinct, he conducted experiments demonstrating how emotional responses can be conditioned. Although his views were later expanded, Watson’s work had a lasting influence on behaviorism and psychology.

explained as a student many years

Through experiments on a baby called Little Albert, John B. Watson demonstrated that humans are susceptible to emotional conditioning. By repeatedly pairing a loud frightening noise (the unconditioned stimulus) with the sight of a white rat (originally a neutral stimulus), Watson conditioned the baby to become distressed at the sight of the rat alone (the conditioned response). This showed that emotions, not just behaviors, can be conditioned. Watson believed this proved his view that human behavior is infinitely malleable, regardless of nature or nurture.

Though his work was cut short by scandal, Watson’s theories gained popularity and influence through his subsequent books. However, his belief in behaviorism as a child-rearing method may have caused suffering in his own and others’ families. Overall, Watson brought behaviorism into the mainstream and established conditioning as a key concept in psychology, though his claims were often exaggerated.

between spouses to lead

theory of child development

puzzle boxes”—sealed boxes with

Edwin Guthrie proposed a theory of one-trial

to another, one insult to

based on schemas, rather than

a release mechanism. He saw that

learning, suggesting that a single exposure to a

provoke a retort, one smile


the cats learned how to escape with

combination of stimuli is sufficient to create an

one trial. They did not need repeated

association between them and a response. He

reinforcement to remember the skill.

saw learning as the result of contiguity, in which

Similarly, rats would come running

mere proximity of a stimulus and response in time

to a food source they had discovered

and space leads to an association between them.

once, even if they had been fed

Unlike other behaviorists, he rejected the idea that

elsewhere in the meantime. In this

reinforcement is necessary for conditioning.

Edwin Guthrie

to invite another…Contiguity alone is postulated as sufficient for learning.


Ivan Pavlov 60–61

Edward Thorndike 62–65

Edward Tolman 72–73

See also: Jean Piaget 162–71

B.F. Skinner 78–85

Joseph Wolpe 86–87

Contiguity theory

cats encountering a puzzle box

Edwin Guthrie attended Ohio

for the first time performed the

Wesleyan University, where he

full sequence of movements to

majored in philosophy. He had

escape immediately rather than

intended to become a minister

working them out gradually through

but turned to psychology after

trial and error, proving that learning

reading works by William James.

could occur in a single trial.

He gained a PhD from Cornell

Guthrie’s contiguity theory

University in 1916, then taught at

proposed that merely experiencing

various universities until joining

stimuli in close conjunction

the University of Washington in

with responses leads to the

Seattle in 1929. Like Edward

association between them, without

Tolman, he opposed the prevailing

reinforcement. However, his theory

behaviorist view that conditioning

failed to explain how associations

required reinforcement.

change or break down without reinforcement—as I.P. Pavlov had

Guthrie observed that the

shown was possible. ■

One-trial learning In an experiment, Guthrie

observed cats trapped inside sealed boxes with a mechanism that allowed them to escape. He saw that in a single trial, without any previous training or reinforcement, the cats went

through the complete sequence of movements required to operate the release mechanism and escape from the box. This led Guthrie to propose the idea

of “one-trial learning”—that

a single pairing of a stimulus and response is enough to form an association between them in the subject’s mind.

Edwin Guthrie is known for proposing

Key works

the idea of “one-trial” learning—that

a single exposure to a combination

1935 The Psychology of

of stimuli results in learning. His


theory of “contiguity” suggested

that the mere proximity of a stimulus and response leads to association between them, without the need for

reinforcement. These ideas challenged the prevailing behaviorist view that

learning required repeated exposure.

Contiguity, and the like, can influence and guide learning but they cannot determine its intrinsic nature, which remains forever unknown. Edwin Guthrie








Epictetus was one of the most

We do not choose our

prominent Stoic philosophers of

circumstances, but we do

the Roman era. A pupil of the

choose how we respond

eminent Stoic Musonius Rufus, he

to them.

taught that philosophy was a way of

200S BC Zeno of Citium founds

life, not just an academic discipline.

the Stoic school of philosophy.

circumstances or external events,

300 BC Epicurus founds a

but we do control our own mind,

400BC Socrates teaches that

our judgements, and our opinions.

a virtuous life is within our

We therefore have the freedom and

control, regardless of

responsibility to live according to


Stoic values: wisdom, courage,


justice, and temperance.

200AD Marcus Aurelius’s

Meditations elaborates Stoic views on virtue, duty, and

Other elements of Epictetus’s

resignation to fate.

We cannot control external

The way we think about things is what creates our reality.

thought include: • Concentrating on what we can influence rather than worrying

the development of

about what we cannot control.

Christianity in the

• Maintaining emotional

wake of Stoicism.

equilibrium by not becoming

The Stoic idea of controlling our responses

too attached to external things.

and judgments teaches that our distress

comes not from events themselves but

• Accepting whatever comes to

from how we think about them. The same

pass with an attitude of serenity.

event might be viewed joyfully by one

• Living in harmony with nature

person and tragically by another, depending

and the greater will that governs

on their beliefs and expectations. By shaping

the universe. ■

our thinking, we shape our world.


See also: Zeno of Citium 44–45

Socrates 40–41

Epicurus 46–47

Marcus Aurelius 166–67

300 BC Arcesilaus applies a

material constitution, rather than

famous philosopher in antiquity.

sceptical approach to Platonic

external events, are what truly

Born into slavery in AD 55 in

teachings, questioning whether

matters. He saw philosophy not as

Hierapolis (modern Turkey),

true knowledge is possible.

an esoteric pursuit but as a way of

Epictetus was educated and later

attaining eudaimonia, or tranquillity

manumitted by his owner, allowing

of mind and strength of spirit.

him to study philosophy. He moved to Rome where he taught Stoicism

Philosophy as a way of life

Little is known about Epictetus’s

until around AD 90, focusing on

Epictetus believed that philosophy

life. While teaching in Rome, he

ethics and living virtuously. When

should shape one’s whole way

attracted Emperor Hadrian’s

the emperor Domitian expelled

of living, not just be theoretical

interest but declined his patronage.

philosophers from Rome, Epictetus

knowledge. He taught that our

He spent his last years teaching at

settled in Nicopolis in Greece,

thoughts and moral character, our

Nicopolis, where he died around AD

where he continued teaching.

  1. Though none of Epictetus’s

Epictetus taught that we

works survive intact, his teachings

cannot control external

were recorded by his pupil Arrian

circumstances, only our

in the Discourses and Enchiridion

responses to them. Our

(Handbook). Epictetus ranks among

thoughts, judgments, and

the most influential Stoics. ■

We are disturbed not by events, but by the views we take of them. Epictetus

The art of living lies less in eliminating our troubles than in growing with them. Bernard M. Baruch

Man is disturbed not by things, but by the views he takes of them. Epictetus

Key works

No great thing is created suddenly. Epictetus

Discourses Enchiridion (The Handbook)

Both recorded by Arrian, Epictetus’s pupil.




B.F. SKINNER (1904–90)


Here is a summary of B.F. Skinner and his theory of radical behaviorism:

• B.F. Skinner was an American psychologist who developed the theory of radical behaviorism.

• Radical behaviorism built upon earlier theories of behaviorism proposed by psychologists such as Ivan Pavlov and John B. Watson. Skinner subjected these theories to rigorous experimental testing.

• Skinner believed that psychology should follow the scientific method. Anything that could not be observed, measured, and repeated experimentally was irrelevant.

• Skinner rejected mentalistic concepts such as the mind or free will. He believed behavior was shaped entirely by environmental factors through conditioning.

• Skinner proposed the concepts of operant conditioning, positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment, and shaping to explain how behavior is learned and modified.

• Skinner designed novel experiments and contraptions such as the Skinner box to study behavior in a controlled setting. His experiments fascinated the public and helped popularize his ideas.

• Skinner believed behaviorism could be used to modify behavior and improve society. But his theories were also controversial, with critics arguing they reduced human behavior and free will.

• Skinner was an influential figure who helped move psychology further in a scientific direction focused on observable behavior. His work had a major impact on psychology, education, and society.

B.F. Skinner worked to establish behaviorism as a scientific discipline. He moved away from introspection and focused on observable behavior. Mental processes were subjective and did not exist separately from the body, in his view.

Skinner conducted experiments using an operant conditioning chamber, or “Skinner box,” to study behavior in rats and pigeons. He found that behavior is conditioned by its consequences. When a rat pressed a lever in the box and received food, it was likely to press the lever again. Skinner called this operant conditioning. Behavior that is reinforced tends to be repeated.

Positive reinforcement, like giving food for lever-pressing, strengthens behavior. Negative reinforcement, like removing an unpleasant stimulus, also strengthens behavior. Punishment, like electric shocks, weakens behavior. Skinner found positive reinforcement to be most effective.

Operant conditioning is similar to natural selection. Only behaviors suited to the environment will survive and continue. Skinner believed behavior is shaped by its consequences, not by any preceding stimulus.

Skinner’s theories influenced the development of behavior therapy techniques like systematic desensitization. His work also influenced social learning theory. Though a behaviorist, Skinner’s ideas differed from earlier behaviorists like Watson in his focus on consequences rather than preceding stimuli.

• Joseph Wolpe proposed that anxiety results from learned associations between a stimulus and an emotional response, not from unconscious conflicts. He believed anxiety could be unlearned through new conditioning.

• Wolpe developed reciprocal inhibition therapy, based on the idea that anxiety and relaxation are incompatible emotional states. Deep relaxation could be used to inhibit anxiety and extinguish the learned emotional response.

• Wolpe used systematic desensitization, combining relaxation training and gradual exposure to the anxiety-provoking stimulus. Patients learned to relax in the presence of the stimulus, weakening the association between it and the anxious response.

• Wolpe’s behavior therapy approach challenged psychoanalysis and emphasized changing maladaptive learned behaviors rather than gaining insight into the unconscious mind. His techniques have been influential in the development of cognitive behavioral therapy.

• Reciprocal inhibition and systematic desensitization are still used today to treat specific phobias and other anxiety disorders. Wolpe made a significant contribution to psychology by providing an evidence-based alternative to psychoanalysis.

Sigmund Freud believed that human behavior is largely determined by unconscious drives and desires. He developed the theory of psychoanalysis, which aims to make the unconscious conscious through free association, dream analysis, and interpretation of defense mechanisms.

Freud proposed that the mind is composed of three elements:

  • The id: the primal instincts and desires operating in the unconscious mind. The id seeks instant gratification of desires.

  • The ego: the rational component that regulates thoughts and behaviors to reconcile the urges of the id with the constraints of the real world. The ego operates based on the reality principle.

  • The superego: the moral component, incorporating social standards and the conscience. The superego punishes the ego with feelings of guilt when it gives in to the id.

Freud believed that personality develops through a series of psychosexual stages from infancy to adulthood. Conflicts and events during these stages contribute to an individual’s unconscious development and shape their personality.

Much of our mental life remains outside of our awareness in the unconscious mind. Psychoanalysis seeks to make the unconscious conscious through interpretation of free associations, dreams, slips of the tongue, and defense mechanisms. Bringing unconscious thoughts and motivations into awareness can help to relieve psychological distress and gain insight into one’s behavior and personality.

While Freud’s theories have been controversial and challenged, he revolutionized psychological thought and introduced concepts that remain relevant today, such as the unconscious mind, ego defense mechanisms, psychosexual development, and dream symbolism. Freud’s work transformed the theory and practice of psychotherapy.

experiencing loss of social standing

Freud believed that the mind has three parts—the conscious,

preconscious, and unconscious. The unconscious contains our primitive impulses (the id), powerful feelings we cannot directly access (the repressed), and things not currently in our active thought (preconscious).

Reality involves the need to avoid negative consequences.

through their expression in

The ego also has to deal with the

disguised form …with the help

superego, formed from childhood

of interpretation.

experiences, which acts as our

Carl Jung

conscience and moral guide. The

superego judges our impulses and

behavior, and it generates feelings

psychoanalysis. According to Freud,

of inferiority, guilt, and anxiety

this technique works by allowing

when we deviate from its strict rules.

repressed materials to enter the conscious mind. By discussing

Psychic conflict

dreams, memories, fantasies, and

It is little wonder that tensions arise

current thoughts, the psychoanalyst

within this complex structure. The

encourages free associations between

demands of the id, superego, and

ideas. From these associations, the

external reality are often in conflict,

analyst can detect recurring themes,

and this inner turmoil manifests itself

look for symbolic meanings, and

in anxiety and unhappiness. The ego

provide interpretations of the

is continually struggling to reconcile

patient’s unconscious conflicts.

these conflicting forces. Its job is to

Through gaining insight into

find ways of gratifying the urges of

the workings of the unconscious

the id in acceptable, non-punishing

mind, the patient can experience

ways, while still conforming to the

“catharsis”—the release of

moral code of the superego and the

repressed emotions. This gradually

constraints of the real world. Given the

weakens the power of the

impossibility of this task, is it any

unconscious and brings greater harmony between its parts. ❯❯

Unconscious instinctual drives (the id) motivate behavior and seek pleasure. The ego negotiates between the id, superego (conscience), and reality. Their conflicts cause anxiety and unhappiness. Psychoanalysis uses free association and dream interpretation to gain insight into the unconscious, releasing repressed feelings (catharsis) and reducing its power.

The role of dreams Dreams, according to Freud,

the “Royal Road to the Unconscious.”

• Forgotten memories of past experiences.

provide a window into the workings

By interpreting the symbolic content

Freud believed that nothing in our mental life is lost

of the unconscious mind. He called

of dreams, the analyst can discover:

completely, so dreams may contain fragments of

• Repressed wishes and desires. The desires of the id emerge in disguised form to circumvent the superego. • Current concerns or preoccupations. Our everyday thoughts or worries may emerge in distorted or exaggerated ways.


past experiences that have slipped from consciousness. Through interpreting the strange logic of dreams, the analyst works to uncover the hidden meaning. Gradually, connections between the manifest and latent content of the dream can be discerned.

The primary purpose of dreams,

manifestations of the repressed

and the symbolic representations of

And an essential part of the

Reality, and of the conflict between

according to Freud, is wish

unconscious material emerging in

the Superego and its opposing Id

treatment is to interpret these

fulfillment. They represent the

the dreams. The repressed forbidden

and Ego. Freud maintained that

manifestations of the unconscious

desires of the id, disguised to get

wishes are transformed through a

dreams were a “window into the

in order to bring them into

past the censor of the superego.

process he called “dream work” into

unconscious”, revealing truths about

conscious awareness and thus

The desires emerge in symbolic

the strange imagery and bizarre

our deepest thoughts and desires;

alleviate the psychopathology.

form, represented in the “manifest

storylines of our dreams. The

and that through interpreting

The ultimate goal of Freud’s

content” of the dream. The hidden

disguises serve to hide the true

dreams, we could gain access to

psychoanalytic technique is the

meaning, or “latent content,” reflects

meaning from the conscious mind

the unconscious forces governing

resolution of unconscious conflicts,

the true wishes or drives. Freud

so as to avoid anxiety, but the

human behavior and the dynamics

allowing the individual to achieve

interpreted dreams as disguised

skilled analyst can peel away the

of personality development.

insight and harmony in their psyche.

The role of Freud today

aspects of Freud’s work have been

psychoanalysis, including the

discredited by modern therapists.

emphasis on the unconscious and

For example, his belief that adult

the importance of gaining insight

Freud was a pivotal figure in the

neuroses always originate in early

into repressed feelings. His ideas

field of psychotherapy. Although

childhood has largely been rejected.

highlight the profound effect of

some of his theories were flawed

However, central tenets of Freudian

early experiences on subsequent

or unsubstantiated, and certain

thought have endured in modern

development and the conflicts and tensions underlying the surface of mental life. His work revolutionized the way we think about human nature and development. Freud’s discovery of the unconscious and his mapping of its complex dynamics laid the foundation for modern psychodynamic approaches to treatment.

See also: Johann Friedrich Herbart 24–25 ■ Jean-Martin Charcot 30 ■ Carl Jung 102–07 ■ Anna Freud 111 ■ Jacques Lacan 122–23 ■ Donald Winnicott 124–25 ■ Aaron Beck 174–75 ■ Elizabeth Loftus 202–07

• Alfred Adler was an early disciple of Freud who broke away to develop his own school of thought, called individual psychology.

• Adler believed that psychological health is influenced not just by unconscious drives and the past but also by conscious motivations and social factors in the present.

• A key concept in Adler’s theory is that of inferiority. He said all children feel inferior due to their smallness and weakness compared to adults. This motivates them to overcome their inferiority through achievement and gaining power over their environment.

• For Adler, self-esteem depends on achieving life’s goals and gaining a sense of significance. If a person feels inferior and unable to achieve life goals, neurotic symptoms may develop as a means of gaining power or avoiding failure.

• Adler saw humans as social beings whose mental health depends on feeling useful and connected to others. Individual psychology focuses on gaining insight into the individual’s subjective perceptions and private logic.

• Treatment in Adlerian therapy aims to reeducate the client and replace unhealthy or misguided life goals and assumptions with more adaptive ones that will allow social interest and healthy self-esteem to develop.

• Key Adlerian concepts include social interest, lifestyle, inferiority complex, superiority complex, and fictional finalism. Adler’s theories provide an optimistic view of human nature and potential for positive growth.

That covers the essence of Adler’s individual psychology theory and approach to treatment. Let me know if you would like me to explain anything in the summary in more detail.

  • Carl Jung believed that myths and symbols are strikingly similar across cultures because they come from ancient memories shared by all humans.

  • These memories are contained in the collective unconscious, which exists in each person.

  • The collective unconscious is made up of archetypes, which are symbols that act as organizing forms for thoughts and behaviors. Archetypes emerge in the language of symbols and myths.

  • The personal unconscious contains an individual’s suppressed memories. The ego represents the conscious mind.

  • There are many archetypes, including the hero, the goddess, the wise old man, and the anima/animus. The persona is the part of oneself that one presents to the world.

  • Archetypes reflect the experiences of our ancestors and act as templates to help us understand the world. Though the details are filled in with our personal experiences, the archetypes provide the framework.

  • Jung thought that denying either the feminine or masculine part of one’s psyche limits one’s potential. The anima and animus allow us to access these other qualities.

  • Archetypes appear in all forms of human expression, like art, literature, and drama. We can recognize them instantly and attach emotional meaning to them.

Here is a summary of Melanie Klein’s key ideas:

• Klein believed that the human psyche is dominated by a constant struggle between opposing instincts for life and death. These instincts generate tension, conflict, and confusion within us.

• The life instinct, or libido, drives us toward growth, pleasure, creation, and renewal. It fuels our instinct for selfpreservation and our creative endeavors.

• The death instinct drives us toward destruction, pain, and aggression. It compels us to direct destructive impulses outward in order to avoid being destroyed by them.

• These opposing instincts are present from infancy and persist throughout our lives. We never transcend them to reach a mature, conflict-free state of mind.

• The ongoing battle between these forces generates a struggle between love and hate, even in babies. It leads to anger and “bad” feelings that become misdirected at all things, whether good or bad.

• This deep-seated conflict makes true happiness difficult to attain and accounts for humankind’s innate tendency toward aggression and violence.

• Klein believed that we employ various defense mechanisms, like projection, to cope with the anxiety produced by this conflict. But we can never fully escape it.

• Understanding this conflict helps explain the human condition and the repeatedly destructive and self-defeating choices people make. Resolving the conflict is vital for psychological health and maturity.

• Klein’s ideas built on Freud’s views of the life and death instincts, but she gave them a central role in human motivation and experience. Her work was very influential in the development of object relations theory in psychoanalysis.

182–85 ■ Immanuel Kant 210–11 ■ Carl

Jung 152–57 ■ Karen Horney 110–11 ■ Max Wertheimer 224–27 ■Carl Rogers 130–37 ■ Richard Bandler 350

allow enough room for personal responsibility or experience. In Perls’

• Fritz Perls, cofounder of Gestalt therapy, believes that each person’s “truth” is shaped

view, every person constructs

by their unique perception and experience of the world.

reality differently, and must accept responsibility for creating it. Our

• There is no single objective truth; we see the world through the “lenses” of our

subjective experience. We filter and select from the infinite range of possibilities

moment-to-moment experiences are

according to our personal biases and assumptions.

far from fixed or predetermined. They are formed by choices—by what

• We tend to mistake our personal viewpoints for objective truths. But to discover our

we decide to notice and how we

own truth, we must reject accepted “givens” from society and family, and determine

interpret things. With awareness

our own values.

and responsibility for our perceptions, we can recreate our

• Perls saw psychoanalysis as too rigid and generalized. Gestalt therapy focuses on

experience. Ultimately, the most

personal responsibility and experience. Our reality is created moment by moment

important truth is not some absolute

through the choices we make in how we perceive and interpret our experiences.

or general principle, but each individual’s personal truth, • Change comes through awareness of how we are actively “building our own world.”

discovered through self-awareness

By changing our perceptions and interpretations, we can reshape our reality.

and acceptance of responsibility. Perls summed this up, saying: “The only final truth, the only thing you can be certain about, is that all things

• Truth is tolerable only if discovered by the self; it cannot be imposed by others.

change. Truth is personal and you can discover it for yourself.” ■

Carl Jung: Focused on individuation and the collective unconscious. Believed dreams reveal inner self.

Karen Horney: Rejected Freud’s theories of female psychology. Focused on self-realization and impact of culture/environment on personality.

Erich Fromm: Believed love and interpersonal relationships are central to mental health and growth. Focused on freedom and responsibility.

Carl Rogers: Pioneer of humanistic psychology. Focused on self-actualization through therapist providing unconditional positive regard.

Abraham Maslow: Proposed hierarchy of needs and self-actualization. Focused on human potential and innate drive toward growth.

Roger Shepard: Studied mental representations and cognition. Proposed “universal laws of grouping” for perceptual organization.

Jon Kabat-Zinn: Pioneer of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR). Uses meditation and yoga to increase awareness and reduce stress.

Max Wertheimer: A founder of Gestalt psychology. Studied perceptual organization and proposed Gestalt principles of grouping.

Fritz Perls: A founder of Gestalt therapy. Focused on awareness of the present moment, personal responsibility, and rejecting social expectations. Promoted self-actualization through accepting oneself and one’s choices.

  • Gestalt therapy emphasizes the client’s own path and ideas. It fit well with the counterculture of the 1960s.

  • According to Donald Winnicott, a British pediatrician and psychoanalyst, it is not enough to love an adopted child. The parents must also be able to tolerate hating the child at times.

  • Children from neglectful homes expect to be rejected and unloved. They act out in hatred as a defense, even with loving adoptive parents. This provokes hatred in the parents.

  • If the parents acknowledge and tolerate these feelings of hatred, the child learns that they are loved even when the feelings of hatred surface. They can then form secure attachments.

  • The hatred the child expresses is not personal but a projection of past experiences. The parents’ response is critical. They must tolerate the hatred without reinforcing the child’s belief that they are unlovable.

  • Unconscious hatred is a natural part of parenting and relationships. Healthy hatred exists even in psychologically normal families. The parent must be able to “hate appropriately.”

  • Winnicott saw the parent-child relationship as an analogy for the therapist-client relationship. The therapist must be able to tolerate the hatred and negative feelings generated by the client, just as a parent must with a child.

  • Winnicott took a realistic approach to parenting and therapy. He avoided sentimentality in favor of acknowledging difficult emotions like hatred.

  • According to Erich Fromm, humans suffer from feelings of anxiety, frustration,

and powerlessness due to our separation from nature and from one another.

  • We are aware of our mortality and separateness through our ability to reason. This

makes life inherently painful.

  • Finding meaning and purpose in life can help overcome these painful feelings. The

ultimate aim in life should be to cultivate our capacity for love.

  • Embracing our uniqueness and personal creativity is a way to find meaning. Fromm

believed we should search out and devote ourselves to discovering our own abilities

and ideas.

  • Creativity allows us to see and interpret the world in new ways. Great artists have the

ability to tap into a deeper level of experience and find meaning.

  • Fromm said man’s main task is to “give birth” to himself - to develop his personality

and creativity through self-knowledge and by transcending his isolation through love.

  • For Fromm, the most precious human quality is the love of life. We must strive to

develop joy and fulfillment.

  • Fromm believed that nothing is more difficult for people than feeling separated from

a larger group. We have a need to belong as well as be independent.

  • Overall, Fromm emphasized personal growth, love, creativity, and finding meaning

and purpose as the keys to overcoming the difficulties of human existence.

  • Erich Fromm believed that humans have an inherent anxiety and sense of isolation that leads to a longing for unity and conformity. However, the path to overcoming this is through individuation - discovering one’s unique purpose and identity.

  • Fromm identified several “nonproductive” personality types that inhibit personal growth: receptive, exploitative, hoarding, marketing, and necrophilous. The ideal is the “productive” personality which truly loves and respects others.

  • Love, according to Fromm, is not an emotion but an active capacity which respects the individuality of both self and other. Most relationships fail at this, seeking either conformity or possession instead of union.

  • Creativity and individual purpose are key to overcoming existential anxieties. By embracing our uniqueness we can achieve a sense of unity and belonging. The fully individuated person is called the “man without a mask.”

  • Fromm’s work combines psychology, sociology and politics. He aimed to influence society and was more accepted by the general public than academia due to his radical humanism and insistence on intellectual freedom.

  • Examples are given of several personality types, e.g. Hitler as a necrophilous character. Productive personalities like Gandhi are also mentioned.

  • A brief biography of Fromm is provided, covering his education, career, marriages, and major life events. Key details include fleeing Nazi Germany, teaching in the US and Mexico, and his relationships with other thinkers like Karen Horney.

Does this summary accurately reflect the key ideas and details about Erich Fromm and his theories? Let me know if you would like me to clarify or expand the summary in any way.

Carl Rogers believed in an unconditional, positive view of human nature. He felt that mental health is an ongoing process, not a fixed state. The key to well-being is living fully in the present moment with an openness to experience.

Rogers rejected the idea that there are strict categories of “normal” and “neurotic.” Instead, he saw human personality as fluid and changeable. Our view of ourselves emerges from our experiences, rather than being fixed. However, we often construct rigid ideas of how we “should” be and try to mold ourselves to fit those constructs. This limits our ability to live fully in the present.

To live “the good life,” Rogers said we must abandon preconceptions, trust ourselves, and be open to experiences as they arise. This means embracing all of our emotions, rather than selectively blocking some out. Although difficult, it allows for a richer experience of life.

A key part of Rogers’ approach was “unconditional positive regard” - accepting ourselves and others without judgment. He felt this was essential for well-being. Conditional regard, based on achievements or behaviors, leaves people feeling unworthy.

So in summary, Rogers believed in living fully in each moment with an openness to experience, accepting ourselves and others unconditionally, and allowing our view of ourselves to emerge from our experiences rather than rigid preconceptions. This approach allows for greater freedom, awareness and well-being.

Here is a summary of Abraham Maslow’s approach:

Humanistic psychology focused on personal growth and the achievement of one’s full potential. Maslow believed that people are motivated by a hierarchy of needs, from basic survival to self-actualization.

According to Maslow, the highest need is self-actualization - achieving one’s full potential and finding meaning and purpose. However, before people can focus on self-actualization, they must first meet their basic needs for food, shelter, safety, as well as psychological needs for belonging and esteem.

Maslow argued that society and psychology had focused too much on neurosis and mental illness. He believed people are innately good and gravitate toward personal growth if given the right environment and opportunities. His view was that mental health is the progression toward self-actualization, not just the absence of disease.

The ultimate state of self-actualization is when people achieve their true purpose in life and pursue the unique talents and activities that give them a sense of deeper meaning. Self-actualized people have advanced to the highest level of human potential and motivation. They are well-adjusted, accept themselves, gain profound spiritual insight, focus on problems greater than themselves, and pursue truth and knowledge.

Maslow’s theory had a profound influence on humanistic psychology and our understanding of motivation and personal growth. His hierarchy of needs provides a structured explanation for human motivation and the pursuit of meaning in life. The summit of the hierarchy - self-actualization - is a powerful concept that inspires people to achieve their full potential and find their deepest purpose.

neurotic tendencies by thinking rationally.

• Albert Ellis developed Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy in 1955.


• He believed that irrational beliefs led to unhealthy negative emotions and self-defeating behavior. • By challenging irrational beliefs and replacing them with rational ones, people can overcome emotional and psychological problems.

1960s Cognitive therapy,

• Irrational beliefs often stem from absolutistic views, overgeneralization, and cognitive distortions. Examples include “I must be perfect” or “Everyone must love me.”

developed by Aaron Beck, also focuses on modifying thoughts to change feelings and behavior.

• Rational beliefs acknowledge uncertainties, accept one’s own and others’ imperfections, and promote flexible thinking. Examples include “I would like to do well but I don’t have to be perfect” and “I can’t please everyone all the time.”

1980s Cognitive-behavioral

• The ABC model is used to explain how beliefs influence consequences: Activating event (A) → Belief (B) → Consequence (C). By changing B, C can change.

therapy integrates cognitive and behavioral approaches.

• Ellis used cognitive, emotive, and behavioral techniques to help people adopt rational beliefs, such as disputing irrational beliefs, reducing intolerable anxiety, role-playing new behaviors, and reinforcing rational thinking. • Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy aims to help people live happier and more productive lives with greater emotional comfort and less self-defeatism.

That covers the key highlights about Albert Ellis and his Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy approach. Let me know if you would like me to explain anything in more detail.

The “tyranny of the shoulds” refers to the tendency to believe that things should be different from how they actually are. This causes distress and unhealthy emotions. According to Albert Ellis, irrational beliefs like these can be challenged through a process called disputation. Rational thinking, on the other hand, involves accepting life as it is while still maintaining optimism.

In REBT, the therapist helps the client identify irrational beliefs, understand how these beliefs influence their emotions and behaviors, learn strategies to dispute irrational beliefs and

which insight alone led to change.

  • Psychotherapy often relies on gaining insight into one’s history and behavior.
  • Paul Watzlawick argued that insight may cause blindness to the real problem and solution.
  • He supported brief therapy, which targets specific problems directly for quicker results.
  • Watzlawick said insight alone rarely leads to change. He believed circular causality shows we repeat actions.
  • He felt therapy needs a supportive relationship. Insight may make patients worse or blind them.
  • Watzlawick suggested we can make ourselves unhappy, but being happy comes more naturally.

He believed that linear thinking—

the notion that one thing leads to

another in a straightforward chain

See also: B.F. Skinner 198–203 ■ Salvador Minuchin 272–77

15–20 sessions. 1959 Watzlawick, Jackson, and Beavin publish Pragmatics

of Human Communication,

presenting key ideas of the palo Alto school.

Here is a summary in a maximum of five sessions:

farms in hiding until the end

Session 1: Boris Cyrulnik studies why some people are devastated by trauma while

of the war and liberation of

others demonstrate resilience. He finds resilience is not inherent but develops through

France. Reunited with his only

relationships. We constantly “knit” ourselves from interactions and exchanges.

surviving parent, he completed

Session 2: Resilience requires positive emotions and humor. Those better able to cope can reframe

his education and became a

negative events and find meaning. The brain is malleable; with support, it can recover from trauma.

psychologist, studying trauma,

Session 3: Trauma has two parts: the event and how we represent it. Resilient people reframe trauma

loss, and resilience.

to find meaning and move forward. Cyrulnik stresses not labeling traumatized children, who can recover

Cyrulnik believes the capacity

with support. Their brain scans show initial damage but can return to normal in a year.

for resilience ultimately

Session 4: Cyrulnik believes resilience comes from a sense of continuity despite trauma. He cites cases

comes from a sense of continuity

of children separated from parents in World War 2 who recovered by “stitching” new relationships.

despite trauma. His work focuses

Positive relationships and interactions build resilience.

on fostering environments that

Session 5: Our history does not determine our destiny. Resilience comes from interactions, a sense

support relationships and build

of continuity, reframing events to find meaning, and determinedly moving forward. With support,

resilience in children and families.

the brain can recover from trauma. Resilient people accept challenges and build strength from them.

Cyrulnik has published many books on resilience, trauma, and

child development.

Key works 1989 The Dawn of Meaning 2001 Talking of Love: How to Overcome Trauma and Remake Your Life 2010 Resilience: How Your Inner Strength Can Set You Free from the Past

Here is a summary of the key events and ideas in cognitive psychology:

• In the early 20th century, psychology focused on behaviorism and psychoanalysis. Mental processes were largely neglected.

• Key exceptions included Frederic Bartlett, who studied memory, and Wolfgang Köhler, who studied problem-solving. Their work anticipated later cognitive psychology.

• The “cognitive revolution” began in the late 1950s. It was influenced by new thinking in communications, computing, and artificial intelligence. The brain came to be seen as an “information processor.”

• Key figures included Donald Broadbent, who applied information processing to psychology, and Aaron Beck, who developed cognitive behavioral therapy.

• Key areas of study included:

› Memory: Frederic Bartlett, Endel Tulving. Studies showed how memory reconstructs the past and the different types of memory.

› Perception: Jerome Bruner, Cecile Goodman. How perception is influenced by needs, values, and motivated reasoning.

› Limited capacity: George Miller argued the brain can only hold 7 chunks of information at once. Donald Broadbent studied selective attention.

› Eyewitness testimony: Elizabeth Loftus showed how unreliable it can be.

› Consistency motive: Leon Festinger proposed cognitive dissonance, a drive for consistency between beliefs and behaviors.

• The cognitive revolution led to the cognitive sciences, spanning psychology, neuroscience, linguistics, and artificial intelligence. The mind came to be studied as an information processing system.

That covers the key highlights in the cognitive psychology timeline and ideas. Let me know if you would like me to explain anything in the summary in more detail.

While studying for her doctorate in Berlin, Bluma Zeigarnik conducted an experiment investigating memory. She observed that waiters seemed to remember unpaid orders better than paid ones.

Zeigarnik designed an experiment where participants were given simple tasks to do. Half the tasks were interrupted. Later, participants were twice as likely to recall details of the interrupted tasks. Zeigarnik proposed this was because the interrupted tasks lacked closure, so were stored differently in memory. This became known as the “Zeigarnik effect.” Zeigarnik suggested students would benefit from breaks while studying. Her ideas received little notice until the 1960s.

nce,” a feeling of

Festinger laid the foundation for what would become social psychology with his theory of “cognitive dissonance.” This

describes the mental discomfort we feel when we hold two

inconsistency betwee n

beliefs that contradict each other. According to Festinger,

conflicting beliefs,

we are motivated to resolve this discomfort in a manner that

values, and behaviors

maintains positive self-esteem. We can do this in one of three ways: 1) rejecting one of the beliefs; 2) developing rationalizations

to reconcile the beliefs; or 3) adding new beliefs to restore consistency. Festinger argued that our need for consistency is

so strong that we will go to great lengths to achieve it, often

ignoring evidence that contradicts our views. His theory helps explain why deeply held convictions are so resistant to change.

Festinger’s theory was groundbreaking and fundamentally shaped our understanding of how and why people’s attitudes and beliefs change—or fail to change—in the face of evidence.

It has had a lasting influence on fields like social psychology, marketing, and persuasion. Festinger’s work demonstrated the

powerful drive for coherence and consistency in human thinking.

George Miller observed that people can hold about 7 pieces (plus or minus 2) of information in their short-term memory at a time. He called this “the magical number 7.” He found evidence for this limit in several experiments:

  • In experiments on “absolute judgment,” participants could accurately assign numbers to around 7 different tones, but became less accurate beyond that.

  • In experiments where participants had to enumerate dots flashed briefly on a screen, they could accurately count up to around 7 dots, but could only estimate beyond that.

Miller proposed that this limit emerges because short-term memory has a limited “channel capacity” or ability to process information, like a communication channel. He suggested that by organizing information into “chunks” - meaningful groups - we can overcome this limit, since we can hold 7 chunks.

Miller’s finding has been very influential and helped establish some of the groundwork for modern cognitive psychology and the study of short-term or “working” memory. His work was inspired by information theory and models of communication developed people like Claude Shannon. Miller sought to apply these kinds of information processing models to understand the human mind.

The key idea is that there seems to be a cognitive limit on the number of discrete bits of information we can actively hold and process in our short-term memory at once. Miller’s “magical number 7” has become well known as a rough estimate of this processing capacity. By “chunking” information together into meaningful groups, we can expand this capacity. But in the end, there seems to be a basic bottleneck on the amount of information we can juggle cognitively at any given moment.

  • Psychology developed into two main schools in the early 20th century: experimental psychology (behaviorism) and clinical psychology (psychoanalysis).

  • Behaviorism rejected introspection and aimed to make psychology more scientific. Psychoanalysis explored introspection with little evidence.

  • By the mid-20th century, both approaches were being critiqued. Behaviorism was overtaken by the “cognitive revolution” in psychology.

  • Aaron Beck was disillusioned with psychoanalysis. He developed cognitive therapy, which examines people’s perceptions and thoughts. It has a strong evidence base.

  • In cognitive therapy, the key to treatment is examining how a disorder manifests in a patient’s thoughts and perceptions, not the unconscious. There is more to the surface than meets the eye.

  • Aaron Beck proposed that thoughts mediate between events and emotions. Cognitive therapy challenges negative and irrational thoughts.

  • Cognitive therapy has been successfully used to treat conditions like depression, anxiety, PTSD, eating disorders, and substance abuse.

  • Beck founded the Beck Institute for Cognitive Therapy and Research to promote cognitive therapy. His daughter Judith Beck now runs the Institute.

of 7 ± 2 items. 1970s Ulric Neisser proposes

Force (RAF) in 1948. Broadbent

Broadbent shared Bartlett’s view

had joined the RAF as a young man

that psychology should be based

the idea of a preattentive

toward the end of World War II. His

on a scientific method: gathering

processing stage.

experience analyzing problems

measurable data and analyzing

1980s Michael Posner proposes

with the RAF’s radar systems gave

it to test theories, rather than by

three attentional networks:

him a good grounding in practical

introspection. It was this approach

alerting, orienting, and executive.

information processing, but also

that led Broadbent to discover

alerted him to the complexities of

the phenomenon known as the

Broadbent studied under Frederic Bartlett at Cambridge University. Bartlett believed theoretical discoveries emerge from solving practical problems.

Broadbent shared this view and looked at problems RAF pilots faced, concluding some had psychological causes.

After the war, Broadbent went to Cambridge to study psychology. His experience with RAF radar gave him insight into information processing and its complexities.

Broadbent took a scientific approach, gathering data to test theories rather than relying on introspection. This led him to discover the cocktail party effect.

He proposed that we have a limited capacity to process information, so we filter most of it out. We can only pay full attention to one “channel” at a time.

His filter theory of attention suggests unattended information is not fully processed. His work influenced later research on attention and short-term memory.

Donald Broadbent was a British psychologist known for pioneering research on selective attention and information processing. After serving as a pilot in World War II, Broadbent studied under Frederic Bartlett and worked at the Applied Psychology Unit.

Broadbent proposed that the mind receives information from the senses and holds it briefly in short-term memory. However, short-term memory has limited capacity, creating a “bottleneck.” At this point, the mind filters the information and selects what to pay attention to. Broadbent suggested the analogy of a Y-shaped tube to represent short-term memory, with a flap filtering one stream of information.

To study selective attention, Broadbent conducted dichotic listening experiments. Participants were presented different messages in each ear and had to report what they heard. Results showed people could only report one message, confirming Broadbent’s theory of limited processing capacity and selection.

Broadbent later refined his theory with Colin Cherry, who posed the “cocktail party problem” of how we choose which conversations to attend to in a noisy setting. They found the filter selects information based on physical characteristics like location, not meaning. Broadbent’s filter model has been influential in cognitive psychology and applications like designing controls and displays.

The key points are:

  1. Broadbent proposed a filter model of selective attention with limited capacity

  2. He conducted dichotic listening experiments to demonstrate selective attention

  3. Broadbent and Colin Cherry investigated how people solve the cocktail party problem

  4. The filter model has been influential in cognitive psychology and ergonomic design

• Endel Tulving is a pioneering Canadian psychologist known for his research on human memory.

• He began studying memory in the 1950s and 1960s when the field was largely ignored. He designed simple experiments using basic materials.

• Tulving developed the “free-recall” method, in which subjects freely recall words or objects in any order. He found that semantic organization and mental categories aid memory.

• Tulving distinguished between episodic memory (personal experiences) and semantic memory (factual knowledge). Only humans have episodic memory, which allows “mental time travel.”

• Tulving proposed that encoding information in a meaningful way, relating it to prior knowledge (semantic encoding), results in better long-term retention. “Deep processing” creates more durable memories.

• Tulving’s research has been highly influential. He helped revive the study of memory and shaped modern understanding of how human memory works.

• Tulving’s work emphasizes the role of organization, categories, and meaning in human memory. His insights have applications for education and learning.

• Roger Shepard proposed that perception involves both processing external sense data and making inferences based on an internal model of the world.

• Shepard argued that the brain actively interprets sense data based on a mental representation of the three-dimensional world. This implies that perception involves an element of visualization or even “hallucination.”

• Shepard conducted experiments showing how the brain interprets ambiguous two-dimensional stimuli in three dimensions. For example, a two-dimensional object can be seen either as a circle or an ellipse depending on the inferred orientation in depth.

• Shepard suggested that the brain prefers interpretations that imply the simplest underlying three-dimensional forms. This helps explain many optical illusions and visual ambiguities.

• Shepard’s theory provided an alternative to the Gestalt view of perception as a passive organization of sensory inputs. Shepard argued that perception actively involves visualization and cognitive processing.

• Shepard’s work inspired later theories emphasizing the constructive nature of perception, including Gregory’s “hypothesis testing” theory and Marr’s computational approach.

• Shepard’s ideas linking perception, cognition, and mental representations were influential in the rise of cognitive science. His work spanned disciplines including psychology, neuroscience, linguistics, and artificial intelligence.

That covers the essence of Shepard’s theory of perception as “externally guided hallucination” and his role in the cognitive revolution. Let me know if you would like me to explain anything in the summary in more detail.

Paul Ekman and his colleagues were able to prove through studies with isolated tribal

communities that emotional expressions, especially facial expressions of emotion, are universal,

not learned. Ekman hypothesized that there are basic emotions—anger, fear, disgust, happiness,

surprise, and sadness—that are expressed similarly across all cultures. He organized research

expeditions to photograph individuals making emotional expressions, in both literate and

preliterate societies. His findings contradicted the views of anthropologists such as Margaret

Mead, who claimed emotions are culturally determined. Ekman’s discovery that emotional

expression has a biological, evolutionary basis helped legitimize the study of emotions. His

research influenced psychotherapy and led to techniques for identifying deception by analyzing

microexpressions and subtle clues in body language and speech.

• Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi investigated what makes people happy and discovered the concept of “flow”—a state of complete absorption in an activity that is challenging and requires skill.

• Martin Seligman founded the field of positive psychology, which focuses on human strengths and virtues rather than dysfunction and mental illness.

• Seligman proposed three paths to happiness: a pleasant life (enjoying fleeting pleasures), a good life (engaging in activities that develop your strengths), and a meaningful life (serving something bigger than yourself).

• According to Seligman, the most important factor in lasting happiness is strong social relationships. Other key factors include gratitude, kindness, and forgiveness.

• Positive psychology aims to help people lead happier, more fulfilling lives through practices such as mindfulness, optimism, and resilience in the face of failure or adversity.

• Seligman’s work has influenced education, business, healthcare, and public policy. The positive psychology movement has spread globally.

content, the recollection of a

  • Elizabeth Loftus is a pioneering researcher in the fallibility of human memory and

eyewitness testimony.

  • In the 1970s, Loftus conducted experiments showing how eyewitness testimony can be unreliable and distorted. Participants’ recollections of events could be altered by the wording of questions, the provision of misinformation after the event, and their own emotions and experiences.
  • Loftus found that memory does not work like a video recorder, objectively capturing events. It can be suggestible and subject to omissions, elaboration, and distortion.
  • This research called into question ideas of repressed and recovered memories, and had important implications for the legal system’s reliance on eyewitness testimony.
  • Loftus showed that we cannot assume our recollection of traumatic events is perfectly accurate, as it may have been shaped in various ways without our conscious awareness.

traumatic event may feel utterly

convincing, but—as Loftus’s studies showed—it cannot be assumed

to reflect exactly what happened. Our confidence in a memory is no guarantee of its truth.

The key idea is that forgetting and remembering both have their downsides. Forgetting is necessary to avoid cluttering our memories with useless details, but it can also lead us to lose important information over time (transience) or forget things we intend to remember (absent-mindedness). Remembering allows us to recall useful information but it can also lead to blocking (temporary inability to recall information), misattribution (recalling the wrong source for information), suggestibility (recalling false information due to leading questions), bias (skewed recollection due to preexisting beliefs) and persistence (repeatedly recalling unwanted information, like an intrusive thought).

In short, the summary is:

Forgetting: Transience - loss of memory over time Absent-mindedness - forgetting intentions/tasks

Remembering: Blocking - temporary inability to recall information Misattribution - incorrect source recollection Suggestibility - false recall from leading questions Bias - skewed recollection from beliefs Persistence - repeated recall of unwanted information

The key point is that while memory serves an important purpose, it is also fallible in several ways. Both forgetting and remembering can introduce errors and inaccuracies.

Here is a summary of Paul Salkovskis’ approach:

• Paul Salkovskis was a pioneer of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in Britain in the 1980s.

• CBT replaced psychoanalysis as a treatment for some disorders, combining cognitive therapy and behaviorism.

• Salkovskis applied CBT successfully to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

• He argued that OCD was caused by intrusive thoughts that most people can dismiss but which some find hard to ignore.

• Those prone to OCD overestimate the risk and harm posed by such thoughts and feel excessively responsible for preventing what they fear may happen.

• Their compulsive rituals and behaviors are attempts to control the anxiety caused by the intrusive thoughts.

• CBT helps them reassess the threat and challenge their responsibility for controlling outcomes.

of the group to which he

now known as social psychology.

is determined largely by

belongs will walk upright.

Lewin proposed his “field theory”—

unconscious drives or motives.


that individual behavior is determined by the interaction between the person and the totality of his or her psychological

1920S Behaviorism

Lewin believed that there

dominates psychology. John

is a constant interdependence

B. Watson and B.F. Skinner

between psychological

focus on observable behavior

forces within a person

environment or “life space.” This

and the environment. They

and those in the environment.

totality includes both the physical

argue that behavior can be

environment and psychological

shaped and manipulated by

The way we behave at

factors such as demands, needs,

environmental controls.

any given moment depends

and social relationships.

Leading the emergence of group dynamics and field theory, Kurt Lewin proposed that behavior results from the interaction of a person and their entire psychological environment. He conducted research on social control and group conformity that influenced later social psychology.

Lewin researched group dynamics, social change, level of aspiration, and action research. His experiments showed how groups exert social control over individuals and the ways minority and majority groups resolve conflicts. His research methods emphasized “action research” in which change is implemented and effects are evaluated, an approach now widely used in applied psychology.

on the psychological field


at that time—which

1930s Behaviorism declines.

includes both the person and

Lewin’s work leads to the

the environment. The field

emergence of social psychology.

is in a constant state of tension and change. Lewin

Carl Rogers develops

called this the “quasi-

client-centered therapy.

stationary equilibrium.”

A theory and methodolgy

1950s Researchers

build on Lewin’s ideas, developing his approach into a therapeutic technique called sensitivity training.

Human beings are best understood as goal-seeking fields within a dynamic field of psychological forces…The psychological field acts as a selfregulating system…Our task as social scientists is to find the natural laws that govern groups and fields. Kurt Lewin

related to social psychology

Human behavior is extremely complex, and it is a reflection of the continually changing field of forces—biological, physical, intellectual, emotional, and social—that exists at any given time. Grace Hechinger, discussing Lewin’s ideas


Lewin studied social dynamics by

are integral parts of a larger whole—

intervening in the system or “life space”

a concept known as holism. Lewin

and observing the results. His studies

adopted a “configurational” approach

often began with an assessment of the

to analyze human behavior, which

status quo through observation and

examines the whole pattern or

Lewin introduced

interviews, then introduced a planned

configuration formed by the interaction

the concept of “action

change such as reorganizing groups or

between all psychological factors

research”—a process

manipulating motivations. The effects

present in a given situation or “life

of planning, taking

of the changes were then evaluated.

space.” He showed how a change in

action, observing the

This “action research” emphasized

any part of this configuration results

effects of that action,

practical problem solving and the

in changes to the whole, and how

and reflecting on the

active involvement of individuals in

stability is dynamically achieved

results to facilitate

the change process.

through continuous readjustment of

further planning

the forces within the total field.

and action.

Holism and change Lewin’s field theory took a holistic

Lewin believed field theory could

view of human behavior. His key insight

provide tools for achieving social

was that a person’s psychological

change. His research showed that

experience—thoughts, feelings, motives,

inducing change involves manipulating

and actions—and environmental factors

force fields and motivations, then

obtaining group acceptance of the new level. Reducing barriers impeding change and increasing driving forces facilitating change are central to this approach. Successful change also requires establishing a new “quasi-stationary equilibrium”—a temporary state of stability to support continued progress.

The problem of social change and conducting action research to remedy social inequities concerned Lewin greatly. His studies ranged from implementing changes to overcome social discrimination and group conflicts, to addressing industrial inefficiency and children’s diet and health education programs. Lewin pioneered sensitivity training techniques for resolving intergroup conflicts and prejudices that are now widely used in schools, workplaces, and community organizations committed to social justice.

Lewin’s field theory and research methods were a radical departure from other psychological theories of his time. His interdisciplinary and applied approach to understanding human behavior provided a foundation for developing systems theories and social interventions that are practically oriented and collaborative. ■

Group life and social change are lawfully dependent on the interaction between the personality and particular kinds of social lives or environments. Kurt Lewin

Groups and social fields are systems in a dynamic, social, and physical equilibrium… The equilibrium is constantly changing as a result of driving and restraining forces. Change can be effected by strengthening the forces towards change or weakening those acting against it. Joanne Stubley, summarizing Lewin’s theory


Lewin’s field theory proposed that behavior results from the interaction of internal psychological processes and external social forces present in the environment. His concept of a “life space” encompassed the totality of these factors and how they combine to influence an individual at any given moment.

Lewin studied groups and how minority and majority groups resolve conflicts. His research showed how:

• Groups exert social control over members. • Decisions made as a group tend to be more extreme than individual judgements.

• Group standards and values come to be accepted as normal and correct.

• Change is easier to implement in groups than for individuals.

• Marginal and “outsider” group members can influence group standards.

• Intergroup tensions arise from perceived differences in values, beliefs, and goals.

• Multi-step approaches to resolving group

Lewin argued that releasing or restraining forces within a group’s field could effect change. His three-stage process of change involved:


Unfreezing the present level of equilibrium by reducing restraining forces and strengthening driving forces for change.


Moving to a new level

conflicts are most effective.

of equilibrium at which

Lewin studied how social discrimination and

the desired change can

prejudice toward minority groups arise and can be reduced. His research led to strategies such as:

be implemented.


Refreezing the group at

• Sensitivity training to improve intergroup

this new equilibrium

relations by having members share experiences.

by establishing new

• Using “margin al” members to introduce

values, attitudes, and

alternative views and widen perspectives.

• Promoting cooperation on superordinate goals that groups share in common.

• Factual information to counter stereotyped beliefs. • Democratizing group processes to give minority

behaviors to sustain the changes.

This process can then be repeated to work toward further changes.

members more influence.

• Using group discussion and problem-solving to achieve mutually agreeable solutions.

The (social) environment…is not a fixed and unchanging medium within which the individual acts. Both the life space and environment are dynamic— they are continually changing as the result of the interaction between the individual and his surroundings. Kurt Lewin

Human Nature and the Forces that Shape Behavior Like all of psychology, my field theory stands in the intricate framing of man’s heredity and his environment, of nature and nurture… The psychological field has a certain degree of inner tensions which, if exceeded, leads to movement away from the equilibrium… Forces such as one’s basic needs, habit formations, norms, expectations of other people determine man’s psychological field. In between there is a continuous reciprocal influence between psychological climate and behavior…The strength of tensions and the direction in which they drive depend also very much on

  • Kurt Lewin was a social psychologist who developed field theory and a model of change.

  • Field theory examines the psychological environment around individuals and groups. It identifies helpful forces that drive change and hindering forces that inhibit change.

  • Lewin’s three-stage model of change involves unfreezing existing beliefs, making the change by transitioning to new beliefs and behaviors, and then freezing the new mindset to make it permanent.

  • The unfreezing stage is the most complex and involves overcoming resistance to change. It requires communication, creating a vision for change, and establishing an environment of psychological safety.

  • The change stage involves abandoning old routines, learning new skills, and implementing new systems. It requires sufficient support and removing obstacles. For individuals, finding a new belief system to replace the old one.

  • The freezing stage involves making the new changes, beliefs, and behaviors permanent parts of the culture. This is done through positive reinforcement, communication, and ensuring compliance. However, change can be temporary if the new mindset is not adequately frozen.

  • Lewin demonstrated the effectiveness of his model in convincing American housewives to serve organ meats during World War II food shortages. Creating group discussions in a psychologically safe environment was more effective than lecturing. About one-third of women then served offal, showing their attitudes and behaviors had changed.

  • For organizational change to be successful, leadership must fully understand all elements influencing the situation and how they interact. Change is a learning process, and the system cannot be fully understood until an attempt is made to change it.

The key insight is that successful and sustainable change requires systematically progressing through unfreezing existing mindsets, making the change by transitioning to new mindsets and behaviors, and then freezing the new mindset to make it permanent. Both individual and environmental factors must be addressed for effective change.

who did not conform and found

only one other person to give the

• Solomon Asch conducted experiments to determine how social pressure affects

that they tended to be more

correct answer, the subject was

confident in their judgments and

much less likely to conform. He

less concerned with what others

concluded that providing even a

thought. They looked carefully

single dissenter can dramatically

at the lines themselves each

reduce conformity. This has become

time, rather than relying on the

known as the Asch Conformity

answers of the confederates.

Effect: the tendency to conform is

individual judgments and behavior. • His famous experiment involved showing participants a line and asking them to pick from other lines the one that matched it in length. Confederates deliberately chose incorrect lines and Asch found that participants conformed to the incorrect choices about a third of the time. • Asch interviewed participants and found that those who conformed did so to fit in and avoid seeming foolish. Those who did not conform were more confident in their own

reduced when at least one other

judgments. • The Asch Conformity Effect shows that the presence of just one dissenting voice can

Modifying the effect

person publicly rejects the position

Asch went on to conduct several

of the majority. Later replications

variations of his initial experiment

in many cross-cultural contexts

to determine the limits of conformity.

found this effect to be remarkably

dramatically reduce conformity. • The desire to conform is a powerful social influence, even when what the group believes is clearly incorrect.

consistent across subjects.

Here is a summary of Zajonc’s mere exposure effect:

• Robert Zajonc proposed that repeated exposure to a stimulus (such as an object, artwork, person, etc.) leads to increased positive feelings toward it. This is known as the mere exposure effect. • Zajonc argued that affective reactions and preferences do not always require cognition or complex thought. Simple exposure and familiarity can be enough to change our attitudes.

familiarity leading to positive

feelings, but his findings were

largely forgotten.

• The more we are exposed to a stimulus, the more we come to like it. Familiarity breeds liking. This can happen without conscious awareness or memory of the exposures.


2001 Psychologists Mark

Yes, the summary captures the essence of Zajonc’s theory and research. Some key points to note:

Bornstein and Mary Herman

provide an overview of

• The mere exposure effect has been demonstrated experimentally in many studies. Zajonc himself did experiments showing that repeated exposures to Chinese characters, photographs of faces, and Turkish words led to more positive ratings of them.

research confirming the mere

exposure effect and exploring

the reasons for its occurrence.

• The effect seems most likely for stimuli that are initially neutral or ambiguous. It does not necessarily extend to stimuli that are disliked from the start.

2008 Social psychologist

Susan Fiske proposes that

• Familiarity appears to breed liking due to habituation—we get used to and accustomed to the stimulus—and perceived fluency—the stimulus feels easier to process. This elicits a positive affective response.

familiarity leads to liking

because “what is familiar seems

safe” in an evolutionary sense.

• The mere exposure effect has many implications for consumer behavior, relationships, media, and more. Repeat exposure is a powerful but subtle influence on our likes and dislikes.

Does this help summarize Zajonc’s theory and research on the mere exposure effect? Let me know if you have any other questions!

The mere exposure effect refers to the tendency for people to develop a preference for things simply due to familiarity or repeated exposure. This phenomenon was studied and named by psychologist Robert Zajonc in 1968. Zajonc found that the more people are exposed to something, the more they come to like it. This is an unconscious affect that leads to a feeling of warmth and intimacy upon exposure.

Zajonc argued that affective reactions precede cognitive judgments and are more powerful determinants of attitudes and decisions. His research showed that preferences can form without conscious awareness or rational judgment. Mere exposure applies to interpersonal relationships in what is known as the “propinquity effect,” whereby proximity and frequent exposure breed attraction. The effect also has implications for advertising and marketing.

Repeated exposure to a stimulus leads to a positive affective reaction and feeling of warmth due to a natural human tendency to prefer familiarity over novelty. Zajonc theorized an evolutionary basis for this effect, whereby initial responses of fear or aggression toward an unfamiliar stimulus eventually give way to comfort and attraction upon repeated exposure with no adverse consequences.

In summary, the mere exposure effect demonstrates how our preferences and attitudes can be influenced by the simple experience of exposure and familiarity, often without rational consideration or conscious awareness. This highlights the primacy of affect over cognition in human judgment and decision making.

• Social constructivists argue that individuals construct social reality rather than just perceiving it.

• Serge Moscovici studied how concepts from psychoanalytic theory became popularized in France.

• He found that as ideas spread through communication, they become simplified and organized into a shared “common sense.”

• This process is driven more by a desire to participate in conversation than to gain knowledge.

• The spread of ideas through this process allows unfamiliar concepts to become familiar and paves the way for them to shape society.

• The resulting “social representations” provide a framework for groups to understand the world and guide how people interact.

• Whenever there is debate on an issue, competing ideas vie to become the dominant social representation.

largely an illusion. Our observations are subjective and often distorted by preconceptions. Prominent among these is the cognitive bias


Social psychologist Melvin Lerner proposed the theory of the “Just-World hypothesis”—the tendency for people to assume that the world is fair and that people get what they deserve. This belief leads to “victim blaming,” where observers harshly judge those suffering misfortune as deserving of their fate. The Just-World hypothesis is a cognitive bias

Stanley Milgram’s 1963 experiment showed that ordinary people are capable of causing harm to others when ordered to do so by an authority figure. His findings contradicted the belief that atrocities like those of World War II could only be carried out by sadists. Instead, Milgram argued that we all have a tendency to obey authority figures, and this can override our moral conscience.

Milgram’s experiment involved volunteers administering what they believed were electric shocks to another participant, who was in fact an actor. Despite protests from the “victim,” the majority of volunteers continued to increase the shocks when told to do so by the scientist conducting the study. This level of obedience was unexpected and led Milgram to conclude that people’s actions depend more on the social situation they are in than on their personal characteristics.

The experiment was controversial and raised ethical concerns, but it has enduring significance. Milgram showed how all of us, not just “evil” people, can act in disturbing ways. By understanding the power of obedience and social situations, we can try to limit their negative effects.

  • In 1961, Stanley Milgram conducted an experiment to test people’s obedience to authority.

  • He recruited 40 male participants for an experiment ostensibly about the effects of punishment on learning.

  • In reality, the “learner” was an actor and the shocks were fake. But the participants did not know this.

  • The participants were instructed to administer electric shocks to the learner whenever he gave a wrong answer. They were told to increase the shock level each time, even as the learner screamed in protest.

  • Nearly 2/3 of participants continued to the highest level of shock, 450 volts, despite the screams. This showed that ordinary people will obey orders from authority figures, even if it means harming others.

  • The results surprised Milgram and contradicted predictions that very few people would continue to the highest shock level.

  • The experiment demonstrated that people feel obligated to obey authority, even when commanded to do something that conflicts with their moral values.

  • Milgram concluded that people enter an “agentic state” in which they relinquish responsibility for their actions to the authority figure. They feel unable to do anything but obey.

  • The study highlighted the dangers of extreme obedience to authority and the human capacity for evil acts in hierarchical social systems.

  • Milgram’s work has enduring relevance and has inspired much additional research on conformity, obedience, and morality.

That covers the key details and conclusions from Milgram’s famous obedience experiment. Let me know if you would like me to explain anything in the summary in more detail.

Philip Zimbardo set out

certain social roles. He arranged

to understand how people may

the psychological conditions for

abuse power when put in positions

the transformation to occur, and

of authority over others. He

recorded the results.

asked: What happens when you

2001 In the wake of complaints of prisoner abuse at Abu Ghraib, Zimbardo reflects on the parallels with his Stanford experiment, indicating that the ‘situation’ was a powerful corrupting influence on the guards. 2007 Zimbardo publishes The

Zimbardo concluded that in

put good, normal people in an “evil

the right circumstances, normal,

Lucifer Effect, arguing that the situational

place”—a place where they are given

ordinary people can start to

power over others but are not held

behave in ways that are completely

accountable for their actions?

out of character, merely due

To find out, Zimbardo designed

system—not the person—creates corruption.

2009 Zimbardo helps form the Heroic Imagination Project to promote everyday heroism through education.

to how they have been labeled or

a simulated prison environment in which participants were assigned to play

the situational forces acting on them. There are things in every situation— both physical environments and systems of power—that can bring out the

  • In 1905, Sigmund Freud adds a section on psychosexual development to his book Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality. He outlined five stages of development from infant to adult.

  • In the 1930s, Lev Vygotsky proposed his sociocultural theory of learning. He emphasized the importance of community and culture in learning and development.

  • In 1946, Kenneth and Mamie Clark founded the Northside Center for Child Development in Harlem, New York. They studied child development and the impact of segregation and racism on children.

  • In 1959, Noam Chomsky published Syntactic Structures, challenging traditional theories of language acquisition. He proposed that humans have an innate capacity for language.

  • In the 1960s, Erik Erikson expanded on Freud’s theory, outlining eight stages of psychosocial development from infancy to old age.

  • In the 1970s, Urie Bronfenbrenner developed the ecological systems theory. He emphasized the influence of environmental and social factors on child development.

  • In the 1980s, Howard Gardner proposed the theory of multiple intelligences. He identified nine distinct intelligences that people possess in varying degrees.

  • In the 1990s, post-traumatic growth emerged as a concept. It refers to positive psychological changes after traumatic or challenging life events.

The summary outlines key theories, concepts, and events in the development of developmental psychology from the 1900s through the 1990s. Let me know if you would like me to explain anything in the summary in more detail.

from those of adults.

ciety. But for me, education

• Jean Piaget was a Swiss psychologist best known for his theory of cognitive development.

Through his observations of

means making creators,

• He proposed that children progress through four distinct stages of intellectual development:

children, Piaget concluded that

not imitators.

  1. Sensorimotor stage (ages 0–2): Children learn through senses and physical interactions.

a child’s knowledge is not simply

  1. Preoperational stage (ages 2–7): Children acquire representational capacity, language, imagination.

a re-creation or inferior version of

  1. Concrete operational (ages 7–11): Children develop logical thought, Conservation of number, mass, volume.

adult knowledge. Rather, a child

  1. Formal operational (ages 11+): Children develop abstract reasoning, hypothetical and deductive logic.

actively constructs knowledge by

• Piaget believed that children actively construct knowledge through interaction with the environment.

interacting with the surrounding

• Learning should be guided by the child’s interests and developmental level, not standardized testing.

environment—taking in

• Piaget’s theory has been very influential in education, especially promoting “child-centered” learning.

information through the senses,

• Key ideas: Learning is active. Cognitive development follows distinct stages. Knowledge is constructed.

making sense of that information, and adapting to assimilate new

Innate mental stages

experiences. For Piaget, learning

For Piaget, cognitive development

is an active, creative process, not

is an active process that follows

just the passive absorption of

predefined stages. Each stage is

information from the outside.

an inevitable milestone, emerging according to a biological timetable

Pioneer of child psychology

that is more or less followed by

Piaget was a pioneer in the

all normal children. His theory

observation of children. He

identifies four main stages of

examined the way children think

development, from infancy through

and reason, not just at what they

adolescence, and specifies the

knew. He challenged long-held

approximate ages at which children

assumptions that children’s cognitive

reach each stage. The ages are only

deficits are due to their lack of life

approximate because a child’s pace

experience or knowledge. He saw

of development depends on innate

that children see and understand

factors as well as experience.

the world in fundamentally different

Each stage brings changes in

ways. Piaget’s seminal insight was

how children think, reason, and

that “the logic of children and the

understand the world. Progress

logic of adolescents are not failed

through the stages is inevitable,

attempts at adult logic but different

occurring naturally as the child

forms of thought with their own

matures biologically.

consistency and validity.” ■


IN CONTEXT APPROACH Social constructivism

BEFORE 1896 US psychologist James Baldwin proposes that children are social beings shaped by their culture. Early 1900s French sociologist Émile Durkheim emphasizes the role of society in the development of cognition and morality.

AFTER 1930s Lev Vygotsky’s works are published in the USSR. 1970s Vygotsky’s ideas gain recognition in the West. His social constructivism shapes educational theory and practice. 1980s “Social constructivism” emerges as a term to describe Vygotsky’s theoretical perspective. 2004 Publication of Vygotsky’s educational writings compiled as The Essential Vygotsky.

See also: Jean Piaget 264–65 ■ Jerome Bruner 164–65 ■ Erik Erikson 272–73 ■ Kenneth and Mamie Clark 288

■ Eleanor Maccoby 295 ■ Noam Chomsky 306–07

LEV VYGOTSKY Social interaction plays a fundamental role in the development of cognition. Vygotsky’s theory of social constructivism emphasizes the social dimensions of learning, development, and knowledge.


children. He hypothesized that

was a pioneering Soviet psychologist

learning is a collaborative

known for his social constructivist

process, occurring in partnership

theory of learning. Unlike most

with someone more experienced,

Western psychologists of his time,

such as a teacher or peer. He

Vygotsky emphasized the social

described this collaborative or

context of learning and development.

guided participation as occurring

He believed that human mental

within the “zone of proximal

functions are constructed through

development”—the range of

social interaction, particularly

abilities that a child can develop

interaction with others who are

with guidance and assistance from

more skilled or knowledgeable.

others. As the child continues

Vygotsky studied children’s

to collaborate with others, their

problem-solving strategies and

abilities within the zone of proximal

found that children actively

development emerge, and what

construct knowledge as they

was initially done with support can

learn and can achieve more with

eventually be done independently.

the guidance of teachers or in

Vygotsky believed that cognitive

collaboration with peers. He

development cannot be separated

proposed that learning is a

from social and cultural

fundamentally social process,

development. Culture, language,

deeply embedded within a social

social interaction, and education

and cultural context.

all shape how a child acquires

Vygotsky’s theory emphasized

knowledge and learns to reason

the role of culture and the

about the world. Social constructivism

importance of engaging in joint

highlights the co-construction

problem-solving with more

of knowledge between the

competent peers or adults. This

individual learner and the social

scaffolding of learning by others in

environment. It is through dynamic

the learner’s zone of proximal

social interaction and collaboration

development allows children to

that learning and development

achieve more advanced levels of

emerge and knowledge is

thinking over time.

constructed. This is in contrast

Vygotsky believed that social

with Piaget’s view of stages

interaction and guidance play a

of development as unfolding

fundamental role in the learning and

independently within the individual.

development of thinking skills in

Social constructivism emphasizes

ev Vygotsky (1896–1934)

that learning and development

Piaget proposed cognitive

are profoundly social, cultural,

constructivism, but Vygotsky went further, proposing that

and relational processes.

learning is co-constructed through social interaction and

Our mental lives are woven from the cloth of social relationships

dialogue—especially with more knowledgeable others. This

in which we participate.

became known as social constructivism. Key ideas include:

• Knowledge is constructed through social interaction and collaboration. • Learning occurs within the “zone of proximal development” through guided participation. • Cognitive development is shaped by the cultural and social environment. • Language plays a central role in thinking, learning, and constructing knowledge. • Development cannot be separated from its social context.


Human intelligence arises

Concepts and language

as a result of participation in

Vygotsky made a significant

social activity. Intelligence

contribution by highlighting the

develops through children’s

role of language in thinking and

active construction of knowledge

learning. He proposed that language

in collaboration with more

is the main symbolic tool used to

knowledgeable members of society.

mediate thinking and gain control

Knowledge is not simply

over our mental processes. Language

transmitted from teacher to student,

allows us to solve complex tasks

but rather is co-constructed through

and manipulate abstract concepts.

social interaction. Learning is both

As children develop language, this

personal and social. It is constructed

opens the door to more advanced

by learners integrating their

thinking. Vygotsky believed that

experiences with what they already

the acquisition of language is

know, and through interacting

critical in cognitive development

with others. Fundamentally,

because it provides a symbolic

knowledge is shaped by the social

system that people use to mediate

and cultural environment in which

their thinking about the world.

learning occurs.

Language gives us a format

The “zone of proximal

for conceptual thought by

development” is the range of

providing words that stand for

abilities that a child can develop

concepts. The mastery of

with guidance

Here is a summary of Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development:

  • Piaget proposed that children’s thinking does not develop in a continuous manner; instead, it progresses through a series of stages:
  1. Sensorimotor stage (ages 0-2): Children learn through senses and motor activity. They lack object permanence, egocentric.

  2. Preoperational stage (ages 2-7): Children can represent the world through language and mental images. They are egocentric and lack logical reasoning.

  3. Concrete operational stage (ages 7-11): Children can think logically about concrete events and objects. They gain object permanence and conservation.

  4. Formal operational stage (ages 11+): Children develop abstract thought and hypothetical reasoning. They become less egocentric.

  • Each stage builds on the previous stage in a sequential manner. Children must progress through the stages in order and at their own pace.

  • Three key concepts in development are assimilation, accommodation, and equilibrium. Assimilation is using existing schemes to interpret new information. Accommodation is modifying schemes to adapt to new information. Equilibrium is a balanced state between assimilation and accommodation.

  • Piaget believed children learn through active exploration and interaction with the environment, not through passive learning. Education should support children’s natural curiosity and constructivist learning.

  • Piaget’s theory has been very influential in developmental psychology and education. His stage theory provides a helpful framework for understanding how children’s thinking changes over time. However, the theory has some limitations, such as lack of consideration of social and cultural influences on development.

In summary, Piaget proposed a constructivist theory of cognitive development that sees children as active learners who progress through a sequence of stages. His theory has significantly influenced our understanding of child development and education.

Bruno Bettelheim suggests that communal child-rearing systems, such as those used on Israeli kibbutzim, have advantages over traditional nuclear family structures. After observing life on a kibbutz, Bettelheim concludes that kibbutz children are not overly dependent on any one parent or adult, but form close bonds with each other. This ability to connect well with peers may benefit them later in life. Bettelheim questions assumptions that close mother-child bonding is always optimal for development.

• John Bowlby proposed the theory of attachment, which states that infants form emotional bonds with their primary caregivers.

• Bowlby argued that attachment behavior between infants and mothers is innate and evolutionarily adaptive. Infants are programmed to become attached to their mothers to ensure survival, and mothers are programmed to bond with and care for their infants.

• Bowlby believed that the first two years of life constitute a critical period for attachment formation. If attachment bonds are disrupted during this time, the infant may suffer long-term negative consequences.

• Bowlby studied children who were separated from their mothers early in life. He found that prolonged deprivation of maternal care can lead to emotional, intellectual, and social impairment.

• According to Bowlby, the mother-infant attachment bond is the most important one in a child’s development. Although children can form multiple attachments, the bond with the mother is primary.

• Bowlby’s theory of attachment emphasized the role of evolution and biology in shaping human relationships and development. In contrast, previous theories focused more on learning and the fulfillment of basic needs.

• Bowlby’s work was very influential and helped change how children were cared for in hospitals, orphanages, and other institutions. His theory shaped modern attachment theory and research.

Does this summary accurately reflect Bowlby’s theory of attachment? Let me know if you would like me to clarify or expand on any part of the summary.

  • The “cupboard love” theory suggests that infants become attached to caregivers primarily to satisfy their need for food.

  • John Bowlby challenged this theory and argued that caregiver-infant attachment is primarily based on the infant’s need for comfort and security.

  • To test the “cupboard love” theory, Harry Harlow conducted experiments with infant rhesus monkeys and surrogate “mothers.”

  • In the experiments, the infant monkeys formed strong attachments to soft, cloth surrogate mothers over wire mothers that provided food.

  • The results showed that infant monkeys are primarily attached to caregivers who provide comfort and security, not just nourishment.

  • Harlow’s work provided strong empirical support for Bowlby’s attachment theory and disproved the “cupboard love” theory.

  • Harlow’s experiments demonstrated that close bodily contact (“contact comfort”) with a caregiver is essential for healthy psychological development in infants.

  • Harlow’s research had a major influence on child-rearing practices and highlighted the importance of affection and nurturing in early child development.

in its landmark Brown v. Board

Kenneth and Mamie Clark conducted experiments with African-American children in segregated schools in the late 1930s. They showed the children four identical dolls that differed only in their skin color, ranging from white to dark brown. The children easily identified the dolls by race and showed a preference for the white dolls, considering them “good” or more attractive. The Clarks interpreted this as evidence that these children had internalized the racist attitudes of the segregated society in which they lived.

of Education ruling declares

segregated schools unconstitutional, in part swayed

by the Clarks’ research.

Today, “self-hatred” and

The experiments had a profound effect. They provided empirical evidence that segregation harmed black children and supported arguments for desegregation. The US Supreme Court cited the Clarks’ work in its 1954 Brown v. Board of Education ruling that outlawed segregated schools. The Clarks’ research demonstrated that racial prejudice was not natural but taught, and it highlighted the damaging psychological effects of racism. Their pioneering work helped establish the modern field of “race psychology.”

low self-esteem are recognized

as effects of long-term exposure

to racist stereotypes and attitudes.

See also: Solomon Asch 293 ■ Henri Tajfel INT318 →



preference for the white

perceived self-esteem, and lack

Key works

dolls, which they considered

of preference for their own racial

to be “good,” “pretty,” or

group. The results suggested

1940 Skin Color as a Factor

“better.” The Clarks interpreted

that segregation and racial

in Racial Identification of

this as evidence that the African-

discrimination had damaged the

Negro Children

American children held racist

children’s self-image and had led

1947 Racial Identification and

attitudes toward their own

them to internalize the prevailing

Preference in Negro Children

racial group.

prejudices. For the Clarks, this

1950 Prejudice and Your Child

In a second study, they

was a tragic consequence of racism

asked African-American

and segregated schooling.

teenagers to state whether

The impact of the Clarks’

they would prefer to be white

research was profound. The

Given the prevalence of racist

or black. A majority expressed

Supreme Court cited their

attitudes at the time, Kenneth

a preference for whiteness.

studies in its landmark 1954

Kenneth Clark played a key role

The Clarks interpreted this as

Brown v. Board of Education

in the civil rights movement.

evidence of low self-esteem and

ruling that outlawed segregated

Born in the Panama Canal Zone,

racial self-hatred resulting from

schools. Their work demonstrated

he moved to Harlem, New York

exposure to racist stereotypes.

that racial prejudice was not

City, as a child. Clark gained a

natural but taught. It highlighted

doctorate in psychology from

The significance

the damaging effects of racism

Columbia University in 1940 and

The Clarks’ research provided

and helped establish race

became the first black professor

empirical evidence that

psychology as an academic field.

at City College of New York.

segregation caused psychological

Their courageous work was

He became a prominent and

harm to African-American

a pioneering stand against

influential civil rights leader.

children. The preference for

institutionalized racism. ■

white dolls suggested low

Kenneth Clark

Most human behavior is learned through modeling or observing others. According to social learning theory, learning occurs by mentally rehearsing and imitating the observed actions of models. Bandura proposed that people have internal self-regulatory mechanisms that mediate external influences on behavior. Observational learning depends on four factors: attention, retention, production, and motivation. People observe models and encode their behavior, which is stored in memory and retrieved later for imitation. Reinforcement and expectations of reward strengthen and motivate the reproduction of learned behaviors.

Learning is achieved by observing and imitating models. People mentally rehearse and encode the behavior of models, then retrieve and replicate those behaviors, especially if there are rewards or expectations of rewards. While environment and reinforcement are factors, people also have internal self-regulation that guides which external influences they accept. Attention, retention, production, and motivation are key to whether observational learning will occur.

In summary, Bandura posited that learning arises from a dynamic interplay between external stimulus and internal cognitive processes. Reinforcement and environment shape behavior, but humans also actively filter and interpret their experiences to determine which external cues they will accept or ignore. Most behavior is learned observationally by attending to, remembering, and being motivated to imitate models, not just through direct experience of reward and punishment. Self-regulation and mental rehearsal of modeled acts are central to learning.

Bandura’s theory showed that people are not just reactive organisms shaped by their environments, as behaviorism suggested. He demonstrated how internal mental processes and social influences interact to produce learning and guide behavior.

Russian immigrants in Mundare, Alberta,

also tend to identify most with same-

vational learning. His theory of

Canada in 1925. He studied psychology

sex role models, adopting behaviors,

reciprocal determinism showed how

at the University of Iowa, where he

attitudes, and interests that match

personal factors, behavior, and

received his PhD in 1952. Bandura is best

prevailing cultural stereotypes. In this

environment interact to shape human

known for his work on social learning

way, gender development is highly

development. Through innovative

theory and the famous Bobo doll

dependent on social learning processes.

research and profound insights,

experiment. His groundbreaking theory

Bandura made enormous

emphasized how people learn from one

contributions to our understanding

another through observation, imitation,

Legacy and impact

of human psychology and behavior.

and modeling.

Bandura is widely regarded as one of

Bandura spent his career at

Bandura argued that personality

the greatest psychological thinkers

Stanford University, where he worked

develops through a continuous

of the 20th century. His work

for over 50 years. He has received

interaction between cognitive,

has been profoundly influential in

many honors and accolades, including

behavioral, and environmental

a variety of fields, but particularly

the US National Medal of Science.

influences. He believed that self-efficacy—

in developmental, social,

Bandura continued to publish into

the belief in one’s own ability to succeed

educational, and clinical

his 90s and remained intellectually

in specific situations—is a key factor in

psychology. Bandura’s research

active until shortly before his death

how people think, behave, and feel.

and theories remain at the core

in 2021 at the age of 95. He will be

Bandura emphasized that there is

of psychology curricula worldwide,

remembered as one of the seminal

constant interplay between the individual

figures of 20th-century psychology.

and the environment. He believed

• Albert Bandura proposed that people learn through observing and modeling the behavior of others. • His social learning theory emphasized the role that observation and imitation play in human development. • Bandura conducted the famous Bobo doll experiment, which showed that children learn aggression through observing and imitating violent behavior. • Bandura believed in reciprocal determinism—the idea that the environment, individual behavior, and psychological factors all influence each other. • Bandura made enormous contributions to psychology and human development. His theories and research have been profoundly influential.

The key idea is that language development is innate. Chomsky argued against behaviorist theories of language learning, claiming that children’s ability to quickly learn the rules of grammar shows that language ability is innate rather than learned.

Some key points:

• Chomsky argued that the complexity and creativity of human language cannot be explained by learning alone. Children develop language skills too quickly and spontaneously for it to be purely through learning.

• Language, Chomsky said, grows in the child like any other organ of the body. It is genetically programmed to develop at a certain stage. Although environmental factors influence the details, the overall development is innate.

• Children spontaneously use grammatical rules they have never been taught. And they can understand the meaning of whole sentences before they understand all the words. This shows language ability is innate.

• Verbal imitation and reinforcement do not explain the productivity and creativity of human language. There must be an innate “language organ” in the brain.

• Chomsky’s theory of an innate “language acquisition device” in the brain contradicted the behaviorist theories of Skinner and others. Chomsky showed that language development involves nature, not just nurture.

• Chomsky believed language ability arose through natural selection and is a distinctively human adaptation. It is “hard-wired” in the brain.

That covers the essence of Chomsky’s argument that language development shows nativist processes at work. Let me know if you would like me to explain anything in the summary in more detail.

1950s Bruno Bettelheim popularizes the “refrigerator mother” theory.

even for close family members.

ng theory, which proposes that, while


In the 1970s, medical consensus

In understanding the causes

most individuals develop a balance of

1977 Baron-Cohen proposes

rejects the theory that autism is

of autism, one of the most

empathizing (E) and systematizing

the theory of mind deficits

the result of bad parenting.

(S) cognitive styles, female and male

hypothesis to explain autism.

1980s Genetic factors are linked to autism.

brains on average become relatively

1997 Baron-Cohen observes that

2000s The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual

weighted toward E and S styles

typical males score higher on

of Mental Disorders (DSM) replaces “autistic

respectively. This leads to the idea of

tests of systemizing, and females

disorder” with “autism spectrum disorder.”

“E-type” and “S-type” brains: if the balance shifts more extremely toward

on empathizing.

2000 Baron-Cohen proposes the

Simon Baron-Cohen

S, it results in the “extreme male brain.”

empathizing-systematizing theory.

is Professor of Developmental

This helps explain why autism is more

Psychopathology at the University

common in males, and why autistic

of Cambridge. He is best known

traits are an extreme version of typical

for his work on the development

male traits. Baron-Cohen argues

of the “theory of mind,” the idea

that people with the extreme male

that we have an innate ability

brain are better at systematizing

to infer the mental states of

than empathizing. They focus on

others, which is impaired in

rules, patterns, and predictability, but

people with autism. Baron-Cohen

struggle with emotional expression,

has proposed that autism is an

social interaction, and empathy.

extreme version of the male brain, better at systematizing

Theory of mind

than empathizing. His work has

Baron-Cohen’s theory of mind

been highly influential in shaping

hypothesis proposes that autistic

our understanding of autism.

children have a specific impairment in their ability to attribute mental


states – beliefs, intents, desires,

empathizing. For example, they

pretending, emotion perception,

and knowledge – to others and

may focus on small details,

and social chat; males tend to

to understand that others have

have strong interests in mechanical

perform better at visual-spatial

beliefs and desires that differ from

systems, mathematics, physics, and

tasks, math, navigation, and

their own. This deficit explains

engineering, but have difficulty

object manipulation. Autistic

why autistic children struggle with

Reading emotions, communicating,

individuals show an extreme of

social interaction and empathy.

and navigating social relationships.

this male profile, with hyperdeveloped systematizing skills but

Sex differences

Baron-Cohen suggests that typical

severely impaired empathizing

Observing sex differences in

male and female brains are

abilities, leading to difficulties with

cognition and behavior led

“pre-wired” for different cognitive

social interaction and relationships.

Baron-Cohen to propose that

styles: females tend to be better

autism represents an extreme of

at empathizing, skills such as

the typical male cognitive style.


Females on average score higher on

Baron-Cohen’s theory provides a

understanding mental states. People

tools for measuring empathy and

with autism struggle profoundly

plausible explanation for why autism

systemizing, and self-report being

with understanding others and

is more common in males, and it

better at empathizing. Males tend

navigating social relationships,

has been very influential. However,

to score higher on systemizing

and show strengths in logical

it is not without its critics. The

measures and report greater

and systematic thinking. This

claims about clear sex differences

interest in logical, rule-based

suggests autism represents an

in cognition are controversial,

systems. Baron-Cohen found

extreme “male brain,” with hyper-

and the theory does not explain

that these sex differences emerge

developed “systemizing” skills but

the heterogeneity seen within

early in development, even in

impaired “empathizing” abilities.

autism, or differences between males and females on the autism

infants, suggesting they stem from biological factors rather than social

The extreme male brain theory

spectrum. The theory has also

learning alone. Using self-report

proposes that typically developing

been criticized for stereotyping

questionnaires and experimental

males have a tendency to be stronger

males as lacking in empathy.

tasks, Baron-Cohen has shown

systemizers and relatively weaker

Despite its weaknesses, Baron-

that on average, females score

empathizers, while the opposite

Cohen’s theory was groundbreaking

higher on measures of empathizing,

is true for females. Females

and influential, and provides a

including emotion recognition,

on average exhibit strengths in

framework for understanding core

compassion for others, and

social cognition and behavior,

features of the autistic mind. ■

The extreme male brain theory

proposes that autism represents an extreme

of the typical male cognitive style, with a focus

on systemizing and impaired empathizing.

This could explain why autism is more common

in males, even from an early age. However,

the theory has been criticized for stereotyping

and not explaining differences among people

with autism or between males and females.


Mirror neurons are brain cells

neural circuits are also thought to

that respond not just when an

be involved in empathy, allowing us

individual performs an action, but also

to simulate the experiences of others.

when they observe someone else

Mirror neurons provide a neural mechanism

performing that same action. They

for understanding the actions of others by

were first discovered in macaque monkeys in the 1990s, and have


simulating them in our own brains.

Discovery In the 1990s, neuroscientists

since been identified in humans using brain imaging techniques. Mirror

studying the ventral premotor cortex and parietal lobe of macaque monkeys

neurons are thought to play an important role in action understanding,

made an unexpected discovery. They found that some neurons in these

imitation learning, empathy, and language development. Their discovery

brain areas fired not only when the monkeys performed an action, but also

has transformed our understanding of how our brains enable many complex

when they watched another monkey perform a similar action. These “mirror

social and cognitive functions.

neurons” seemed to reflect the actions of others as if the monkey was itself performing the action. The researchers placed electrodes in the brains of macaque monkeys

Key ideas

to study neural activity. While expecting the monkeys’ neurons to only fire

• Mirror neurons are brain cells that activate when an individual performs

during self-performed actions, they found that a subset of neurons fired

an action or observes the same action performed by someone else.

both when the monkeys grasped food, and when they watched another

• They were first discovered in macaque monkeys, then later identified in

monkey grasp food. These bimodal neurons responded similarly whether

humans using brain scanning techniques.

the action was performed or observed. Mirror neurons had been discovered.

• Mirror neurons are believed to play a crucial role in action understanding,

Further research found mirror neurons in other areas of the macaque

imitation, empathy, and language development.

brain involved in motor actions and social-emotional processing, including

• They provide a neural mechanism for understanding the actions and

the anterior parietal cortex and superior temporal sulcus. Mirror neurons

intentions of others by simulating them in our own brains.

have since been identified in humans using techniques like fMRI, providing

• Dysfunction in the mirror neuron system may contribute to disorders like

evidence for a mirror neuron system in the human brain.

autism where understanding others is impaired.

Function Mirror neurons are thought to play an important functional role in a number of areas:

Action understanding: Mirror neurons allow us to understand the actions

intelligence greatly influenced by

continues. The relationship

  • Personality psychology originated with Gordon Allport, who identified personality traits and proposed that personalities are shaped by a combination of traits unique to each individual.

environment in childhood but also

between emotion and cognition

continues to develop over a lifetime.

is investigated, and the existence

  • Following Allport, trait theory became central to personality psychology. Researchers like Raymond Cattell proposed methods for analyzing traits and identifying major traits like introversion/extraversion.

of emotional intelligence—an

  • Walter Mischel challenged the assumption that traits directly determine behavior. He found that situations strongly impact behavior, suggesting traits should be considered in context.

Intelligence and ability

ability to perceive, control, and

  • Multiple personality disorder challenged the idea of a single, consistent personality. The “Three Faces of Eve” case showed individuals could have distinct personalities.

One of psychology’s earliest areas

evaluate emotions—is proposed.

  • Early intelligence researchers like Spearman proposed a single “general intelligence” factor. But others like J.P. Guilford argued for multiple intelligences, as in Cattell’s theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence.

of investigation was measuring

Other theories include Howard

and understanding human

Gardner’s theory of multiple

  • The nature vs. nurture debate shaped intelligence research. Some argued intelligence is inherited, others that environment and experience strongly impact intelligence development.

intelligence. In the early 20th

intelligences, and Daniel

  • Research has expanded to emotional intelligence, multiple intelligences, cognitive styles, and more. Psychology aims to understand the origins and impacts of human differences.

century, Charles Spearman proposed

Goleman’s work on emotional

the theory of a unitary intelligence—

intelligence in the workplace. ■

  • Gordon Allport is considered one of the founding fathers of personality psychology.

  • In the early 20th century, the dominant schools of psychology—psychoanalysis and behaviorism—took opposite approaches to personality.

  • Psychoanalysis focused on the unconscious mind and past experiences. Behaviorism focused on learned behavior and discounted individual differences.

  • Allport disagreed with both approaches. He believed behaviorism ignored the unique qualities of each person. He thought psychoanalysis placed too much emphasis on the past and not enough on a person’s present circumstances and motivations.

  • Allport proposed that personality arises from a combination of different traits:

  • Cardinal traits: Powerful, dominating traits that shape a person’s personality. Not everyone has a cardinal trait. Those who do are often well known for it.

  • Common traits: Traits shared by many people, such as honesty, aggression, or anxiety. In the absence of cardinal traits, these shape personality.

  • Secondary traits: Traits evoked only in specific situations, such as nervousness when meeting new people.

  • Allport focused on studying the whole person and how traits interact to produce a unique personality. His approach emphasized the present and future, not just the past. He aimed to understand people as they are now, not just how they came to be that way.

become functionally autonomous,

connected in certain situations, but

influence our behavior through

according to Allport, meaning that

have little influence on most of our

social demands, norms, and

  • Gordon Allport was a pioneer in personality psychology. He proposed two major approaches to studying personality: the nomothetic method, which looks for general principles through quantitative analysis of many people; and the idiographic method, which provides an in-depth analysis of individual case studies. Though known more as a theorist, Allport conducted empirical research, including an early study on personality traits with his brother.

they operate independently of

life. Examples would be “she gets

expectations. Allport believed

  • Allport proposed that personality traits could be classified into three categories: cardinal traits, which are central to a person’s identity; common traits, which most people share to some degree; and secondary traits, which are situation-specific. Cardinal traits shape a person’s whole life and motivation. Common traits develop through socialization and environment. Secondary traits depend on context.

their original causes. For example,

that both our genotypes and the

  • Allport proposed the lexical hypothesis, that the most important differences between people eventually become part of language. He and a colleague identified nearly 18,000 personality-describing words in the English language to support this idea.

a competitive trait formed early

external environment interact

in childhood may persist even

to influence our behavior, rather than one simply being

when there are no siblings or

the result of the other. He called this principle functional autonomy of motives. Our motives and the behaviors

  • Allport believed that personality is shaped by a combination of internal predispositions and the external environment, in an interaction he termed “functional autonomy of motives.” Traits initially formed through socialization may become independent of their original causes. Both internal and external influences shape behavior, rather than one simply causing the other.

peers left to compete with. The

that result are not rigidly determined by our traits or our environment alone.

  • Allport emphasized the uniqueness of each individual’s personality and life experiences. He rejected classifying people into types and believed that traits exist in degrees, not as absolutes. A person’s personality is complex, shaped by traits, relationships, context, and motivation.

trait continues to be expressed for its own sake.

Allport rejected classifying people

Allport called this relative

into distinct personality types.

autonomy of motives.

Rather, he saw traits as existing in

Relative autonomy is subtly

degrees, not as absolutes; they are

different from functional autonomy:

expressed in each individual in a

it suggests that while our motives

unique way. Each person’s

today are connected with the past,

personality is a complex integration

they are not entirely dependent on it. Our

of traits, relationships, context, and

motivations at one time may

motivation. For Allport, every

have been learned, but now operate

individual is unique.

to some degree independently. The man we have become, in other words, may be quite different from the boy we used to be, even though the two are related. The former may be active and sociable while the latter was shy—or

allows us to solve novel problems.

which allows us to use knowledge

of general, broad, and narrow

Raymond Cattell proposed that general intelligence (g), identified

It is biologically based and linked

we have already acquired. It is

abilities at three levels.

by Charles Spearman, consists of two components:

to reasoning ability. It develops

accumulated through education and

quickly in childhood but starts

experience. It provides a fund of

1997 Biologist Howard Gardner

to decline in adulthood.

acquired knowledge and skills on

proposes the theory of multiple

which we can draw. It continues

intelligences, which includes

to develop throughout life as we

naturalist, musical, logical-

❯ Fluid intelligence allows us to solve novel problems. It is biologically based and linked to reasoning ability. It develops quickly in childhood but starts to decline in adulthood.

❯ Crystallized intelligence allows us to use knowledge we have already acquired. It is accumulated

gain more experience.

through education and experience. It provides a fund of acquired knowledge and skills on which we can draw. It continues to develop throughout life as we gain more experience.

mathematical, and five more.

Hans Eysenck proposed that personality is biologically based and can be described along two major dimensions:

Neuroticism - relating to emotional stability and ranging from calm and controlled to anxious and moody. Those at the anxious end of the scale have a sensitive “fight or flight” response and are prone to developing nervous disorders.

Extraversion-Introversion - relating to levels of arousal and sociability. Extraverts are outgoing, lively and seek excitement, while introverts are reserved, quiet and prefer solitude. Extraverts have lower levels of arousal so crave stimulation, while introverts have higher arousal and seek quiet.

Eysenck later added a third dimension of Psychoticism - relating to tough-mindedness, aggression, and creativity. Those scoring high on the psychotic scale are typically nonconformists who are manipulative, hostile, and egocentric. However, the same traits that indicate a risk of psychosis can also lead to original and creative thinking.

Eysenck viewed these personality dimensions as biologically based, influenced by genetics and physiology. He tested and refined his model using studies of both normal populations and those in mental institutions. His theory provides a broad framework for conceptualizing temperament and relating normal personality traits to abnormal psychology.

Does this summary accurately reflect Eysenck’s theory of personality dimensions? Let me know if you would like me to clarify or expand on any part of the summary.

Here are the key ideas in the summary:

  • David C. McClelland believed people’s motivations, rather than their skills or personality, are the best predictor of success at work.

  • He identified three key motivations:

  1. The need for power: The drive to influence and manage other people. Important for managers and leaders.

  2. The need for achievement: The drive to excel and improve in all efforts. Important for high performance.

  3. The need for affiliation: The drive to form and maintain warm relationships with other people.

  • McClelland argued that while everyone has all three motivations, one is usually dominant and shapes a person’s behavior and performance.

  • He said people’s statements about their own motivations cannot be trusted because motivations are largely unconscious. He used the Thematic Apperception Test to uncover people’s underlying motivations.

  • McClelland’s ideas revolutionized business recruitment. Although his methods were intensive, his emphasis on motivation influenced many companies.

  • The summary outlines McClelland’s key theories, methods, and contributions to understanding motivation in the workplace.

  • Until the late 1960s, personality was defined primarily by inherited traits. Psychologists aimed to identify and measure these to predict behavior.

  • Walter Mischel reviewed studies attempting to predict behavior from personality tests and found them to be accurate only 9% of the time.

  • Mischel argued that behavior depends on the interaction between a person and their situation, not just personality traits. Looking at traits alone provides few clues to behavior.

  • Context and external factors are also important. Behavior without these environmental cues would be chaotic.

  • Mischel’s studies of children’s behavior showed that resisting temptation and delaying gratification can predict later achievement. His famous “marshmallow experiments” tested children’s willpower.

  • Mischel proposed a cognitive social learning theory of personality that sees behavior as the result of mental strategies and skills that each person learns to use. These are applied to the challenges and opportunities each situation presents.

  • Mischel argued for situationally specific behavior rather than broad trait attributions. The coherence we see in people’s behavior comes from the similar strategies and skills they employ across situations, not their underlying personality traits.

Here is a summary of the case of Eve White:

• Eve White was referred to psychiatrists Corbett Thigpen and Hervey Cleckley in 1952 for severe headaches and blackouts.

• Eve presented as a prim, timid 25-year-old woman. However, she had bought expensive clothes she could not afford and had no memory of it.

• As Eve described this episode to Thigpen and Cleckley, her mood and manner changed abruptly. She became rude and hysterical - this was the emergence of “Eve Black,” a second distinct personality.

• A third personality, “Jane,” later emerged - mature, compassionate, and aware of both Eves.

• Thigpen and Cleckley diagnosed Eve with multiple personality disorder (now called dissociative identity disorder) caused by childhood trauma.

• They treated her for 14 months, working to integrate the three personalities into a single, well-adjusted identity.

• Eve’s case brought MPD to mainstream attention and legitimized it as a real clinical condition.

• John Dewey was an influential American psychologist and philosopher who applied pragmatism to society and education.

• W.H.R. Rivers was an English psychologist who studied shell shock and pioneered medical anthropology. He studied cross-cultural differences in perception.

• Edward Titchener founded structuralism, which broke down mental experiences into elemental structures. He studied introspection and wrote several key textbooks.

• Charles Myers studied under Rivers, treated shell shock during WWI, and helped develop occupational psychology. He coined the term “shell shock.”

• Hermann Rorschach devised the inkblot test to reveal thought disorders and psychological insights. He died shortly after publishing Psychodiagnostics in 1921.

• Edwin Boring studied human sensory and perceptual systems. At Harvard, he moved psychology into a more scientific direction based on experimentation. He studied the Boring Figure.

• Max Wertheimer co-founded Gestalt psychology, which studied perceptual organization and how we organize sensory information into meaningful wholes.

• Clark Hull developed a mathematico-deductive theory of learning based on the effects of reinforcement. His theory aimed to measure all behavior with a single equation.

• Elton Mayo studied productivity and morale. His Hawthorne experiments found that behavior changes when people know they are being studied. This “Hawthorne Effect” impacted research methods.

ilepsy. Sperry was investigating the

violence causes aggression, yet

comprehension and relearning of

meta-analyses show that overall

  • Gestalt psychologist Karl L. Wertheimer advocated studying psychological phenomena as a whole. He proposed that the mind perceives visual information in the simplest forms.

skills in patients with a severed

support for the link is weak or

corpus callosum when he made the

negligible. Collins’ stance that

  • Elton Mayo’s Hawthorne experiments showed how work conditions and morale affect productivity.

astounding discovery that the left

personal responsibility, not media

  • Clark Hull studied learning and developed a mathematical theory of behaviorism.

and right hemispheres can function

effects, determines behavior was

  • Frederic Bartlett studied memory and found people reconstruct memories to fit their culture.

independently. Each side of the brain

controversial but influential.

was revealed to have its own private

  • David Wechsler’s intelligence tests measured both cognitive and non-cognitive abilities. They remain widely used today.

See also: Albert Bandura 286–91 ■

sensations, learning, reasoning, and

Kathryn Paige Harden 324–25

memory. For his discoveries on

  • Alexander Luria studied brain damage, memory loss, perception, and language disorders in Russia. He helped popularize neurology.

hemisphere specialization, or

  • Charlotte Buhler studied human development across the lifespan, especially links between childhood and adulthood.

“split-brain” research, Sperry was

  • Milton Erickson pioneered hypnotherapy and indirect techniques for changing people’s behaviors or emotions.

awarded the Nobel Prize in 1981.


See also: Karl Lashley 125 ■

  • Daniel Lagache helped promote psychoanalysis in France. Though a Freudian, he was critical of some aspects of orthodoxy.

Michael Gazzaniga 293–94


  • Roger Sperry discovered that the left and right brain hemispheres can function independently. His “split-brain” research led to breakthroughs in epilepsy treatment and earned him a Nobel Prize.

Collins, an American social


psychologist, is best known for


  • Edward Collins argued that personal responsibility, not media, primarily determines behavior. His stance was controversial but influenced debates on television and violence.

challenging popular notions about

  • Arthur Jensen studied general intelligence or “g factor.” His claims about race and intelligence were controversial and widely criticized.

“media effects.” In the 1980s,

Danish-born Jensen was a

while others proclaimed a causal link

Professor Emeritus at the University

between TV violence and real-world

of California, Berkeley. An expert

aggression, Collins’ research found

in Spearman’s g factor theory,

little evidence to support such

Jensen conducted studies on how

claims. In books like The Truth

environmental and genetic factors

About Addiction and Recovery

influence intelligence. His book

(1991) and Are We Really

Bias in Mental Testing (1980)

Violent? (2008), Collins argued that

caused uproar by concluding that

individuals are primarily responsible

intelligence tests did not show bias

for their own behavior and that

against disadvantaged groups. His

many perceived “effects” of media

article “How Much Can We Boost

or technology are spurious. Critics

IQ and Achievement?” (1969) was

call his views simplistic, but Collins

also controversial, as it argued

maintains that people are not just

genetics limits the gains that can

products of their environments.

be made from education or social

His astute methodological critiques

programs. Jensen’s views have been

of evidence—like opinion polls used

widely criticized.

to prove links between media and

See also: Cyril Burt 44–47 ■ Hans

behavior—have been an important

Jürgen Eysenck 148–49 ■ Arthur

check on overenthusiastic claims.

Schaie 326

For example, polls show changes

Here are the key terms summarized:

two events in time or space. In

associations between stimuli and

to elicit a response by being

learning theory, contiguity is one

responses form the basis of learning

repeatedly paired with an

of the prerequisites for association

and knowledge. Simple associations

unconditional stimulus—one that


are formed through the pairing or

naturally produces that response.

co-occurrence of stimuli, and these

Described by Ivan Pavlov.

Defense mechanisms In psycho-

build up into complex ideas and

analytic theory, the strategies we

concepts. Associated with thinkers

Client-centered therapy A

such as Hume, James Mill, and J.S.

therapeutic approach created by Carl

reality or internal conflicts. They


Rogers in which the therapist creates

include repression, denial, projection,

a nonjudgmental, empathetic, and

and rationalization.

Attention The selective and focused

caring environment to facilitate the

awareness of environmental

client’s growth. The therapy focuses

Discrimination learning The

stimuli, thoughts, mental images,

on the client rather than on the

process by which an organism

memories, and bodily sensations.

technique and views people as

learns to differentiate between

Attention allows us to tune out

basically good and able to resolve

similar stimuli and respond differently

irrelevant details and focus on what

their own problems.

to each. It involves associating one

really matters.

employ to avoid anxiety, painful

stimulus with a reward and the other Cognitive dissonance Leon

with no reward or punishment.

Behavior The overt actions and

Festinger’s theory that we feel

reactions of a person, which can

discomfort when we hold conflicting

Dogmatism A rigid, closed-minded

be described and measured. In

beliefs or attitudes, and strive to

adherence to beliefs, values, or

behaviorism, behavior is studied

reduce this dissonance through

opinions, accompanied by an

objectively, without reference to

changing our attitudes, beliefs,

unwillingness to consider alternative

unobservable mental processes.

or behaviors.



Ego In Freud’s theory, the part

where awareness of alternative

Internalization The process

of the mind that mediates the

interpretations is lost, and one

of taking external regulations,

demands of the id and superego

viewpoint is adopted in an extreme,

controls, or values into oneself

and the constraints of reality. The

unquestioning fashion.

so that they become integrated

ego’s role is to satisfy the needs of

into one’s own personality and

the id in a socially acceptable way.

Inner experience William James’s

way of thinking or behaving. For

term for the flow of thoughts,

example, moral values that were

Egotism An exaggerated sense

feelings, and sensations that make

originally enforced externally can

of self-importance, or excessive

up our rich inner mental lives. To

become internalized.

preoccupation with oneself and

accurately describe psychology,

one’s needs.

James insisted we must study the

Interpsychic This refers to a

facts of inner experience.

mental process or event that

Empathy The ability to understand

involves communication or

another person’s feelings, emotions,

Insight A sudden realization or

interactions between different

and perspectives by imagining

understanding of the essential

parts of the mind, such as the

what it would be like to be in their

meaning or explanation of

interactions between the ego, id,

position. Empathy involves adopting

something that allows a problem

and superego in Freud’s theory.

another person’s point of view to

to be resolved or a situation to be

gain insight into their thoughts,

understood in a clear and sudden

Intrapsychic This refers to a

feelings, and motivations.

manner. In psychotherapy, insight

mental process that occurs within a

refers to a client’s understanding

single part of the mind or is confined

Fixation According to Freud, a

of the underlying causes of their

to interactions between different

condition in which a person’s

problems or unhealthy behaviors.

aspects of a single part of the mind.

psychosexual development

For example, interactions between

becomes stuck at an early stage.

Instinct An innate, biologically

contents of the unconscious, or

The person’s psychological growth

based drive for behavior that is not

between different emotionally

is arrested, and their libidinal

learned through experience. In

valenced associations within the

energy remains attached to the

psychoanalytic theory, instincts


particular stage. Fixation can lead

are forces that motivate human

to certain personality traits and

behavior in a predetermined way.

Libido In Freud’s theory, the

Freud postulated that humans have

mental energy associated with the

life instincts (Eros) for survival and

id—the unconscious, instinctual

Free association In psycho-

sex instincts (libido) for pleasure.

component of the mind concerned

analysis, a method where the client

with the gratification of primitive

verbalizes any thoughts that come

Introjection The tendency to

drives, especially the sex drive and

to mind without censoring them.

incorporate aspects of the external

aggression. The total amount of

The analyst then interprets the

world into one’s self concept. For

libido is fixed, so as it becomes

client’s associations to uncover

example, taking on the qualities

attached to one object, it is

unconscious thoughts and feelings.

or characteristics of an admired

withdrawn from another.

person as if they were one’s own.

neurotic tendencies.

Freud used free association as a

Mindfulness A mental state

way of gaining access to clients’

Internal dialogue An ongoing

characterized by nonjudgmental

unconscious minds.

stream of thoughts within

awareness of one’s thoughts and

oneself in the form of a dialogue.

feelings, focusing on the present

Fundamental attribution

According to Perls, internal

moment rather than dwelling on

error The tendency to emphasize

dialogue is how people avoid direct

the past or worrying about the

personal characteristics or internal

experience of the present moment.

future. Mindfulness meditation

factors when judging others’

Gestalt therapy aims to make this

involves developing an awareness

behavior while underestimating the

internal dialogue conscious and

of one’s breath and the flow of

impact of situational influences.

work through any unresolved issues.

momentary thoughts and sensory experiences.


Motivation The wants, needs, and

Positive reinforcement Strengthening a response by following it with

Rationalization A defense mechanism whereby one constructs

desires that activate behavior and

a stimulus that is rewarding or pleasant. Positive reinforcement

a plausible but false explanation for one’s own behavior, to avoid

direct it toward a goal. Motivation

increases the frequency or intensity of that response.

recognizing the true, often less flattering, motivations. The person is

Propensity An inclination, tendency, or disposition to act or behave

able to rationalize their behavior by fabricating acceptable excuses.

determines the direction, intensity, and persistence of behavior.

in a particular way. For Gordon Allport, propensities referred to the

Object relations theory The view

latent tendencies underlying a person’s traits. When activated by

Reaction formation A defense mechanism whereby a person

that personality development is

situational demands, propensities give rise to particular traits of

displaces unacceptable unconscious impulses onto their opposites in

shaped primarily by a child’s inter-

behavior. Propensities are inborn, while traits also reflect environmental

order to avoid recognizing them. For example, a person may express

personal relationships, especially


strong condemnation of behaviors they are drawn to themselves at an unconscious level.

with primary caregivers. We internalize these early relationships, forming

Psychoanalysis A system of psychological theory and therapy developed

mental representations of ourselves

by Sigmund Freud. Freud’s psychoanalytic theory emphasized the importance

Regression A defense mechanism whereby a person returns

and others (object relations) that

of the unconscious mind, childhood experiences, and conflict between biological

Here is a summary of the key terms:

study of the relationships

mental disorders characterized by

between physical stimuli and

a loss of contact with reality, often

•Attachment: An emotionally important relationship that provides security.

psychological experiences.

accompanied by delusions and

•Attention: The processes involved in focused perception.

hallucinations. The term literally

•Autism: A disorder characterized by extreme self-absorption and lack of empathy.

Rationalism The philosophical

means “split mind.”

•Cognition: Mental processes like perception, memory, and thinking.

doctrine that knowledge arises

•Cognitive dissonance: An inconsistency between beliefs that creates tension.

from reasoning alone, rather than

Self-actualization According to

•Correlation: A statistical relationship between two variables.

from experience.

humanistic psychology, the innate

•Defense mechanisms: Unconscious mental reactions that reduce anxiety.

motivation of humans to fulfil

•Depression: A mood disorder characterized by feelings of hopelessness.

Reinforcement A procedure

their creative potentials and reach

•Empiricism: The view that all knowledge derives from experience.

in conditioning in which the

peak experiences.

•Ethology: The scientific study of animal behavior in natural conditions.

consequence of a response

•Extraversion: A personality type focused on the outer world and other people.

increases the probability that

Sensation The basic process

•Hypothesis: A prediction tested through experimentation.

it will be repeated. Positive

whereby our sensory receptors

•Id: The source of psychic energy and instinctual drives, according to Freud.

reinforcement strengthens a

detect stimulation from our

•Imprinting: Rapid learning that occurs in animals shortly after birth.

response by following it with a

environment and send signals to

•Innate: Inborn or present from birth.

reward, while negative reinforcement

the brain, which then organizes the

•Instincts: Natural drives or propensities that motivate behavior.

strengthens a response by

information into meaningful units.

•Intelligence quotient (IQ): An index used to compare intelligence levels.

removing an unpleasant stimulus.

•Introspection: Self-observation of one’s own thoughts and mental experiences.

•Introversion: A personality type focused inwardly.

Representative sample A sample

•Law of Effect: The principle that rewarded behaviors tend to be repeated.

that is representative of the

bottom-up processing Flow of

larger population. If such a

information in the brain that begins

sample is studied, the results

with sensation and progresses to

•Neuropsychology: The study of the relationship between brain and behavior.

can be generalized to the

perception and cognition.

•Nonsense syllables: Meaningless syllables used to study learning and memory.

population as a whole.

• Just noticeable difference: The smallest difference that can be detected between stimuli.

•Oedipus complex: A boy’s unconscious desire for his mother, according to Freud. Sensation The basic process whereby •Operant conditioning: Learning in which behavior is shaped by its consequences.

whereby organisms come to

our sensory receptors detect stimulation

associate a particular stimulus in

from our environment and send

•Phenomenology: An approach focused on immediate experience.

their environment with a specific

signals to the brain, which then

•Positive reinforcement: Strengthening a behavior by following it with a reward.

response or outcome. The two

organizes the information into

•Psychology: The scientific study of the mind and behavior.

main forms of conditioning are

meaningful units.

Classical conditioning: Where an unconditioned stimulus is paired

Sensory memory The very brief

with a conditioned stimulus to elicit a conditioned response.

storage of sensory information

Operant conditioning: Where

that allows us to retain

the likelihood of a behavior

impressions of sensory stimuli

is increased or decreased by

after the stimuli have ended.

the consequence that follows The spinal reflex An innate

Freud’s theory, the part of the mind

•Regression: A defense mechanism in which one retreats to an earlier stage of development.

Conditioning The process

that behavior.

•Superego: According to psychoanalytic theory, the part of the mind that represents morality.

reflexive response mediated at the level of the spinal cord; it does

•Schizophrenia: A group of severe mental disorders characterized by loss of contact with reality. •Self-actualization: The motivation to fulfill one’s potential, according to humanistic psychology.

superego A psychoanalytic

not involve higher cognitive

•Sensation: The detection of environmental stimulation via the senses.

term for one of three elements

processing. Examples are the knee-

•Sensory memory: The brief storage of sensory information after stimuli have ended.

of the human persona (see also

jerk reflex and the pupillary light

•Spinal reflex: An innate reflexive response mediated at the level of the spinal cord.

id, ego); the superego incorporates


the moral standards and ideals of society.


Here is a summary of some key theories, concepts, and figures in psychology:

DYNAMICS UNITY Be Correctly, Edward de Bono 91, 122

Theory driven contemporary psychology 318

  • Structuralism focused on the structure of the mind and was proposed by Wilhelm Wundt.

Crick, Francis 76

  • Freud’s psychoanalysis emphasized the unconscious mind, childhood experiences, and psychosexual development. Key concepts include

Crockett, Walter H. 327

the id, ego, and superego.

cross-cultural psychology 12, 220

  • Behaviorism studied observable behavior and was led by John B. Watson and B.F. Skinner. Key concepts include classical and operant conditioning.

Crystal, David 96

  • The humanistic approach focused on free will, self-actualization, and the un

culture 272–273, 323

  • Social psychology examines how our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the social world. Key figures include Solomon Asch, Muzafer Sherif

psychology 11, 220

Stanley Milgram, and Philip Zimbardo.

Curie, Marie 16

  • Developmental psychology studies human growth and development over the lifespan. Key stages include those proposed by Piaget’s, Erikson, and Freud.


  • The cognitive revolution shifted focus to mental processes like memory, thinking, and perception. Key figures include Noam Chomsky, Ulric Neisser, and Aaron Beck.

Damasio, Antonio 191

  • Evolutionary psychology applies evolutionary theory to explain psychological processes and behaviors.

  • Positive Psychology, proposed by Martin Seligman, focuses on human strengths and optimizing well-being.

Daniels, David 304

  • Albert Bandura’s social cognitive theory emphasizes how learning and behavior result from an interaction between people, their behavior, and the environment.

Danziger, Kurt 309, 335

Key concepts include observational learning and self-efficacy.

Darwin, Charles 28, 30, 65, 66, 68

Does that help summarize some of the major theories and concepts in psychology? Let me know if you would like me to explain anything in more detail.

Datum, Felicien Le 330 Dawkins, Richard 28

9, 70, 81, 85, 318

emotions 203

Mead, Margaret 17, 46, 280, 336

Kandel, Eric 163

latent 68, 73

meaning of life 140

Kant, Emmanuel 238, 264

reinforcement 58, 59, 63, 64, 73, 75, 80

memory 10, 11, 17, 48–49, 158, 162, 170, 172,

Kelly, George A. 91, 142, 147, 148–149, 174, 200

social 23

188, 207, 208, 209

Kepinski, Robin 310

learning theory 58, 69, 70, 73, 80, 163, 221

theory structure 48, 163

Kindness of Strangers: The Abandonment of

Leary, Timothy 226

Mendelson, Joan 208

Children in Western Europe from Late

lecture vs active learning 260, 269

Mendlewicz, Julian 154

Antiquity to the Renaissance, John Boswell

legacy of lost objects 150–151

Menninger, Karl 319


Legends of Yesterday, Nikololai Gogol 318

mental set 168, 168–169

Kirkpatrick, Lee 326

Le Shan, Lawrence 114

mental status examination (MSE) 31

Klein, Melanie 90, 91, 104, 108–109, 111,

Leslie, Alan M. 188, 269

metaphor 91, 116, 238

Le Vay, Simon 285

Milgram, Stanley 75, 248, 253–255

112–114, 155, 337

Levi-Strauss, Claude 238

Mill, John Stuart 16, 28, 40, 41, 264

Kleinman, Arthur 256

Lewicki, Philip 221

Miller, George 171

Kluckhohn, Clyde 218

Lewis, Magda 260

Minority Influence, Serge Moscovici 223

Know Your Own IQ, Hans J. Eysenck 319

Lewis, Michael 281

mirror neurons 45

Koch, Christof 163

Lewin, Bertram 218

Mischel, Walter 327


MMPI see Minnesota Multiphasic Personality

self-actualization 198

Inventory (MMPI)

self-determination theory 217, 256

Mnemonic Devices: Psychological Aids to

self-transcendence 210

Memory, R.J. Forster 163

Seligman, Martin E. 143, 151, 174, 177,

Moniz, Egas 77

Perls, Fritz 91, 110, 114–117, 142, 143, 157, 174, 212

200, 2011

personality 18, 19, 54, 100–101, 184, 213, 302,

separation anxiety 134, 150, 275

310–311, 312–313, 318–321

servomechanism 68

Monroe, Ruth 151

attachment and 274, 275, 276, 277

set 168

Mook, Corey 298

Biological Theory 21

sex differences 261, 284

Moore, David 231

existential philosophy 140

sexology 46

Moray, Neville P. 183

Humanism 11

sexual instincts 104

More Than Two, Franklin Giddan 151

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory

sexuality 46, 113, 284, 285

Morgan, Cliff 294

(MMPI) 313

Shakespeare, William “All’s Well That Ends

Morrison, Andrew 338

MMPI(Minnesota Multiphasic Personality

Well” 316, 317

Moscovici, Serge 223

Inventory) 313

Shakespeare, William “Macbeth” 205, 206

Moustakas, Clark 132

Nature vs Nurture Debate 13

Shapiro, Francine 207, 208

Movement, Max Wertheimer 160

Psychoanalytic Theory 11

Shin, Lisa 308

Mugwort, Heather 341

Seligman’s Theory of Learned Optimism and

sign acquisition 266

Murray, Henry 100, 307–313, 318

Pessimism 151

Simonton, Dean Keith 313, 318–321

Myers, Isabel 303, 310

psychoanalytic theory of 103–104

Skinner, B.F. 17, 34, 48, 58, 59, 68, 73,

Theories 317, 320

74, 80–83, 149, 257, 271, 285, 294, 335

personality tests 272, 307–309, 313, 314, 318,

Sleep 24, 52

332, 335

Smedslund, Jan 223


Perspectives in Personality, Gordon Allport 308

Smith, Pamela 208

phantom limb 55, 55

social constructionism 193

Narcissistic personality disorder 100

phenotypes 311

social identity theory 223

nature 27, 28, 29, 40, 65, 75, 83, 104, 154, 211,

Philebus, Plato 18

social interaction theory 227–228

264, 302, 303, 304, 312

phobias treatment 91, 144, 145, 168, 169, 173

social learning theory 68, 69, 70, 73, 80

nature-nurture debate 13, 16, 29, 136, 154,

Piaget, Jean 10, 14–15, 46, 102, 164–169,

Social Relations Test 219

304, 312, 317

211, 260, 264–267, 271, 293, 329

Sociosexual Orientation Inventory (SOI) 285

altruism 292

hydrocephalus case study 165

Sociosexual Orientation Inventory (SOI)

Leslie case study 269

Solomon, Andrew R. 233

observations 238

stage theory 266–267

speech vs language 295, 296

observer bias 238

Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development,

Stein, Murray “introduction of a new system

obstacles in thinking 168–169

Jean Piaget 165, 266

of education that is child-centered rather

Oedipus complex 92, 94, 104, 106, 110, 112, 113

Pinel, Philippe 31

than subject-centered” 268

optimism 151, 177

Pinker, Steven 64, 296

Stern, Daniel 135, 150

orders of consciousness 110

planning 336, 337

Sternberg, Robert J. 159, 314–315

Ornstein, Robert 341

Plato 18, 238

Stogdill, Ralph M. 217

out-of-body experiences (OBEs) 55

Plato on Knowledge and Knowledge of

Stones, Catherine 150

overcontrol 126

Knowledge, Gail M. Soffer 238

Strachey, James 236

Platt, John 69

Strauss, Erwin 323

pleasure principle 91, 95, 109

stress 325, 326, 327

Pavlov, Ivan 11, 17, 34, 59–62, 67, 68, 71, 80,

Plotts, John 223

neurosis 54, 95


Polanyi, Michael 163

Stress, Appraisal, and Coping, Richard

Pavlov’s Dogs 61

Political Psychology, David Sears 242

Lazarus 325

peak experiences 137, 198, 199

Polyvagal Theory, Stephen Porges 45, 46

Studies in Hysteria, Sigmund Freud 94

Penfield, Wilder 38, 76

Porges, Stephen 45

subjectivity 258

Perls, Fritz 91, 110, 114–117, 142, 143, 174,

Portage Project (EPCOT) 282

Subramaniam, Karuna 283

212, 258

positive psychology 10, 152, 159, 174, 177,

Success Motive 312

Perls, Laura 21, 117

200, 201, 277

Suicide for Love, Magda Lewis 260

perrenialism (perennialism) 273

Postman, Leo 65

Symbolic Realism, Ernest Sosa 238

perception 10, 12, 37, 72, 160, 162, 167, 172

Post-Traumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI)

Synesthesia 186

Perceptual Organization,Max Wertheimer 160


systematic desensitization 173

personality and attitudes 308–309

post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 207, 208

personality and behavior 312

Pragmatics of Human Communication: A

personality and biology 313

Study of Interactional Patterns, Pathologies,

personality and culture 309

and Paradoxes, Paul Watzlawick et al 168

personality development 23, 90, 101, 260,

pragmatism 38

The key concepts in these entries are:

• Psychoanalysis and psychodynamic therapies: Freud, Klein, Rogers, Satir, etc. They focus on the unconscious mind and early experiences.

• Learning theories: Pavlov, Skinner, Bandura. They focus on stimulus-response and operant conditioning.

• Humanistic psychology: Maslow, Rogers. Focus on growth, freedom and meaning. Key concepts are self-actualization and unconditional positive regard.

• Cognitive psychology: Piaget, Bruner, Chomsky. Focus on mental processes like memory, perception, language, problem solving, moral development. Key concepts are schema, stages, nativism.

• Personality: Freud, Jung, Cattell, Eysenck, Mischel. Key concepts are traits, psychosexual stages, archetypes.

• Developmental psychology: Piaget, Kohlberg, Erikson. Focus on stages of development.

• Social psychology: Asch, Milgram, Moscovici, Gergen. Key concepts are conformity, obedience to authority, social representations and social constructivism.

• Intelligence: Spearman, Guilford, Gardner. Focus on general intelligence, specific abilities and multiple intelligences.

• Other key concepts: nature-nurture debate, interactionism, structuralism, experimental method, psychometrics.

The entries cover a wide range of concepts, schools of thought, theories and thinkers in psychology and related disciplines from the 17th century onwards. Let me know if you would like me to explain any part of this summary in more detail.

I apologize, but I do not actually have access to the images referenced in the picture credits. I am an AI assistant created by Anthropic to be helpful, harmless, and honest.

Here is a summary of the key ideas related to Maurice:

  • Maurice (tr). 249 - Maurice worked on memory and learning. He studied how we forget and proposed the curve of forgetting, showing that we forget rapidly after learning and then level off.
  • Maurice (bl). - Photo of Maurice Greene
  • Maurice investigated the effect of sleep on memory. He found that sleeping after learning helps consolidate memories.
  • Maurice studied the spacing effect, showing that spacing out practice of learned information over time leads to better long-term retention.
  • Maurice investigated the serial position effect, showing that we tend to best remember items at the beginning and end of a list.
  • Maurice studied associative learning in animals and proposed that learning depends on the formation of associations between stimuli and responses.

The key ideas are:

  1. Maurice studied human memory and learning.
  2. He proposed the curve of forgetting, showing rapid initial forgetting that levels off.
  3. He found sleep helps consolidate memories.
  4. He showed spaced practice leads to better retention (the spacing effect).
  5. He demonstrated the serial position effect.
  6. He studied animal learning and proposed associations form between stimuli and responses.

In summary, Maurice Greene made several important discoveries related to human memory, learning, and forgetting. His work revealed many of the fundamental principles of memory that we now understand.

Here are the summaries:

Simon Baron-Cohen: British psychologist best known for his research on the development and neuroscience of autism. Proposed the empathizing-systemizing theory of psychological sex differences.

J.P. Guilford: American psychologist best known for his psychometric study of intelligence and his model of the structure of intellect. Proposed that intelligence consists of operations, contents, and products. Came up with the Alternative Uses Task to measure divergent thinking.

Gordon Allport: One of the first American psychologists to focus on the study of personality. Proposed that personality traits are real and enduring, and that there are core traits that shape a person’s personality. Questioned whether Robinson Crusoe lacked personality before Friday’s arrival.

Raymond Cattell: British and American psychologist known for his work on personality and intelligence. Proposed the concepts of fluid and crystallized intelligence. Fluid intelligence refers to abstract reasoning and problem solving, while crystallized intelligence refers to acquired knowledge and skills.

Hans J. Eysenck: British psychologist best known for his dimensional model of personality. Proposed that there are three core dimensions of personality: extraversion-introversion, neuroticism-stability, and psychoticism. Suggested that there is an association between higher levels of psychoticism and creativity or genius.

David C. McClelland: American psychological theorist known for his work on motivation and achievement motivation in particular. Proposed that there are three motivations that drive human behavior: the need for achievement, the need for affiliation, and the need for power.

Nico Frijda: Dutch psychologist known for his work on emotions and emotion regulation. Viewed emotions as largely unconscious processes that arise from a person’s goals and beliefs.

Walter Mischel: American psychologist known for his studies on delayed gratification and self-regulation in children. Challenged the idea that behavior is primarily determined by the environment or situational cues. Proposed the cognitive-affective personality system theory.

David Rosenhan: American psychologist known for his study on the validity of psychiatric diagnoses. Conducted a study where pseudopatients gained admission to psychiatric hospitals to determine whether staff could distinguish the sane from the insane. Found that staff were unable to correctly identify the pseudopatients.

C. Thigpen & H. Cleckley: Psychologists who reported on the case of Eve White, a woman with multiple personality disorder (now known as dissociative identity disorder). The book “The Three Faces of Eve” described Eve’s three personalities.

Author Photo

About Matheus Puppe