Built from Broken: A Science-Based Guide to Healing Painful Joints, Preventing Injuries, and Rebuilding Your Body

Built from Broken: A Science-Based Guide to Healing Painful Joints, Preventing Injuries, and Rebuilding Your Body


Here’s a summary of Built from Broken by Scott Hogan:

The book is divided into two parts:

Part 1: Principles and Strategy

  • Chapter 1 discusses the importance of progressive overload through weight training for building strength and overcoming injuries. It shares the story of Janine Shepherd, an Olympic skier who overcame a paralyzing accident through intensive physical therapy and strength training.

  • Chapter 2 explains the anatomy of pain and how the body’s pain-signaling system works. It identifies the 5 primary causes of joint pain: tissue damage, inflammation, muscle spasms, nerve compression, and postural distortion.

  • Chapter 3 argues that the focus should be on load progression and improving function rather than solely relieving pain. Complete pain relief is rarely possible or advisable.

  • Chapter 4 discusses the role of collagen in joint health and how to stimulate collagen synthesis through exercise. Collagen provides structure and strength to connective tissues like tendons, ligaments, and cartilage.

  • Chapter 5 argues that movement, not stretching, is the key to mobility and overcoming stiffness. Static stretching has limited benefits and risks of injury. Dynamic movement is more effective.

  • Chapter 6 provides science-backed mobility exercises, including examples. It emphasizes starting light and progressing slowly.

  • Chapter 7 provides corrective exercise routines to address common movement impairments and muscle imbalances that contribute to pain and injury.

  • Chapters 8 and 9 offer strategies and recommendations for preventing and recovering from injuries. They emphasize load progression, movement, and addressing the underlying causes.

Part 2: The Training Program

  • Chapters 10 through 12 provide a comprehensive training program with recommendations for exercise selection, progression, periodization, and more. The program focuses on mastering foundational movement patterns with dumbbells and bodyweight before progressing to barbells and more complex lifts. Workout templates are provided in the appendix.

The key message is that joint pain and injuries can be overcome by focusing on progressive strength training, collagen synthesis, dynamic movement, corrective exercise, and addressing the underlying causes of pain rather than masking symptoms. Rebuilding a strong, pain-free body requires patience, discipline, and consistently applying these principles over the long-term.

  • Janine Shepherd suffered a devastating spinal cord injury after being hit by a truck while riding her bike. She was paralyzed from the waist down.

  • While recovering in the hospital, she formed close bonds with other spinal cord injury patients, regardless of how they looked physically.

  • She went through a period of depression after leaving the hospital but was inspired by a 16-year-old quadriplegic patient named Maria who always smiled despite her condition.

  • Janine realized she had a choice to either keep fighting her circumstances or accept them. She chose to accept her condition and explore life's possibilities.

  • Janine recovered remarkably and learned to walk again and became the youngest and only female director of Australia's Civil Aviation Safety Authority.

  • Janine's story shows that you can overcome adversity and repair your body with the right mindset of acceptance, determination, and adaptability.

  • Rather than ask "Why me?", ask "What is the next logical step forward?". You can resolve pain and build resilience through load training and resistance exercise.

  • Load training stimulates mechanotransduction, the process by which cells sense and respond to mechanical stress by initiating biochemical changes and healing mechanisms. More load means a greater response.

  • Many believe weight training leads to joint breakdown, but the opposite is true. Load training is necessary to increase connective tissue load tolerance and fix joint issues. If done properly, it will not break down your body.

  • Weight training is simply practicing and perfecting basic human movement patterns under load. It is the most functional and beneficial exercise.

  • Heavy load training is necessary, not just light weights. Studies show loads of around 80% of your maximum are needed to stimulate the greatest connective tissue response. Heavy loads also build bone density.

  • Muscle mass and strength are strong predictors of health and longevity. Resistance training reduces mortality risk, improves metabolic health, and may reduce heart disease and stroke risk.

  • Building muscle is especially important for older adults. Low muscle strength is linked to higher all-cause mortality risk in those over 50. Muscle mass predicts mortality in seniors.

  • A 15-year study found that older adults who lifted weights had a 46% lower death rate. Even after adjusting for other factors, the weight training group had a 19% lower mortality rate. Resistance training also slows age-related cognitive decline.

  • Weight training and resistance exercise have many benefits, including boosting cognitive function and preventing age-related muscle loss. It's not too late for anyone to start a weight training program and gain these benefits.

  • However, conventional approaches to weight training often lead to pain, injury, and joint dysfunction over time. This is because they focus on bodybuilding, progressive overload of the major barbell lifts, and neglect important elements like mobility, stability, and balance.

  • Bodybuilding routines that isolate muscles and train them intensely with high volume can create muscle imbalances and compromise joints. They also often neglect the legs, core, and other areas.

  • Continuously increasing the amount of weight lifted and focusing narrowly on powerlifting exercises like the squat, bench press, and deadlift often leads to breakdown for most recreational lifters. Connective tissue and the nervous system need rest periods and variation.

  • Most weight training programs only aim to build muscle and strength, neglecting mobility, stability, balance, endurance, and corrective exercise. A well-rounded program should incorporate all these elements.

  • In summary, while weight training has many benefits, conventional approaches are often misguided and can lead to pain and injury. A smarter, balanced program with periodized intensity and volume, full-body exercises, mobility work, and corrective exercise is needed for most lifters to gain benefits long-term.

  • Connective tissue like tendons and ligaments goes through cycles of damage and repair during exercise. When this cycle is interrupted before full recovery, accumulated damage can lead to tissue degeneration.

  • Most training programs do not adequately promote joint health and long-term resilience. Every physical activity can create muscle imbalances and problems. Understanding these issues is key to preventing and fixing them.

  • While it may require less time, corrective exercise based training 2-3 days a week can build strength, muscle and joint integrity. The key is using the right exercises, repetition tempos, and rest.

  • The standard approach to exercise often focuses on the bare minimum of corrective work, but making it the focus of your training has many benefits:

  1. It prevents pain and injuries. Corrective exercise can fix existing problems and prevent new ones.

  2. It is mentally stimulating. It requires focus and tuning into your body.

  3. It produces an intense metabolic effect. It activates your central nervous system and can burn fat.

  4. It improves total body strength, mobility and pain-free movement. It targets weak points, which improves the system overall. Progress comes in leaps, not increments.

  5. It is more fun. Improving limitations and weaknesses produces the most satisfying progress.

  • The top 5 causes of joint pain and dysfunction are:
  1. Poor posture. It causes tightness, imbalance, joint stress and nerve issues. Studies show it increases pain and arthritis risk over time. Good posture supports joint alignment and reduces problems.

  2. Lack of varied movement. Repeating the same movements overloads certain areas and causes imbalance. Varied movement trains your body to maintain good posture and alignment.

  3. Muscle tightness and shortness. Tight muscles pull joints out of alignment, decrease mobility and increase pain. Stretching and mobility work can help.

  4. Muscle weakness. Weak muscles cannot properly support joints and posture. Targeted strength training fixes this.

  5. Repetitive strain. Repeating the same movements in sports, exercise or daily life can lead to overuse injuries. Varying your physical activities and rest periods helps prevent this.

  • To improve posture and fix these issues requires both conscious effort and mechanical changes. Conscious effort alone is rarely enough. Targeted exercise, mobility work and varied movement are needed to retrain your neuromuscular system and build strength. Moving in new ways helps establish healthy movement patterns.

Common static postural faults when sitting:

  • Rounded low back

  • Forward head posture

  • Rounded shoulders

  • Inactive glutes and tight hip flexors

Movement quality and variation:

  • Neuromuscular coordination - Ability to control complex movements. Can improve with practice.

  • Joint proprioception - Ability to sense joint position and movement. Can train with unstable surfaces.

  • Fatigue management - Important postural muscles need endurance training.

  • Lack of movement variation leads to injuries and dysfunction. Multisport athletes have lower injury risk.

Muscle imbalances:

  • Occur when some muscles are stronger or bigger than others. Can alter joint mechanics and cause pain.

  • Lead to postural faults, inflammation, and injury (pain compensation cycle).

  • Stretching is not effective for resolving muscle imbalances. Requires mobility, corrective exercise, and varied movement.


  • Inflammation of tendons (connective tissue between muscle and bone). Usually from overuse or trauma + overuse.

  • Inflammation is not the primary problem. Treatments aimed only at reducing inflammation are not effective.

Arthritis, aging and collagen degradation:

  • Arthritis leading cause of joint pain. Caused by wear and tear, trauma, or autoimmune response.

  • Collagen provides structure for joints, tendons, and ligaments. Breaks down with age and leads to loss of flexibility and strength.

  • Weight training, protein, and collagen supplements can help slow collagen breakdown.

  • Joint pain affects 54 million adults in the US. The two main types are rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA).

  • RA is an autoimmune disease where the immune system attacks joint tissue. Treatment focuses on medication and physical therapy.

  • OA is the breakdown of cartilage and connective tissue in joints. It gets worse with age and weight but is not a normal part of aging. Staying active is key to managing symptoms.

  • Injuries, excess weight, posture, and movement quality also contribute to joint pain. Load training addresses all of these and should be central to treatment.

  • The medical system struggles to properly diagnose and treat joint pain. Patients must become their own advocates.

  • Pain has a purpose: to protect tissue and remind us how not to get hurt again. Though unpleasant, pain guides us to health.

  • The three main types of pain are:

  1. Nociceptive pain: from tissue damage like injuries. Feels like throbbing. Treat like an injury.

  2. Neuropathic pain: from nerve damage or disease. Feels like shooting, tingling, stabbing or burning. See a doctor.

  3. Centralized pain: when the nervous system amplifies pain signals. Can linger after injury has healed. Pain receptors have become sensitized.

  • Differentiating between pain types helps determine proper treatment. Nociceptive pain should be treated like an injury. Neuropathic pain requires medical guidance. Centralized pain may need medication or therapy.

  • The key is to manage pain naturally and avoid it becoming chronic. Staying active and load training are most important. Listen to your pain and adjust frequency, load, volume and exercise selection accordingly.

  • Acute pain can turn into chronic pain if the underlying cause is not addressed. Chronic pain involves changes in the nervous system that persist even after an injury has healed.

  • The nervous system can become sensitized to pain, making a person overly responsive to pain signals. This sensitization does not go away quickly and can spread beyond the original injury site.

  • Psychological factors like catastrophizing, or exaggerated fear and worry about pain, can worsen and perpetuate pain. However, pain is a complex experience that involves both psychological and physical components.

  • The key to managing pain in the long run is to focus on the underlying causes instead of just relieving symptoms. Four main goals include reducing inflammation, healing tendinopathy, improving joint lubrication, and protecting collagen.

  • Inflammation is a normal part of the body's healing response, but prolonged inflammation leads to pain sensitization and chronic pain. Anti-inflammatory strategies include limiting inflammatory foods, staying hydrated, getting enough sleep, and exercising.

  • Tendinopathy refers to damage or degeneration of tendons and often causes pain and mobility issues. Eccentric exercise, or slowly lengthening muscles under tension, can help remodel and heal tendons.

  • Synovial fluid lubricates joints and provides nutrients to cartilage. Staying active, especially with full range of motion and fish oil supplements, can support joint lubrication and health.

  • Collagen is the main structural protein in connective tissue like tendons, ligaments, and cartilage. A balanced diet with enough protein and certain supplements like vitamin C can help maintain collagen health and prevent injury.

In summary, the keys to overcoming pain in the long run are understanding the underlying physiological causes, nurturing health and recovery, and building self-efficacy through graduated exercise and activity. Focusing excessively on pain relief alone risks chronic pain and disability. An integrated approach is needed.

Inflammation is necessary for healing but too much inflammation is harmful. There are three phases of inflammation:

  1. Acute inflammation: Occurs immediately after an injury. It is characterized by pain, swelling, and redness. It lasts a few hours to days. Some acute inflammation is necessary for healing but ice and NSAIDs can help reduce excess inflammation.

  2. Subacute inflammation: The transition period between acute and chronic inflammation. It peaks between 3 to 6 weeks after injury and can last months. Exercise and modulating inflammation is important for healing during this phase.

  3. Chronic inflammation: Low-grade inflammation lasting months or years. It is associated with disease and pain. Chronic inflammation negatively impacts health, mobility, and quality of life.

Causes and risk factors for chronic inflammation include:

  • Age

  • Poor diet (high in sugar and refined foods)

  • Obesity

  • Stress

  • Lack of sleep

  • Smoking

  • Overuse of NSAIDs, alcohol, and some medications

Practical ways to lower total body inflammation:

  1. Lose weight. Even losing a little weight can significantly lower inflammation.

  2. Avoid excessive use of NSAIDs and anti-inflammatory drugs. Long term use can increase inflammation and have side effects. Only use occasionally and for a short time.

  3. Reduce carbohydrate intake. Low-carb diets are more effective for reducing inflammation and pain than low-fat diets.

  4. Exercise regularly. Exercise has anti-inflammatory effects and helps maintain a healthy weight.

  5. Get enough sleep. Lack of sleep increases inflammation. Most adults need 7-9 hours of sleep per night.

  6. Limit or avoid alcohol and red meat. Both increase inflammation.

  7. Increase omega-3 fatty acids. Omega-3s have anti-inflammatory effects. Fish, fish oil supplements, nuts, and seeds are good sources.

  8. Try turmeric or curcumin supplements. Turmeric is a potent anti-inflammatory.

  9. Increase flavonoids and antioxidant intake. Found in colorful fruits and vegetables.

  10. Try other anti-inflammatory supplements like boswellia, bromelain, and zinc. But always check with your doctor first, especially if on any medications.

Here is a summary of insulin-mediated inflammation:

  • Follow an anti-inflammatory diet low in refined carbs and processed oils, high in omega-3 fats, antioxidants and anti-inflammatory spices. This helps lower chronic inflammation in the body.

  • Exercise regularly. Even light activity like walking for 20-30 minutes can help decrease inflammatory markers. Exercise also activates the body's anti-inflammatory response.

  • Get adequate sleep. Lack of sleep increases inflammation. Aim for 8 hours of sleep per night to allow the body to rest and recover.

  • Practice yoga or stretching. Yoga and stretching help lower inflammation and the stress hormone cortisol.

  • Use cold therapy for acute injuries. Ice baths or cold packs can reduce pain and swelling in injured areas. Limit use to avoid suppressing the healing response.

  • Take anti-inflammatory supplements like fish oil, turmeric, boswellia and type II collagen. These supplements have been shown to reduce inflammation and support joint health and injury recovery.

  • Manage post-injury inflammation carefully. Seek medical advice and think long-term. Don't completely block inflammation, instead modulate it. Adjust treatments based on the phase of injury - acute (first week), subacute (weeks 2-6) or chronic (6+ weeks). In the acute phase, limit anti-inflammatories. In subacute phase, use minimal doses. For chronic phase, aggressive treatment may be needed to break the cycle.

  • The goal is to keep inflammation in a healthy range to promote healing and avoid future injury. Short term fixes may allow quicker return to activity but increase re-injury risk. Proper rest and gradual return to activity are key.

• Inflammation is not always the primary cause of tendinopathy or chronic joint pain. Tendon degeneration (tendinosis) can occur independently of inflammation (tendinitis).

• Tendinopathy develops as a result of accumulated stress on tendons over time and a failure to adequately recover from that stress. Everyone has an individual load tolerance threshold for tendon adaptation. When stress exceeds this threshold, tendinopathy develops.

• There are three phases of tendinopathy:

  1. Acute phase (0-6 weeks): Focus on controlling inflammation and pain. Ice and rest as needed.

  2. Subacute phase (6-12 weeks): Gradually increase range of motion and light activity. Forming connections between healing tendon fibers. Scar tissue is fragile, so avoid heavy weights.

  3. Chronic phase (3+ months): If still in pain, the source of the problem persists. Tendon degeneration continues. Tight, deformed, painful joints. Treatment focuses on tendon remodeling and regeneration.

• Anti-inflammatory drugs and cortisone provide only temporary relief and can worsen outcomes. They reduce collagen formation and increase reinjury risk.

• Load management (maintaining an optimal balance of stress and rest) and connective tissue health are key to resolving and preventing tendinopathy in the long run.

Here is a summary of the continuum model of tendinopathy:

The continuum model describes the progression of tendinopathy through four phases:

  1. Reactive tendinopathy: Early-stage tendon injury in response to increased loading. The tendon stiffens and swells but remains structurally intact. It is reversible with rest and load management.

  2. Tendon disrepair: Continued overloading leads to tendon thickening and collagen matrix disruption. Nerve ingrowth can cause chronic pain. Load management and progressive loading are required to prevent progression to degenerative tendinopathy.

  3. Degenerative tendinopathy: Widespread tendon cell death and permanent damage. Parts of the tendon die off, leaving non-functional areas. The risk of rupture is high. Progressive loading around damaged areas can improve function but not restore normal tendon structure.

  4. Reactive on disrepair/degeneration (RDD): Inflammation of healthy tendon tissue surrounding damaged areas in response to loading. Can resolve with rest and load adjustment. Pain levels guide appropriate loading.

The only effective treatment for tendinopathy is progressive loading through resistance exercise to increase load tolerance and stimulate tendon remodeling. Recovery requires months of consistent training. Setbacks are common, requiring adjustment of loading. Collagen turnover peaks around 11 weeks, so training should continue for 8-12 weeks after symptoms resolve to achieve maximal benefit.

Prevention of recurrence requires long-term connective tissue training and load management.

To prevent further injury and improve synovial fluid health:

  1. Exercise regularly to keep synovial fluid moving and joints lubricated. Short, frequent exercise is better than prolonged periods of inactivity or long, intense workouts. If sitting for long periods, stand up and move joints through their full range of motion hourly.

  2. Avoid prolonged immobilization of joints. Braces and wraps should only be used temporarily. Move joints through their full range of motion before and after using immobilization devices.

  3. Reduce repetitive mechanical stress on joints, especially after an injury. Repetitive movements can damage cartilage and cause synovial fluid effusion and inflammation.

  4. Treat acute injuries immediately to reduce swelling and synovial fluid disruption. Ice, compression, and elevation help reduce pain and swelling to break the cycle of reduced mobility and pain.

  5. Be aware of feelings of pressure in joints which can indicate synovial fluid swelling and damage before visible swelling appears. address joint pressure immediately to avoid entering a cycle of pain, reduced mobility, and further damage.

The key is avoiding entering a feedback loop of pain, reduced mobility, less synovial fluid production, and more pain by keeping synovial fluid healthy, joints mobile, and managing injuries promptly. Exercise and movement are vital for joint health and pain-free living.

  • Collagen is the main structural protein found in connective tissues such as tendons, ligaments, and cartilage.

  • Collagen synthesis refers to the process by which the body produces, aggregates and forms collagen structures. It is important for injury recovery, tissue repair, and joint mobility.

  • Proper collagen synthesis should get as much attention as strength and performance training for athletes. However, soft tissue injuries remain common, especially overuse injuries.

  • Muscle adapts well to various exercises by increasing strength, but tendon and connective tissue require high-magnitude and repetitive loading to effectively stimulate collagen synthesis.

  • Key factors for collagen synthesis include:

  1. Protein intake: Especially glycine, proline and vitamin C which are building blocks for collagen. Whey protein and bone broth are good sources.

  2. Resistance training: Especially high-repetition exercises focusing on eccentric contractions. This causes microtears in tendons and connective tissue, stimulating collagen repair and strengthening.

  3. Slow, repetitive movements: Using a controlled tempo with limited range of motion, especially during warm-ups. This lubricates joints and stimulates collagen production. Gradually increase range of motion.

  4. Compression: Applying compressive wraps or sleeves during and after exercise. This increases blood flow to connective tissues, aiding delivery of nutrients for collagen synthesis.

  5. Heat application: Using heat pads, warm compresses or taking hot baths. This also increases blood flow and relaxes connective tissues.

  6. Adequate rest: Getting 7-9 hours of sleep per night and taking one or two days of rest from intense exercise each week. This allows collagen structures to recover and strengthen.

  7. Certain supplements: Hydrolyzed collagen, vitamin C, and hyaluronic acid supplements may aid collagen synthesis and joint health. But whole foods and the other methods are most important.

In summary, a combination of nutrition, training, movement, and recovery techniques are needed to properly stimulate collagen synthesis and build strong, resilient connective tissues. Focusing only on muscle strength and performance risks tendon and ligament injuries. An integrated approach helps athletes reach peak performance and longevity.

  • Juries or connective tissue injuries are common among youth baseball and softball players. The areas most frequently injured are the lower extremities (42%), upper extremities (30.3%), and head and neck (16.4%). Over half of all sports injuries are preventable.

  • Joint health lags behind strength and performance gains. We are building bigger, stronger muscles and faster athletes but on stiff, injury-prone joints. We need better ways to prevent soft tissue injuries beyond just rest, ice, and anti-inflammatories. Understanding collagen synthesis can help.

  • Collagen is the second most abundant protein in the body and provides structure for organs and soft tissues. Collagen production declines with age, causing aging joints, sagging skin, and muscle loss. Preserving collagen is key to healthy aging.

  • There are four stages of collagen synthesis:

  1. Collagen biosynthesis: Production of raw collagen material. Can be influenced by nutrition, exercise, lifestyle. Collagen peptides may boost this.

  2. Collagen cross-linking: Connecting collagen molecules into fibrils. More cross-linking means more resistance to degradation. Diet influences this. Copper deficiency impairs this.

  3. Collagen fibril formation: Bundling semi-crystalline collagen chains. Composition determines tissue health, flexibility and degradation resistance. Exercise habits impact after injury.

  4. Collagenolysis: Necessary collagen degradation process for repair and remodeling. Excessive collagen degradation causes connective tissue loss and joint aging/disease. 15% of new collagen is immediately broken down (basal degradation). This is a key leverage point for joint health.

  • The five connective tissue types are: tendons (connect muscle to bone), ligaments (connect bone to bone), cartilage (cushions joints), intramuscular (runs through muscles), and fascia (surrounds muscles). They provide structure, transmit force, protect, shuttle nutrients, and repair. Collagen content and arrangement determine function.

  • Connective tissue transmits most of the force from muscle contractions. Exercise and movement speed determine how connective tissue reacts. Fast, forceful movement causes connective tissue fibers to bind together to resist injury. Slower movement allows more individual fiber movement. Understanding this relationship can help prevent injury.

Connective tissue, including tendons, ligaments, and fascia, provides structure and transmits force in the body. It is made up primarily of collagen, which gives it stiffness and strength. However, connective tissue also needs to remain flexible enough to bend without breaking.

There are three main types of muscle contractions that affect connective tissue:

  1. Eccentric contraction: The muscle lengthens under load, like lowering a weight. This stresses connective tissue and promotes collagen remodeling.

  2. Concentric contraction: The muscle shortens, like lifting a weight. This also provides stress to strengthen connective tissue.

  3. Isometric contraction: The muscle generates force without changing length, like pushing against a wall. This can reduce pain, increase strength, and benefit connective tissue.

Various training strategies utilize these contractions to target connective tissue:

  • Isometric training: Uses isometric contractions. It reduces pain, boosts strength, and benefits connective tissue and bone health.

  • Eccentric training: Emphasizes the lengthening phase of exercise. It increases strength and flexibility, reduces injury risk, and aids in healing tendinopathy.

  • Heavy slow resistance (HSR) training: Uses both eccentric and concentric contractions with heavy weights and slow speeds. It progressively increases load tolerance and collagen formation. It is used in physical therapy and to prevent and rehabilitate connective tissue damage.

  • Synovial training: uses light, high-repetition exercises to improve joint fluid circulation.

  • Energy load training: Involves quickly releasing stored energy, like in plyometrics. It trains joints to efficiently store and release energy to prevent injury and build functional strength.

In summary, heavy and slow resistance training, especially eccentric and isometric, is particularly beneficial for connective tissue health and joint function. While high-repetition training may be easier on the joints, research shows that heavier loads are needed to stimulate connective tissue remodeling and strength. A balanced program including both slow, heavy training and lighter, higher-rep work is ideal for overall joint health and performance.

  • Heavy resistance training with slow repetitions is best for tendon health and adaptation. Light, high repetition training does not stimulate tendon adaptation.

  • Slow eccentric training, where the muscle is lengthening under tension, improves tendon health and collagen metabolism. Fast, high strain training like plymetrics does not improve tendon health.

  • Heavy resistance training also builds bone density. Moderate weight training provides some benefit, but maximum effort, low repetition training elicits the strongest bone building response.

  • Healthy collagen formation in connective tissue forms a basket-weave pattern. Abnormal or scar tissue collagen forms a crude, overlapping pattern and is prone to re-injury. Slow resistance training helps form healthy collagen.

  • Allowing at least 3 days of rest between resistance training workouts targeting the same muscles optimizes the collagen rebuilding response. Without enough rest, collagen loss can occur.

  • While slow resistance training is beneficial, training exclusively with very slow movements is counterproductive for strength, performance, and muscle building. A mix of fast and slow training is optimal. Slow eccentric training should be used therapeutically and interspersed.

  • For athletes, training should match the speed and power demands of the sport. More plyometric and speed training with periodic slow eccentric training. For general fitness, more slow resistance training with periodic plyometric training.

  • A 3-5 second eccentric phase during resistance exercise provides benefits without going to extremes. 10 seconds up and down is impractical and unnecessary. Controlled eccentric phases, especially in explosive movements, help prevent injury.

  • Explosive, fast movements with natural tempos activate fast-twitch muscle fibers and build strength and power. A mix of fast and slow training is best.

Energy loading refers to the ability to store and release energy quickly during movement. This ability is important for joint health and injury prevention. Energy loading primarily occurs during the stretch-shortening cycle (SSC), which is when a muscle is actively stretched and then immediately shortened. Tendons play an important role in the SSC. Athletes who perform repetitive movements benefit from stiffer tendons, while athletes who rely on explosive movements benefit from more elastic tendons.

Optimal tendon stiffness, especially at the myotendinous junction (MTJ) where muscles and tendons meet, helps absorb shock and prevent injury. Two things that can improve MTJ health are:

  1. Exercises that train the SSC, like plyometrics. These improve the ability to store and release energy and increase functional range of motion.

  2. Building neuromuscular endurance through high-repetition training. This helps prevent nerve signaling to muscles from failing during activity, which can lead to injury.

New research shows that connective tissues like tendons, ligaments, and cartilage may be more adaptable than previously thought. Their cell turnover rates are similar to that of muscle. The implications are that connective tissue can positively adapt to movement, but can also decline quickly with inactivity. Lifestyle factors that decrease collagen synthesis and joint health include:

  1. NSAID usage - Reduces collagen synthesis and delays healing. Not recommended for muscle, bone or tendon injuries.

  2. Steroid hormone usage - Relieves inflammation and pain short-term but inhibits collagen synthesis long-term.

  3. Sedentary lifestyle - Decreases total collagen production and turnover. Collagen synthesis peaks during periods of activity and movement.

In summary, optimal joint health relies on an active lifestyle, avoiding NSAIDs and steroids when possible, exercising in a way that trains the SSC, and building neuromuscular endurance. An active lifestyle stimulates collagen production, which helps connective tissues positively adapt and prevents decline.

Here's a summary:

  • Collagen synthesis naturally occurs in response to injury as your body works to repair damage. Avoid blocking inflammation entirely, especially in the first week after injury.

  • Practice moderation and make healthy lifestyle choices like getting enough sleep, limiting alcohol and smoking, eating a balanced diet, and exercising regularly. These choices help support collagen health and production.

  • Manual therapies like massage, foam rolling, and self-myofascial release can aid collagen remodeling and healing. Wait 1-2 weeks after acute injury before starting these techniques.

  • Eat foods that provide the raw materials for collagen like citrus fruits, seafood, leafy greens, and adequate protein. Staying properly nourished, especially with enough protein, helps support collagen health.

  • Certain supplements may also help boost collagen production. Options like whey protein, vitamin C, zinc, and copper provide building blocks and cofactors needed for collagen synthesis.

  • Finding the right balance is key. Both too much and too little of certain factors like inflammation, hormones, stress, rest, diet, and exercise can negatively impact collagen health. The solution is often somewhere in the moderate middle.

• Plant-based protein powders (pea protein + rice protein) or essential amino acid supplements can be good alternatives for those who don’t want to use whey protein. They promote similar muscle gain and strength improvements as whey protein when combined with resistance training.

• Essential amino acid (EAA) supplements may provide the same or better results as whey protein. They stimulate muscle protein synthesis, have lower insulin spikes, and are easier to digest. A good dosage is 7 grams of EAAs after workouts.

• Taking vitamin C with collagen protein can double collagen synthesis. Collagen protein and vitamin C on their own also have benefits for tissue regeneration and joint health. 5 grams of collagen peptides can improve ankle function and decrease injury risk. Collagen supplementation increases collagen and other connective tissue components like glycosaminoglycans.

• Type II collagen supplements (usually 750-1500 mg per day) stimulate collagen synthesis in cartilage. Doses as low as 10-40 mg per day can help with inflammation and joint pain.

• Collagen protein supplements provide the building blocks for connective tissue health and repair. Type II collagen supplements have an “oral vaccine” effect that reduces autoimmune reactions and inflammation. Collagen protein is best for building joints, Type II collagen is best for reducing joint pain and inflammation.

• For the best results, take 5-10 grams of collagen protein or 10-40 mg of Type II collagen 30-60 minutes before exercise. This provides the nutrients when your joints need them most during activity and exercise. Adding vitamin C further supports the benefits.

• Hydrolyzed collagen protein supplements are absorbed intact in the body, stimulating your own collagen production. About 90% is broken down into amino acids like other dietary protein. The high glycine and proline content may help spare other amino acids for muscle protein synthesis.

• While Type II collagen is often claimed as superior, the two types have different effects. Type II collagen primarily reduces inflammation and pain, collagen protein stimulates tissue regeneration and repair. For joint health, a combination of the two may provide the most comprehensive benefits.

  • Connective tissue injuries are becoming more common due to lack of movement in modern societies. Movement is essential for human health but often lacking.

  • The Hadza tribe of Tanzania leads an ancient hunter-gatherer lifestyle with high levels of natural movement. Studies show they adopt a Lévy walk pattern characterized by short, sporadic movements in one area combined with longer bouts of travel. This random yet practical pattern mimics natural human and animal movement.

  • Movement trumps exercise because the body adapts to what you do most of the time. Short bouts of exercise cannot overcome the effects of prolonged sitting and lack of natural movement. Mechanotransduction means the body responds to the specific movements and forces to which it is exposed on a regular basis.

  • Movement provides physiological benefits beyond just exercise. It circulates blood and oxygen, removes waste, and maintains health at a cellular level. As movement has decreased over time, health issues have increased.

  • Trees in the Biosphere 2 project lacked wind stress and developed weakness as a result, showing how lack of stress and varied forces can be detrimental. Similarly, isolation exercises and repetitive training do not provide enough variability and can increase injury risk. Natural, multidirectional movement is needed for resilience and health.

The key message is that natural, variable movement throughout each day is essential for human health and avoiding injury or weakness. Exercise alone does not overcome prolonged inactivity and lack of multidirectional forces. A lifestyle with more natural movement and less dependence on technology or convenience is needed to restore physiological health and resilience.

Here are three distinct ways to summarize the key concepts:

  1. Isolated exercises increase injury risk. Exercises that target only one or two muscle groups create strength imbalances and coordination deficits in adjacent areas. The gap in strength and control between areas is where injuries occur.

  2. Limited movement variation increases injury risk. Restricted range of motion and repetitive movement patterns reduce joint mobility and stability in underutilized ranges of motion. If a joint's range of motion is 80% strong but 20% weak, injury risk rises in the weak range.

  3. Compound exercises reduce injury risk. Isolation exercises only activate prime mover muscles, neglecting the stabilizers needed for functional movement. Compound exercises challenge multiple muscle groups and joint systems, building balanced strength and control.

Movement and consistent exercise reduce injury risk. Exposure to higher training loads over time increases load capacity and resilience. Weekend warriors and sedentary people are prone to injury from rapid changes or spikes in activity levels. Consistent movement and exercise provide the chronic stimulus needed to prevent injury during bursts of activity. The key is managing chronic load levels through regular movement tailored to individual needs and abilities.

In summary, the three key factors that contribute to increased injury risk are: isolated and imbalanced strength, limited joint range of motion and mobility, and inconsistent or fluctuating activity levels. The solution is compound exercise, varied movement, and consistent load management.

An active lifestyle with varied movement can help prevent injuries and build strength. It's important to expose your joints to different types of stress through exercise. Injury prevention involves:

  1. Reducing stress on areas prone to injury by changing the intensity and mechanics of exercise.

  2. Increasing the amount of stress a tissue can handle before injury by building muscle, connective tissue strength, and endurance.

Progress gradually by increasing your training load by no more than 10-20% per week. Start any new activity slowly, 1-2 times per week, and build up frequency over 4-6 weeks. This allows connective tissue to adapt and prevents overuse injuries.

Walking and varied movement can relieve back pain and body pain in many ways, including:

•Releasing natural opioids •Reducing pain sensitivity •Improving joint function and circulation •Strengthening muscles and connective tissue •Reducing bone loss and osteoarthritis pain •Helping with weight loss and management •Improving oxygen flow for healing •Reducing stress hormones like cortisol

Retro walking, or walking backward, can be even more effective for pain relief because it provides novel stimulation. Varied movement helps reduce guarding, the tensing of muscles to protect an injury. It shows the nervous system that it's okay to move freely without fear of pain.

To add more movement to your life:

  1. Establish a daily walking habit. Aim for 20 minutes a day and stick to it for a week to make it a habit.

  2. Place movement cues in your environment like exercise bands, weights, and straps to remind you to move throughout the day.

  3. Stand up, sit down, bend, and stretch every 30 minutes. Set a timer to remind yourself.

  4. Learn new skills that require coordination like dancing, martial arts, rock climbing, or yoga.

  5. Strength train with weights, bands, or bodyweight 2-3 times a week. A strong body is a mobile, pain-free body.

Here's a summary:

The passage discusses several strategies to incorporate more movement into daily life. Some of the key points:

  • Use exercise equipment for short "movement snacks" throughout the day instead of intense workouts. This provides varied movement and keeps energy levels up.

  • Create an environment conducive to movement by placing visual cues like exercise equipment, shoes, bikes, etc. in visible areas. This makes you more likely to move spontaneously.

  • Do exercises that counteract repetitive movement patterns from work, hobbies, and daily life. This improves full-body fitness and prevents injury.

  • Move in the morning after waking to break up long periods of inactivity. Even light movement helps the body and mind feel sharper.

  • Play and try new forms of exercise. Play trains us to think creatively and adapt, while new routines challenge the body in different ways.

  • Plan vacations and activities centered around movement. This provides mental and physical benefits.

  • Schedule downtime and rest. Rest is important for recovery and allowing the body's demands for movement to build back up.

  • Use everyday activities as opportunities for exercise by practicing good posture and movement. Chores and hobbies can supplement fitness instead of causing pain.

  • Increase nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT). NEAT refers to the energy expended during normal daily activities like eating, standing, walking. Increasing NEAT by gaining muscle, eating more protein, and avoiding long periods of inactivity can significantly boost calorie burn and support weight loss or maintenance.

The overall message is that frequent, varied movement throughout each day provides substantial physical and mental health benefits. Building movement into daily life and environments makes this more sustainable long-term. Rest and recovery are also key to continue progressing and avoiding injury. Focusing on NEAT and calorie burn from normal activity helps create an energy deficit for weight loss in a practical way.

  1. Stretching alone does not effectively prevent injuries or improve performance. Research shows stretching has little to no benefits for injury prevention or athletic performance. While limited mobility can be an issue, stretching is not the solution.

  2. Mobility and flexibility are different. Mobility refers to the ability to actively move joints through a range of motion. Flexibility refers to the ability to passively stretch muscles. Mobility is more important for function and performance.

  3. Stretching makes you better at stretching, not more flexible. Studies show stretching increases your tolerance for the discomfort of stretching, not actual muscle lengthening. Your range of motion may increase, but muscles and tendons are not becoming looser.

  4. Muscles lengthen best when contracted and lengthened. Research shows muscles lengthen most effectively when they are strengthened in an elongated position, not just passively stretched. This means mobility exercises that incorporate active muscle contraction are most effective.

  5. Alternative approaches like agility training are better for injury prevention. Neuromuscular training, balance exercises, and agility drills are more effective for injury prevention than stretching alone. These approaches teach total body coordination and control.

In summary, mobility and functional range of motion are important, but stretching is not the solution and can be counterproductive. The most effective approaches to improving mobility incorporate active muscle contraction, balance, coordination, and control. Stretching should not be relied upon as the primary means of injury prevention or performance enhancement.

  • Muscles lengthen most effectively when contracted, not when passively stretched. This is because contracting a muscle during stretching takes tension off tendons and ligaments and allows the muscle itself to lengthen. Methods like loaded stretching, full range of motion training, and isometric holds at end range are more effective at improving flexibility than static stretching.

  • Muscle imbalances and tightness are often a compensatory mechanism put in place by the nervous system to avoid injury. The root cause is usually a lack of stability or strength elsewhere in the body. The solution depends on the specific muscles involved but often includes strengthening opposing muscle groups, improving mobility, and correcting movement patterns.

  • There are several types of muscle imbalances:

  1. Agonist-antagonist imbalance: The agonist (prime mover) muscle is disproportionately stronger and tighter than the antagonist (opposing) muscle. This leads to the agonist becoming hypertonic (short, tight, and easily activated) and the antagonist becoming latent (weak and inhibited). The solution is to strengthen the antagonist, improve mobility of the agonist, and correct movement patterns.

  2. Length-tension imbalance: A muscle's ability to generate force depends on its length. Muscles that are habitually shortened or lengthened lose the ability to generate force at normal lengths. This increases injury risk and incentivizes limited ranges of motion. The solution is to restore the muscle's optimal length through mobility and strength training.

  • Muscle imbalances can develop from poor posture, repetitive movements, injury, lack of strength/stability, and sedentary lifestyles. They lead to dysfunctional movement, increased injury risk, and a vicious cycle of compensation.

  • There is no single solution to fixing muscle imbalances. A combination of targeted strength training, mobility work, postural correction, and neuromuscular re-education is required. Stretching alone is not effective and can worsen some imbalances.

  • Muscle imbalances occur when some muscles become tight, weak, or overactive relative to others. This can lead to injuries, pain, and reduced performance.

  • Four common types of muscle imbalances are:

  1. Force-couple imbalance: When muscles that should work together to stabilize a joint become imbalanced. For example, weak rotator cuff muscles and overactive deltoids can destabilize the shoulder joint.

  2. Synergistic dominance: When secondary muscles have to take over the role of primary muscles that are weak or inactive. For example, hamstrings and hip flexors may have to act as primary hip extensors if the glutes are weak.

  3. Side dominance: When one side of the body becomes disproportionately stronger or more mobile than the other. This can create postural issues and increase injury risk.

  4. Common specific muscle imbalances include lower cross syndrome (weak core and glutes, tight hip flexors), upper cross syndrome (tight chest and upper traps, weak mid-back), shoulder internal rotation dominance, knee extension/flexion imbalance, and forearm pronation/supination imbalance.

  • Effective mobility training should follow four principles:
  1. Make it goal specific: Train mobility and stability based on your needs and activities. Don't just stretch everything.

  2. Prioritize stability over mobility: Build a stable core and trunk before expanding mobility in the limbs. Stability provides a base for mobility.

  3. Use dynamic stretching: Dynamic stretches that take joints through full ranges of motion are best for performance and injury prevention. Static stretching alone is not very useful.

  4. Focus on movement quality: Move slowly and focus on control, balance, and good form. Movements should be smooth, not jerky. Quality over quantity.

  • Stretching alone is an oversimplified solution to addressing muscle imbalances and mobility issues. A comprehensive corrective exercise program is needed to fix postural issues, strengthen weak areas, and enhance neuromuscular control. Stretching plays only a small part.

Here is a summary of the key points:

  1. Stability before mobility: Focus on building a stable base of support before worrying about increasing range of motion. Without stability and control, mobility and flexibility are useless.

  2. Straighten before strengthening: Work to improve your posture and correct any major deviations or imbalances before embarking on a rigorous strength training program. Posture is the foundation for movement, and it must be addressed to achieve optimal function and avoid injury.

  3. Mobilize in multiple planes: Movements should incorporate forward/backward, side-to-side, and rotational motions. Strength and mobility exercises typically focus on the sagittal and frontal planes, but the transverse plane is often neglected. Multiplanar movements are essential for athleticism, functional movement, and injury resilience.

  4. Use a variety of mobility techniques: A comprehensive mobility program should incorporate static stretching, dynamic stretching, foam rolling, and loaded stretching. Each has a purpose, and variety will produce the best results. Static stretching is best used either after exercise or for brief bouts throughout the day to improve muscle length and rebalance asymmetries. Longer static stretches, loaded stretching, and foam rolling are more joint-friendly ways to target tight muscles. They allow muscles to relax without putting strain on tendons and ligaments.

In summary, becoming optimally mobile and flexible requires a progressive, multi-pronged approach focused on stability, posture, multiplanar movement, and an array of effective techniques for improving range of motion and muscle length. Variety and moderation are key. While some disciplines emphasize holding static stretches for long durations, shorter bouts of different techniques done regularly and consistently are more practical and effective for most people.

  • Calf raise hold: Hold the top portion of a calf raise for 10-45 seconds to stretch your calves. Use a calf raise machine, barbell or dumbbells.

  • Scapular pull-ups: Hang from a pull-up bar and pull your scapula back and down. Hold for 10-45 seconds to stretch your upper back and obliques.

  • Incline dumbbell fly holds: Hold the bottom of an incline dumbbell fly for 10-45 seconds to stretch your chest and front shoulders.

  • Lying dumbbell pullovers: Lie on a bench with a dumbbell above your head. Lower the weight behind your head while keeping your abs engaged. Hold the stretch for 10-45 seconds.

  • Loaded thoracic extensions: Grab suspension trainer handles and lean forward with arms behind head. Hold for 10-45 seconds to stretch your upper back, chest and obliques.

  • Bulgarian split squat holds: Hold the bottom of a Bulgarian split squat for 10-45 seconds to stretch your rear hip flexors. Alternate legs.

  • Isometric Romanian deadlifts: Lower into a Romanian deadlift and hold the bottom for 3-5 seconds. Stand back up. Repeat to stretch your hamstrings.

  • Goblet squat holds: Hold the bottom of a goblet squat for 3-5 seconds before standing back up. Squeeze your glutes and keep your back flat.

  • Dynamic stretching: Actively move through ranges of motion to warm up muscles and increase flexibility. Use techniques like cossack squats, swimmers stretch, thoracic extensions on foam roller.

  • Ballistic stretching: Bouncing movements to push past normal range of motion. High risk but can decrease connective tissue stiffness. Use carefully under guidance.

  • PNF stretching: Alternating stretching and contracting a muscle. Requires a partner and professional guidance. More effective than ballistic stretching.

  • Active isolated stretching: Short 2 second static holds repeated 10 times. Safer than static stretching but provides same benefits. Move to end of natural range of motion and avoid overstretching.

  • Manual therapy: Massage, foam rolling and percussion tools manually loosen stiff tissues. Reduces soreness, improves blood flow and increases short-term flexibility. Useful before stretching. Works through autogenic inhibition.

Here's a summary:

  • Tendon organ (GTO) is a receptor located at the junction of tendons and muscles. It inhibits muscle contraction to prevent injury when high force is applied. It causes the muscles to relax. Studies show GTOs may be responsible for why manual therapies like foam rolling help relax muscles and improve flexibility.

  • Manual therapy techniques include self-massage, foam rolling, percussion massage, myofascial release, and deep tissue massage. They are thought to increase flexibility, enhance recovery, and reduce joint compression.

  • Myofascial release is applying sustained pressure to connective tissue (fascia) surrounding muscles to reduce tension and allow normal muscle function. For muscle knots, apply constant gentle pressure with hands, balls, rollers, etc. for about 5 minutes with breaks.

  • Functional movement training improves movement for sport or daily life. Train movements, not muscles. Expand functional range of motion. Train stabilization in different positions. Train all muscle types. Train coordinated muscle and joint movement.

  • Good posture means proper alignment of the body through the weight-bearing joints: ankles, knees, hips, and shoulders. Neutral position is standing with these joints in a straight vertical line.

  • Common postural faults include:

  • Forward head protrusion: Head forward of neutral. Stresses neck muscles and upper back.

  • Upper crossed syndrome: Head and shoulders forward, chest tight, upper back rounded.

  • Lower crossed syndrome: Excessive lower back arch, tight hip flexors, weak glutes and abs.

  • Sway back: Excessive lumbar lordosis and thoracic kyphosis.

  • Check posture: Crown of head, ears, shoulders, rib cage, hips, knees, ankles should form a straight line. Engage core, pull shoulders back, tuck chin, distribute weight evenly.

  • To correct posture, stretch tight areas, strengthen weak areas, practice good posture, use mirrors or photos to check alignment. It takes conscious effort and time.

  • Poor alignment or posture can lead to neck pain, headaches, and other issues in the spine. It can also weaken the muscles in the upper back and shoulders that help keep the shoulders back.

  • Kyphosis is when the upper spine curves too far forward, leading to a hunched look. It can cause shoulder and neck pain, a forward head, and muscle imbalances.

  • Lordosis is when the lower spine curves too far inward. It can lead to lower back pain, kyphosis, and pressure on the spine. It is often due to tight hip flexors and weak core muscles.

  • Flat back is when the spine lacks its natural curves. It can lead to instability in the upper spine, a forward head, and problems in the hips and legs. It is usually accompanied by a posterior pelvic tilt and tight abdominal muscles.

  • Knee valgus is when the knees collapse inward. It stresses the knees and ankles and often accompanies flat feet and hip issues. It can lead to knee injuries and pain. It is usually due to limited ankle mobility, weak glutes, and instability around the hips and knees.

  • Overpronation is when the arches of the feet collapse, putting too much weight on the inside of the feet. It can lead to knee valgus, shin splints, plantar fasciitis, and low back pain. It is often due to weak foot muscles from poor footwear.

  • Not all postural issues can be fixed, especially if due to underlying conditions. If you can hold a better posture for 10-15 seconds without pain, it is likely fixable with effort and practice.

-Use checklists to assess and correct your posture from head to toe. Focus on keeping joints stacked and muscles engaged. Practice good ergonomics, especially if sitting a lot. Move regularly too. With consistency, good posture can become second nature.

Here is a summary of the key points:

• Sitting for prolonged periods can cause neck strain. Tilting your head up or down, using a laptop stand and external keyboard/mouse can help reduce strain. Laptops force your neck into an awkward downward angle.

• Your keyboard should be at naval level. This allows your elbows to bend at 90 degrees, reducing elbow and wrist pain. Consider an ergonomic keyboard which angles the keys out.

• Traditional mice force your arm into a pronated position, straining your inner elbow and wrist. An ergonomic mouse keeps your wrist neutral.

• Standing desks provide breaks from sitting but standing for long periods also causes discomfort. The best approach is to stand for 10-15 minutes per hour.

• Use a lumbar support cushion when sitting to maintain good posture.

• Walking with upright posture reduces stress on your back and neck. It also improves psychological wellbeing by decreasing blood pressure, pain levels and stress while increasing confidence.

• Checklist for good walking posture:

  1. Bring your hips under your head. This prevents upper back rounding.

  2. Look ahead, not down. Focus on distant objects.

  3. Land on the middle of your foot, not your heel. This reduces shock and friction.

  4. Walk barefoot or in minimalist shoes. This strengthens your feet and ankles, improves proprioception and balance. Start slowly and build up distance.

• A morning mobility routine reduces time spent sedentary after waking and addresses mobility deficits from prolonged sitting during the day. Start your day with light activity and movement.

• The morning routine is challenging to implement due to busy schedules and low motivation upon waking. Start small and build the habit over time. even a few minutes of movement can help.

The key to preventing injuries and pain points is to address small issues before they become bigger problems. This chapter provides templates to prevent the three most common pain points:

  1. Low back pain:
  • Strengthen your core, glutes and hamstrings

  • Improve hip mobility and thoracic spine extension

  • Practice good posture and movement patterns

  1. Knee pain:
  • Strengthen your quads, glutes and hamstrings

  • Loosen tight hip flexors and IT bands

  • Practice knee-friendly exercises like squats and split squats instead of knee extension machines

  1. Shoulder pain:
  • Strengthen your mid-back, rear deltoids and rotator cuff

  • Improve thoracic spine mobility and scapular stability

  • Avoid exercises that compress your shoulders like bench press and overhead press

The goal is to isolate small movement errors and address them before they lead to injury. Work with a medical professional to get properly assessed and develop a tailored program. But these templates provide a good starting point for preventing common pain points.

The three primary joints that produce pain and discomfort are:

  1. Low back: The low back provides stability and supports the upper body. Having strong core muscles, flexible hips and upper back, and good movement mechanics help prevent low back pain. Key things to focus on:
  • Activate your glutes: Glutes are important for stabilizing the low back and hips. Do exercises like fire hydrants and glute bridges.

  • Mobilize surrounding joints: Mobilize upper back and hips since low back should remain stable. Do cat-cow and world's greatest stretch.

  • Learn to hip hinge: Hip hinge properly by keeping back straight and bending at the hips. Do cable pull throughs to learn proper form.

  1. Shoulders: The shoulders provide mobility. Maintaining range of motion and strength in shoulders and surrounding muscles helps prevent pain. Key things to focus on:
  • Improve thoracic spine mobility: Thoracic spine provides mobility above the stable low back. Do foam rolling and thoracic extensions.

  • Strengthen rotator cuff: Rotator cuff muscles stabilize the shoulder joint. Do band exercises like shoulder presses, lateral raises, and front raises.

  • Correct posture: Practice good posture with shoulders back to reduce strain. Strengthen lower traps.

  1. Knees: The knees provide stability. Strong glutes and quads and flexible hips, ankles and hamstrings help support the knees. Key things to focus on:
  • Strengthen glutes and quads: Do squats, lunges, step ups, and leg presses.

  • Increase ankle and hip mobility: Tight ankles and hips put extra strain on knees. Do calf raises, hip openers, and hip flexor stretches.

  • Balance quad and hamstring strength: Hamstrings oppose the quads. Do hamstring curls and bridges.

  • Use proper form: Land softly when exercising, avoid locking knees, and don't let knees drift inward during squats.

In summary, the key to preventing pain in the major joints is maintaining a balance of stability and mobility through the kinetic chain, strengthening key muscle groups, and practicing proper movement form and posture. Start light, build up gradually, and get guidance from a professional if needed.

Here is a summary of the key points:

  1. Build your transverse abdominis muscle. The transverse abdominis (TVA) muscle helps stabilize your core and pelvis. It prevents low back pain. Exercises like supine drawing in can help develop your TVA.

  2. Brace your core before heavy movements. Take a big breath, tighten your core muscles like you're about to be punched, and squeeze your glutes. This helps stabilize your spine during lifts.

  3. Build muscular endurance in your low back. Back endurance is more important than strength for preventing pain. The multifidus muscle runs along your spine. Exercises like the bird dog can build endurance in this muscle.

  4. Avoid excessive compression. Exercises that compress your spine from both the top and bottom, like the barbell box squat, can aggravate back pain. They put immense strain on your low back.

  5. Other tips. Good posture, core stabilization exercises, and practicing the "suck in" maneuver can also help reduce low back pain risk. Studies show atrophy in core muscles for those with chronic low back pain. Strengthening these muscles and the mind-muscle connection can help.

In summary, the key things you can do to help prevent and reduce low back pain are: build your core muscles (especially the TVA), improve back endurance (especially the multifidus), brace your core properly before movements, avoid highly compressive lifts if you have back pain, and practice good posture and movement habits.

Here's a summary:

  • Shoulders have a wide range of motion in multiple planes which makes them prone to instability and injury.

  • Shoulder function depends heavily on scapular position and stability. The rotator cuff muscles stabilize the shoulder joint.

  • Shoulder impingement, where soft tissues are pinched in the shoulder, is a common cause of shoulder pain. Subacromial impingement in particular can lead to rotator cuff degeneration over time.

Key concepts to prevent shoulder pain:

  1. Mobilize your lats. The latissimus dorsi muscles are powerful internal rotators of the shoulder. When tight, they limit overhead mobility and contribute to shoulder impingement. Daily mobility exercises are needed.

  2. Practice ideal shoulder positioning. This means shoulders back and down, with the upper arm bones resting in the shoulder sockets. Two issues that contribute to poor positioning are:

  • Kyphosis: Upper back rounding from sitting. Improve by posture training, chest/shoulder mobility, and upper back strength.

  • Anterior shoulder glide: Where the humerus slides forward in the shoulder socket. Caused by tight pecs and weakness in the upper back and external rotators. Correct by stretching the pecs, strengthening the upper back and external rotators, and practicing good scapular positioning.

  1. Strengthen your rotator cuff. The rotator cuff muscles stabilize the shoulder joint. Imbalances or weakness in these muscles contributes to impingement and instability.

  2. Balance your pushing and pulling. Most people push more than they pull, creating muscle imbalances. Add more rows, face pulls and band pull aparts to balance overhead pressing and bench pressing.

  3. Avoid excessive shoulder flexion. Limit overhead arm positions, especially when weight training. Keep the shoulders back and avoid locking out overhead presses.

  4. Stay mobile. In addition to the lats, mobilize your pecs, posterior capsule, and thoracic spine regularly. Lack of mobility in surrounding areas impacts shoulder function.

  5. Manage inflammation. Use ice, heat, massage, and supplements like curcumin and fish oil to reduce inflammation in the shoulders when needed. Chronic inflammation prevents healing and limits mobility.

  • Anterior glide or der glide is when the humerus bone sits too far forward in the shoulder socket. This alters shoulder rotation and causes impingement. It requires mobility work and strengthening posterior shoulder muscles.

  • Two key exercises are:

  1. Scapular Pull-up: Works scapula positioning

  2. Band Push-up Plus: Also works scapula positioning

  • When rowing, focus on keeping shoulders back and only extend arms as far as possible without gliding forward. This reinforces good positioning.

  • Improve external rotation. Lack of mobility and strength in external rotation contributes to shoulder problems. Test: Raise arms out to sides and let hands drop. Palms facing body is good, palms facing back indicates lack of external rotation.

  • Key exercises:

  1. Banded W: Improves active external rotation

  2. Band High Pull Apart with External Rotation

  • Build rotator cuff strength. The rotator cuff muscles keep the humerus in the shoulder socket. Weakness contributes to shoulder pain.

  • Key exercises:

  1. Scapular Plane Dumbbell Raises

  2. Bottoms-Up Kettlebell Press

  • Improve thoracic mobility. Limited upper back mobility contributes to shoulder, elbow and wrist pain. Key exercises are:
  1. World's Greatest Stretch

  2. Thoracic Extension on Foam Roller

  • Improve scapula mobility and control. Scapulohumeral rhythm refers to the relationship between scapula and humerus movement. Issues lead to movement faults and injury. Closed kinetic chain exercises like push-ups improve stability. The Swimmer's Stretch improves stability, strength and mobility.

  • Key exercises:

  1. Swimmer's Stretch

  2. Scapular Pull-up

  3. Band Push-up Plus

  • Build upper back strength. Weakness in the upper back contributes to shoulder injury and pain. Strengthening the area helps provide stability for the shoulder joint.

• A common muscle imbalance that can lead to shoulder pain is overactive chest and latissimus dorsi muscles coupled with underactive upper back muscles like the posterior rotator cuff, lower trapezius, and rhomboids. Stretching the chest and lats is not enough. You need to strengthen the upper back muscles to balance the forces on the shoulder joint. • The band face pull exercise is one of the best ways to build endurance in the upper back muscles and help relieve shoulder pain. It creates little joint stress so can be done frequently, even daily. The key is to maintain good shoulder positioning during the exercise. • Other useful exercises for shoulder pain include:

  • Anchored lat stretch

  • Scapular pull-up

  • Band push-up plus

  • Band W

  • Band high pull apart with external rotation

  • Scapular plane dumbbell raises

  • Bottoms-up kettlebell press

  • World’s greatest stretch

  • Thoracic extensions

  • Swimmer’s stretch • Knee pain is common due to the knee joint’s major weight-bearing role and susceptibility to injury. Minor knee pain can often be addressed by:

  1. Cleaning up your knee track - Make sure your knees track properly over your feet during squats and lunges. Knee valgus (knock knees), varus (bowleggedness), and excessive forward glide can contribute to knee pain.

  2. Activating your glutes and hip abductors - Strong glutes and hip abductors help stabilize the knee joint during movement. Specific exercises can help reduce knee pain in just a few weeks.

  3. Increasing knee capacity through progressive loading - The only way to truly bulletproof your knees is by gradually increasing their ability to handle load through controlled, progressive strength training.

To reduce knee pain and injury risk:

  1. Strengthen your glutes and hip abductors. Exercises like Fire Hydrant, Glute Bridge with Hip Band, and Box Stepdown can help.

  2. Build end-range hamstring strength. The Swiss Ball Leg Curl is a great exercise for this. It allows you to create peak muscle tension at the end of the range of motion.

  3. Improve hip mobility and control. Exercises like the Cossack Squat and World's Greatest Stretch are excellent for improving hip function.

  4. Build knee load capacity. Isometric holds and slow resistance training can build tendon capacity with less risk of pain. Try Wall Sits, Single Leg Wall Sits, and Bulgarian Split Squat Holds.

  5. Improve ankle mobility. Exercises like Ankle Glides and Standing Calf Raises from a block can improve ankle mobility and dorsiflexion. This provides a better foundation for your knees.

  6. Activate your feet. If you have flat feet or fallen arches, you can activate your foot muscles and build your arch with targeted exercise. This helps align your lower body and reduces knee pain.

  7. Correct movement patterns. Learn proper form for exercises like squats, lunges, step-ups, and leg presses. Move in ranges of motion and with loads that do not cause pain. Build up slowly.

The key is to strengthen your glutes, hips, and hamstrings; improve mobility in your ankles, hips, and hamstrings; activate your feet; build end-range strength; and correct movement patterns. Start light and build up slowly to avoid injury or pain. Consistency is key.

  • Seek medical attention immediately if you experience abnormal positioning of bones/joints, excessive swelling, sharp pain with movement, inability to bear weight, or feelings of instability in a joint.

  • The medical system is limited in its ability to fully rehabilitate and prevent injuries. Treatment often focuses on symptoms rather than underlying causes. You need to understand why your injury occurred and how to heal and prevent reinjury.

  • The concept of rest is tricky. Too much rest can lead to loss of muscle, connective tissue strength, and endurance. Too little rest can aggravate the injury. There are two types of rest:

  • Passive rest: Complete inactivity like bed rest.

  • Active rest: Low-intensity activity like walking, massage, light exercise. This facilitates healing without irritation.

  • Problems arise when an injury becomes chronic or is due to repetitive stress. Rest only provides temporary relief. The underlying cause of the injury has not been addressed.

  • You can rest an injured wrist for 6 weeks, but if you continue the repetitive stressor (like awkward typing position), the injury will return. You can rest a back injury for weeks, but lifting heavy objects will cause re-injury if the underlying issue is not fixed.

  • The key is to identify the underlying cause(s) of your injury and address them through targeted interventions. This, combined with the right amount and type of rest, will lead to full recovery and prevention of future injury.

In summary, rest is a limited tool. To fully recover from injury and prevent re-injury, you need to determine the underlying cause(s) and address them directly through targeted interventions. Use rest strategically, in combination with these interventions.

  • In the past, the recommended treatment for injuries was complete rest. Now, active recovery is recommended for several reasons:
  1. Complete rest leads to loss of fitness, muscle atrophy, and other negative effects.

  2. Active recovery methods like massage, stretching, and exercise help reduce pain, inflammation, and speed healing.

  3. Active recovery provides mental and emotional benefits.

  4. Movement drives healing according to the law of mechanotransduction.

  • For most minor injuries, some initial rest is needed (24-48 hours) followed by gradually resuming activity as tolerated. Seek medical care as needed.

  • Two types of post-injury training: training around the injury and directly rehabilitating the injury. Do what you can without aggravating the injury.

  • Use pain as a guide. Do movements that do not cause pain. Watch for increases in pain the next day.

  • Establish pain-free range of motion as soon as possible. Avoid overusing braces and splints.

  • Movement priorities after injury: stability, movement mechanics, mobility, strength, endurance. Progress gradually.

  • Increase intensity and frequency of exercise gradually. Add no more than 10-20% intensity or 1 day of training per 4 weeks.

  • RICE method is outdated. New guidelines focus more on early movement. PRICE - Protect, Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation. Add controlled exercise when tolerated.

  • In summary, the keys to recovery are: get medical care, avoid aggravating the injury, stay active as tolerated, progress gradually by following priorities of stability, mobility, strength, endurance. Increase frequency and intensity slowly while monitoring for worsening pain.

The RICE method (Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation) provides immediate relief after an injury but does not necessarily improve long-term healing and recovery. Studies show that rest limits movement and blood flow, restricting the inflammatory response and release of growth factors needed for tissue repair. Ice and compression also inhibit the inflammatory process and blood flow. Elevation may provide some benefit for reducing swelling but lacks evidence for improving outcomes.

The PEACE and LOVE method is a newer approach focused on allowing the body’s natural healing processes to occur:

  • Protection: Avoid movements that cause pain in the early stages.

  • Elevation: Raise the injured limb to reduce swelling. Follow for 1-2 days.

  • Avoid anti-inflammatories: Avoid NSAIDs, ice, etc. in the early stages. Allow inflammation.

  • Compression: Use bandages/wraps to reduce swelling so you can continue pain-free movement. Don’t become dependent on them.

  • Education: Understand the healing process. Avoid unnecessary interventions.

  • Load: Gradually return to normal activities as pain allows. Let pain guide progression.

  • Optimism: Maintain a positive mindset. Injuries affect you psychologically.

  • Vascularization: Keep moving to increase circulation. Find pain-free exercises.

  • Exercise: Perform targeted exercises to strengthen weak areas that contributed to the injury.

The real causes of injury are usually underlying muscle imbalances and long-term tissue degeneration. Address posture, movement patterns, scar tissue, repetitive motions, and chronic symptoms to understand the root causes and prevent re-injury.

The final step is "turning off the CCTV cameras" - avoiding hypervigilance about the injury and returning to normal movement patterns and activities as pain allows. The body has an innate ability to heal itself when given the right environment. The key is providing that environment through appropriate rest and loading.

Here is a summary of the key points:

  • CCTV refers to closed-circuit television, a type of private video surveillance that allows for real-time monitoring. It is commonly used for security purposes, like in gas stations.

  • After an injury, your brain ramps up surveillance of the injured area. This can lead to pain sensitization and changes in movement patterns. To fully recover, you need to turn off this heightened surveillance, which requires understanding that:

  1. Neuromuscular changes from the injury may persist for a long time.

  2. It can take months for sensations, movement changes, etc. from the injury to resolve.

  3. Your body needs a calm, restorative environment for your nervous system to stop the heightened surveillance.

  • Two factors that can contribute to being injury-prone are:
  1. Chronic inflammation: If your joints easily become inflamed from overuse, you likely have higher total body inflammation or an overactive immune response to stress. Reducing inflammation can help.

  2. Failed healing response: Some people heal more slowly, especially connective tissue. An aggressive approach to tissue remodeling, like early range of motion, resistance training, and massage can help.

  • The key takeaways are:
  1. Reduce chronic stressors: Adjust your lifestyle, posture, and movement to avoid repetitive stress. Even acute injuries usually involve some chronic stress buildup.

  2. Increase load tolerance: Gradually build your ability to handle heavy loads through full ranges of motion and in fatigued states.

  • Periodization, or the systematic planning of training, provides a path for progress. It relies on planning, habits, and execution rather than willpower or motivation. When you plan well, the actual doing becomes simple.

  • Concepts to program include:

  1. Dynamic warm-up: Uses mobility and movement to prepare your body for exercise.

  2. Corrective exercise: Addresses imbalances and weaknesses to prevent injury. Also known as prehab.

  3. Traditional training: Builds strength, endurance, coordination, etc.

  4. Connective tissue training: Strengthens and improves joints and connective tissue through load tolerance, stability, and mobility.

  • To progress in all these areas requires managing time well and creating a strategic plan to build on improvements sequentially.

  • To prevent connective tissue injury, manage accumulated joint stress through:

  1. Rest days

  2. Low-intensity days

  3. Varied movements

  4. Deload weeks: Back off intensity/volume for muscles, nervous system, and connective tissue to heal. Despite fears of losing progress, deloads will not make you weak.

  • Deloads are not necessary if you have an appropriately designed training program.

  • Deloads are band-aids for poor program design.

  • The three types of periodization are:

  1. Linear periodization: Gradually increase intensity while decreasing volume. Follows the progressive overload principle. Simple but can lead to fatigue and injury risk.

  2. Undulating periodization: Volume and intensity are altered throughout the week. Provides more recovery and targets strength, hypertrophy and endurance. Studies show undulating periodization leads to greater gains than linear periodization. However, it can be complex to follow and does not focus on corrective exercise.

  3. Block periodization: Different goals are focused on for blocks of time. Allows focus on one goal at a time while balancing intensive and recovery periods.

  • Variables to manipulate in a periodized program are:
  1. Volume - Generally, higher volume leads to greater gains. However, too much volume can lead to overtraining, fatigue and injury risk.

  2. Frequency - Training each muscle group 2-3 times a week can maximize gains. But higher frequency requires managing fatigue and recovery.

  3. Intensity - Progressive overload through increasing intensity or load is key. But intensity must be balanced with volume and frequency to optimize gains and reduce injury risk.

  • An effective program should utilize aspects of each periodization method and systematically manipulate all training variables to maximize gains while reducing injury risk. The end goal should be longevity and consistency.

• Many people adopt an approach of pushing themselves to maximum intensity in each workout. While this can lead to progress, it also greatly increases the risk of burnout, injury, and reduced long-term adherence.

• Higher training volume (more sets and reps) is most important for muscle growth, not for strength or endurance gains. For the program recommended here, focusing on building movement skills and addressing weaknesses, extremely high volume is not necessary.

• Ramping up training volume too quickly leads to a much higher injury risk. It is better to start with a minimum effective dose and build up gradually.

• There are diminishing returns to increasing training volume beyond a certain point. Additional volume may produce little added benefit and can even be counterproductive.

• High-volume training often does not work well in practice. Long, grueling workouts with many half-hearted sets tend to lead to reduced focus, intensity, and program adherence. It is better to do a few high-quality sets.

• The ideal training frequency for most people is 2 to 4 days per week. Higher frequency is better for building strength through neural adaptations. Higher frequency also means more time in a positive protein balance for building muscle. However, sufficient rest is needed for connective tissue recovery.

• A 4-day split, with 2 upper body days and 2 lower body days per week, provides an good balance of stimulus and recovery. It allows for strength and hypertrophy gains while giving connective tissue adequate rest between targeted sessions.

• The program recommends using weekly undulating periodization, with weekly “themes” based on block periodization. While linear periodization has flaws, progressing load over time is still useful, with adjustments for volume and deloads.

• The periodization schedule includes:

  1. Connective tissue week: Light weights, slow reps for joint recovery

  2. Hypertrophy week: Moderate weights, higher volume for muscle growth

  3. Strength week: Heavier weights, lower reps for maximizing strength

  4. Deload week: Light weights, higher reps for endurance and active rest

• This 4-week schedule can be repeated indefinitely for continued progress. There are also 2-day and 3-day options for those with limited time or who are new to training. But the 4-day split is recommended if possible for the best results.

  • The training plan is for those who already exercise regularly but suffer from joint pain and want better results. If you currently do no resistance training, ramp up slowly to the 4-day/week plan.

  • On off days from the structured plan, stay active by walking, biking, swimming, or doing yoga. These facilitate circulation and mobility between weight training days.

  • Progress the plan by increasing weight and/or difficulty. Once an exercise becomes too easy, increase weight by 10-20%. If you can't do the prescribed reps, decrease weight until you can.

  • For tendinopathy, face the painful exercises and build strength with light weights and high reps, increasing over time. Start with 3/10 pain and build up. Rest as needed between sessions. Some suggested exercises for common tendinopathies are listed.

  • Modify or substitute exercises as needed based on your abilities and limitations. You can build up to the full plan over time.

  • The plan uses a mix of rep ranges: 8-12 for hypertrophy, 5 for strength, 15-20 for endurance. Rest periods are also varied based on the goal.

Here's a summary:

  • The program uses a variety of repetition schemes, including high-repetition sets for motor pattern practice and retraining muscles and joints, as well as lower-rep, higher-intensity sets for strength.

  • Higher-rep sets provide more practice perfecting movements and stimulate muscle growth and metabolism. Focus on using proper form rather than how much weight is lifted.

  • Rest periods between sets vary depending on goals. 1-2 minutes is recommended for this program. Shorter rest keeps workouts interesting and effective.

  • Use a dynamic warm-up of 5-10 minutes including dynamic stretches, light exercises, and skill work. This effectively primes the body and is more engaging than cardio machines. It also allows you to assess how your body feels that day.

  • For compound lifts, use "ramp-up sets" to properly warm up: -- Set 1: 50% of working weight for the same number of reps -- Set 2: 75% of working weight for half the reps -- Set 3: 110% of working weight for 1 explosive rep -- Then perform the actual working sets

  • Ramp-up sets make the working sets feel lighter, increase strength, and use postactivation potentiation. Move through ramp-up sets briskly with short rests.

  • An even simpler warm-up option is to do 2-3 ramp-up sets of higher reps (e.g. 10, 5, 1 rep) with progressively heavier weights leading up to the working weight.

The key points are using a variety of repetition schemes for different goals, keeping rest periods short, utilizing a dynamic warm-up, and using ramp-up sets to properly prepare for compound lifts. The program aims to keep workouts engaging, effective, and safe.

Here's a summary:

  • Perform 1-2 reps of an exercise to get a feel for it and determine an appropriate weight before ramping up. Seasoned lifters use this intuitive approach.

  • Foam rolling can help increase flexibility and recovery but is not a substitute for training. Limit to 5 minutes before or after a workout. It's good for sore muscles but don't overdo it on tendons or ligaments. It supplements a training program but is not a cure-all.

  • The exercise database provides instructions for all movements in the program. These were chosen for effectiveness and addressing muscle imbalances. They train multiple muscles at once, not just isolation. Examples: Facepulls train shoulders but are listed under shoulder stability.

  • The program assumes access to barbells, dumbbells, cable machines, and benches. Modifications allow minimal equipment. Recommended: bands, hip band, kettlebells, dumbbells, box, Swiss ball.

  • Supportive equipment like belts, braces and wraps should only be used for heavy lifts or injuries. They can become a crutch. Only use the minimum needed. If an exercise requires being "wrapped like a mummy," avoid it or use lighter weight.

  • For weightlifting, wear cross-trainers or minimalist shoes. Stay away from high-tops or heavily cushioned shoes which can destabilize knees. Start slow if switching to minimalist shoes. See a doctor if unsure about equipment.

  • Excluded exercises: barbell bench press, barbell squat, barbell deadlift. Although productive, they were avoided due to technical complexity and injury risk. The program still delivers results without them.

The author recommends stepping away from barbell back squats, deadlifts, and overhead presses for a few weeks. These exercises are responsible for many aches and pains, and many people lack the proper mobility and core strength to perform them safely under heavy loads.

Instead, the author recommends exercises like the Romanian deadlift, Spanish squat, and Bulgarian split squat. These exercises will activate underused muscles and ensure proper form when returning to barbell training.

The program focuses on executing each exercise carefully rather than using techniques like supersets or dropsets to increase intensity. This will lead to faster progress as you master the movements.

The program includes mobility, core, and dynamic warm-up exercises like:

  • Supine drawing in: Activates core muscles

  • Bird dog: Improves stability and endurance in the core and posterior chain

  • Cossack squat: Improves hip, hamstring and ankle mobility and strength

  • Glute bridge: Activates glutes and hamstrings, releases tight hip flexors

  • Fire hydrant: Activates glutes and hip abductors

  • Pigeon stretch: Opens hips

The key is to move slowly through the full range of motion, keep your core engaged, spine neutral, and avoid common mistakes like overarching the back or swinging the limbs. The exercises can be progressed by adding resistance bands, dumbbells or transitioning to single-leg variations.

In summary, the program focuses on mobility, core stability, and glute/hip activation through bodyweight and banded exercises. The goal is to build a strong movement foundation before returning to barbell strength training.

Here is a summary of your weekly routine and how it can help improve squat and hinge movements:

Setup: Assume a lunge position with your left leg forward and right leg extended behind you. Execution: Slide your right leg backward, lowering your body to the ground. Lower your hands for support. Allow your left knee to fall outward while keeping your back straight. Lean forward with your hands until you feel a stretch in your left hip. Repeat on the other side. Cues: Lunge, open front hip, lean forward. Mistakes to avoid: Rounding your back. Stretching too aggressively.

Substitutes: If unable to do the Pigeon Pose, do the Thread the Needle stretch lying on your back. Cross one leg over the other, bending the knees to 90 degrees. Pull both legs toward you, keeping your back straight, until you feel a stretch in the bent leg's outer hip.

Cat-Cow: Loosens tight back muscles. Get on your hands and knees.

Execution: Cow: Let your belly sag and arch your back. Roll your shoulders back and up. Lift your head up and inhale. Cat: Lift your torso upward, pull your belly button in and round your upper back. Push through your hands and lower your head, exhaling. Cues: Arch and look up, then round and look down. Mistakes: Forgetting to roll shoulders back in Cow. Forgetting to round upper back in Cat. Moving too fast. Not matching breath to movement.

Hinge to Squat: Trains foot position, teaches hip-dominant squatting and shows squat/hinge continuum.

Setup: Stand with feet shoulder-width apart. Execution: Push your hips back and hinge forward with a neutral spine until hamstrings tense. Keep weight back and sink into a squat. Pull yourself into the squat with your hamstrings. Stand back up. Cues: Hinge, pull into squat, stand up. Mistakes: Rounding your back. Rocking forward onto toes. Pushing knees forward and losing hamstring tension. Variations: Widen stance and point toes out for trouble hinging to squatting.

World's Greatest Stretch: Mobilizes thoracic spine and hips. Lunge with one leg forward and one back. Lower hands to ground.

Execution: Shift weight into front hand and reach up with other arm, twisting and looking up. Feel stretch in rear hip, front hip and upper back. Reverse motion and scoop arm under, reaching to side. Feel stretch in rear hip, hamstring and upper back. Switch leg positions and repeat. Cues: Lunge, twist and reach up, reverse and reach under. Mistakes: Not straightening back leg. Losing foot or lower body stability. Not dropping shoulder on under reach. Variations: Bend front knee and point forward for more lower body stability and upper back focus. Drop back knee for extremely tight hips.

Anchored Lat Stretch: Mobilizes tight lats and improves overhead range of motion. Kneel with elbows on bench and grasp PVC pipe or bar with palms up.

Execution: Bend elbows to 90 degrees and drive down into the bench. Feel stretch in lats and behind armpits. Cues: Round low back and drive down with elbows. Mistakes: Hands too close together. Arching low back. Knees too close reducing force. Variations: Use resistance band if no pipe/bar available. Harder to prevent shoulder internal rotation so focus on keeping palms up and shoulders wide.

Scapular Pull-up: Prepares shoulders and scapula for vertical pulling. Hang from pull-up bar with overhand grip.

Execution: Pull against bar with straight arms and wrapped thumbs to shift shoulders down while raising body up. Hold, relax and lower. Move slightly backward with contracted shoulders in front of body, lats stretched and shoulders externally rotated.

Here is a summary of impingement danger:


  • Pull down on the bar with elbows completely straight.

  • Do not bend your elbows.

  • Do not use momentum or rocking motions.


  • Bending your elbows instead of keeping them straight.

  • Using momentum or rocking motions instead of controlled movement.


  • Feet on ground: If you cannot perform from hanging position or have shoulder pain, perform with feet on ground holding onto handles of suspension trainer. Start with palms down, shoulders forward. Then externally rotate into neutral grip with palms facing each other as you pull scapulas together.


  • Anchored Lat Stretch

  • Suspension Trainer Scapula Activation: If no pull-up bar access or unable to perform Scapular Pull-ups without pain, perform same exercise but with feet on ground holding suspension trainer handles.


  • Band Pass Through: Opens chest, improves shoulder flexion, trains scapula movement and thoracic extension during overhead exercises. Can use resistance band, broom handle or bar.

  • Modified Bully Stretch (Retract and Depress): Teaches proper back and down shoulder position. Mobilizes tight muscles in front of shoulder capsule. Clasp hands behind back, pinch shoulder blades, raise chest, extend thoracic spine. Pull down with arms to feel stretch in front of shoulder capsule.

  • Swimmer's Stretch: Strengthens optimal scapula position and activates upper back muscles. Lie face down with arms overhead, externally rotate shoulders. Pull scapula back and down, bring arms to sides in T-shape. Bend elbows and tuck hands behind back. Press hands into low back.

  • Thoracic Extension on Foam Roller: Targets thoracic spine extension without stressing low back. Place forearms on foam roller in quadruped position. Push down into roller, straighten elbows and lean forward to roll roller to elbows with arms extended. Feel stretch in lats and shoulder capsule.


  • Banded W: Isolates external rotator muscles of shoulder. Use light band and focus on maximum range of motion and end range control/stability. Elbows in, palms up, externally rotate.

  • Band High Pull Apart with External Rotation: Retrains synergistic dominance of deltoids/lats. Activates middle back muscles and external rotators. Use light band. Start with band in front of chest, shoulders back and down. Pull band apart while externally rotating. Squeeze middle back at end.

Here is a summary of the external rotators (infraspinatus and teres minor):


  • Grasp resistance band with overhand grip, shoulder-width apart

  • Extend arms in front at eye level

  • Retract shoulders and brace core

  • Small tension in band to start


  • Pull arms back in slight arc to form T-shape

  • Rotate elbow pits up toward ceiling

  • End with arms extended out to sides, band touching upper chest

  • Two parts: shoulders extend out, forearms rotate pronated to supinated


  • Pull into T-position while rotating elbow pits up

  • Rotation at forearm, not wrists

Common mistakes:

  • Starting with hands below eye level

  • Rotating at wrists instead of forearms

  • Protracting shoulders instead of retracting


  • Anchored band pull apart: Anchor band at eye level, same motion

  • Seated cable face pull: Same motion with cable for added resistance

  • Dumbbell face pull: Same motion lying on incline bench or bent over

  • Band face pull: Same motion with resistance band for warmup/endurance

The exercises target the external rotators, infraspinatus and teres minor, to improve shoulder stability and balance out the internal rotators. The setup, cues, and proper form are important to maximizing effectiveness and avoiding injury. Variations can be used to progress the difficulty.


  • Establish proper shoulder position

  • Keep consistent elbow angle

  • Maintain neutral spine

  • Don't lower weights too far


  • 45 degree forearm angle

  • 45 degree armpit angle

  • Don't arch back

  • Don't lower weights too far


  • Flat bench or floor instead of incline

  • Swiss ball instead of incline bench

  • Incline Dumbbell High Row: Performed lying face down on an incline bench with arms flared out. Emphasizes upper back and rear deltoids. Uses heavier weight than standard dumbbell row.

  • Strict vs. full range: For Dual Dumbbell Row, perform each rep with strict form—scapula retracted.

  • Suspension Trainer High Row: Uses suspension trainer for bodyweight row. Can adapt grip, foot position, and body angle. Pull hands to head, finishing with arms at 90 degrees.

  • Reverse Grip Cable Pulldowns: Underhand grip pulldown that creates muscle-lengthening loaded stretch on lats. Pull bar to chest while keeping shoulders back. Lean forward and stretch lats at top.

  • Lying Dumbbell Pullover: Activates serratus muscles and lengthens lats. Lie across bench and grasp dumbbell. Lower dumbbell behind head until stretch is felt in lats. Use light weight to avoid shoulder risk.

  • Alternating Dumbbell Curl with Supination: Standing alternating dumbbell curl that emphasizes supination (outward forearm rotation). Curl and rotate forearm outward. Use controlled motion. Variations: Hammer Curl (neutral wrist), Zottman Curl (start supinated, finish pronated).

  • Forearm Tendon Glides: Extend arms out to sides with palms up, shoulders externally rotated. Spread fingers and extend wrists. Flex wrists down and pronate forearms while spreading fingers. Then supinate forearms and extend wrists back up. Repeat for several reps. Improves tendon flow and reduces nerve pain.

The exercise involves slowly making a fist with your fingers, flexing your wrist, and squeezing your forearm muscles. Then you reverse the movement by opening your fingers and extending your wrist. This movement works the muscles in your lower arms and forearms. Some tips for performing the exercise correctly:

  • Roll your fingers into a fist, flex your wrist, open your hand, extend your wrist.

  • Squeeze your fist and extend your wrist with enough force.

  • Hold the end positions long enough.

  • You can do this with your arms at your sides or in any comfortable position. Having your arms extended enhances the stretch.

Some common mistakes to avoid:

  • Not using enough force when squeezing and extending.

  • Not holding the end positions long enough.

  • Going too fast, which could cause wrist injuries.

Variations: You can make this more challenging by doing it with straight arms instead of bent elbows. Hold dumbbells in front of you with arms extended and perform the same motion, rotating primarily at the elbows.

The dumbbell pronation/supination exercise helps balance your forearms and wrists. To do it:

  • Hold a dumbbell in each hand with elbows bent 90 degrees.

  • Slowly rotate your palms to the ground, hold, then reverse and rotate outward.

  • Rotate at the forearm, keeping elbows in and bent 90 degrees.

Mistakes to avoid:

  • Using momentum instead of controlling the movement.

  • Cranking your elbows out at the end of the range of motion.

Variation: Do this with straight arms instead of bent elbows.

The standing dumbbell pullover combines lat pullover and triceps extension. To do it:

  • Grasp a dumbbell with both hands and press up to the ceiling with locked elbows.

  • Keep your abs flexed and spine neutral.

  • Bend your elbows and lower the weight behind your head. Extend your thoracic spine.

  • Feel a stretch in your lats and triceps, hold, then extend the weight back overhead.

Cues: Tight abs, thoracic extension, press overhead.

Mistakes to avoid: Arching your lower back, using a weight that's too heavy.

Here's a summary:

  • The Swiss Ball Leg Curl requires active upper body stabilization due to the uneven surface of the Swiss ball. This helps build core strength.

  • The exercise focuses on the hamstrings. By pressing your legs into the ball, you can control how much tension is placed on the hamstrings. The harder you press, the more intense the exercise.

  • To perform the exercise:

  1. Lie face up on the floor with arms extended overhead and heels placed on a Swiss ball.

  2. Bend your knees and pull the ball towards your glutes by contracting your hamstrings and straightening your legs.

  3. Squeeze your hamstrings and glutes at the top, then slowly bend your knees to roll the ball back out.

  4. Repeat for the desired number of reps.

  • Common mistakes include:
  1. Not actively stabilizing your upper body, causing excessive rocking.

  2. Bending at the hips instead of the knees to pull the ball in. This reduces hamstring activation.

  3. Not squeezing the hamstrings and glutes at the top.

  • Variations include:
  1. Single-leg Swiss ball leg curl: Perform the exercise one leg at a time. This is more challenging for balance and core stability.

  2. Banded Swiss ball leg curl: Wrap exercise bands around the ball for added resistance.

  3. Bodyweight Swiss ball leg curl: If you don't have access to a Swiss ball, you can mimic the same movement on the floor. Just lift your legs while keeping them straight and lower back to the floor under control.

  • Similar exercises include:
  1. Seated leg curl machine

  2. Lying leg curl

  3. Reverse hyperextension

In summary, the Swiss Ball Leg Curl is an effective hamstring exercise that requires active core stabilization. Pay close attention to form and control to get the most out of this movement.

Here's a summary:

The Swiss Ball Leg Curl is an effective knee-dominant hamstring exercise that maximizes force production at the end of the range of motion, where people are often weak and tight. Compared to resistance band and machine leg curls, the Swiss Ball Leg Curl emphasizes maximum force in the fully extended position. The key is contracting the hamstrings hard at full extension. When done properly, this exercise builds hamstring power, eccentric control, and functional mobility.

To set up, lie on your back with feet on a Swiss ball. Place hands on the ground to stabilize. Roll the ball under your calves with straight legs. Keep your head down.

To execute, contract your glutes and lift your hips. Then, contract your hamstrings hard into the ball before moving. While maintaining hamstring contraction, roll the ball toward you until your knees bend to 90 degrees and the ball is under your soles. Check that your hips are not sagging. Slowly straighten your knees without losing hamstring contraction. Continue until legs are straight.

Cues: Hips high, active hamstrings, contract hard at full extension.

Common mistakes:

  • Inaccurate leg placement on the ball

  • Not fully extending knees

  • Losing hamstring tension

  • Letting hips sag at extension


  • Single leg Swiss ball curl: One leg on ball, other on ground. Allows more hamstring force but requires more balance.

  • Single leg slide disc curl: If no Swiss ball, use a slide disc or paper plate. Plant one foot, place heel of other foot on disc. Raise hips and slide disc through 90 degrees of knee flexion and extension by contracting hamstrings.

The Barbell Hip Thrust is a glute exercise. It's the lower body equivalent of a bench press, using gravity and three points of contact for a stable, compound movement. It's good for those with low back pain from deadlifts/hip hinges. It activates glutes before hip hinge exercises. Setting up the barbell is challenging. If possible, use a specialized hip thruster bench. If not, a normal bench will work. You can also do bodyweight, band, and dumbbell variations.

To set up, lie perpendicular to a bench with upper back on the bench. Bend knees to 90 degrees, feet on the ground.

To execute, push through your heels and thrust hips up until in line with knees. Squeeze glutes at the top, then lower back down.

Cues: Tuck chin, push through heels, squeeze glutes at top.

Mistakes: Overextending hips, misaligning knees over heels, not contracting glutes at top.


  • Bodyweight hip thrust

  • Hip band hip thrust: Loop band above knees

  • Dumbbell hip thrust: Hold dumbbell at waist, keep in place with hands during exercise

  • Single leg hip thrust (bodyweight): Raise one leg, increasing load on other leg

  • Barbell glute bridge: After dumbbell thrust, do barbell glute bridge on floor

  • Barbell hip thrust - roll up setup: To get into position, sit with straight legs. Roll barbell over legs to just below hip bones. Thrust up to anchor back on bench. Shimmy to balance bar. Start light, high reps, slow tempo.

Ankle glides improve tendon and nerve mobility in the lower legs. Although you may not feel much initially, flexing and extending through full ankle range of motion leads to a stretch in the lower legs and fatigue in muscles that counteract the calves (e.g. tibialis anterior). This provides a safe calf stretch, develops ankle support muscles, and massages the lower legs, working out tight areas. Foam rolling first helps.

To set up, sit with foam roller under knee pits, legs straight. Lean forward to grasp roller. Push down with legs and pull back with arms, creating shear against calves.

To execute, slowly point toes (calf raise), hold, then flex toes toward head (stretch calves), contracting shin muscles. Repeat.

Cues: Point, flex.

Mistakes: Not fully extending/flexing ankles, improper roller position, lack of foam roller.

Variations: Without roller, sit with block/pillow under knee pits, ankles free to extend/flex.

The standing straight leg calf raise builds endurance, resilience, and athleticism in the lower legs and ankles. Focus on expanding range of motion in the bottom and maximizing contraction at the top.

To set up, stand with hands on wall, legs straight, feet back until calf stretch. Hips, knees, ankles aligned.

To execute, raise heels while keeping legs straight to contract calves. Hold, then lower back down through full range of motion. Repeat.

Cues: Push through balls of feet, contract calves at top, keep legs straight.

Mistakes: Bending knees, not raising/lowering through full range, lack of contraction at top.

Variations: Single leg calf raise - shift weight to one leg at a time. Seated calf raise - sit with weight on knees, raise/lower heels.

Here is a summary of the training programs:

Beginner (2 days/week):

  • For complete beginners or those returning to exercise after a long break

  • Focuses on learning proper form and building connective tissue resilience

  • Trains full body twice a week with moderate intensity (1-2 sets of 10-15 reps per exercise)

  • Aims for 80% of the results of a 3-day program

Intermediate (3 days/week):

  • For those who have completed the beginner program or have 6+ months of consistent experience

  • Trains lower body, upper body, and full body over 3 non-consecutive days

  • Uses slightly higher intensity (2-3 sets of 6-12 reps per exercise)

  • Can be maintained long-term or used to transition to a 4-day program

Advanced (4 days/week):

  • For experienced lifters with 6+ months of consistent 3-day/week training

  • Trains lower body, upper body, posterior chain, and full body over 4 non-consecutive days

  • Uses highest intensity of the three programs (3-4 sets of 4-8 reps per exercise)

  • Most demanding program, requiring the most recovery time

All programs follow a similar structure:

  • Dynamic warm-up and mobility work (10-15 minutes)

  • Resistance training (30-45 minutes)

  • Active isolated stretching (2-3 minutes)

  • Rest days include light activity and recovery work

The key is starting at the appropriate level for your experience and slowly progressing as your fitness improves. The programs are designed to build on each other, with the beginner establishing a baseline, the intermediate ramping up intensity, and the advanced program pushing experienced lifters to new levels.

Here is a summary of the resistance training program:

  • Day 1: Upper Body

  • Day 2: Lower Body

  • Day 3: Active Recovery

  • Day 4: Upper Body

  • Day 5: Lower Body

  • Day 6: Active Recovery

  • Day 7: Rest

  • The program allows for recovery days between joint-specific training days.

  • Studies show 4-day training programs lead to more muscle gain and fat loss.

  • The program will be intense for beginners but aims to build up the body.

  • For those only able to train 3 days a week, cycle through Workouts A, B, C and D. Each workout is done 3 times over 4 weeks.

  • After completing the 4-week advanced program, you have options:

  1. Repeat the program

  2. Repeat and modify the program

  3. Cycle through the beginner, intermediate and advanced programs

  4. Move on to another program

  • To build your own program:
  1. Vary intensity and rep schemes weekly

  2. Incorporate strength, size, endurance and connective tissue training

  3. Deload every 4-8 weeks

  4. Prioritize corrective exercise

  5. Use a dynamic warm-up

  6. Include compound movements and bodyweight exercises

  • At-home and travel training require: exercise bands, hip band, kettlebells, dumbbells, foam roller, box/chair, stopwatch. Follow the suggested at-home and travel routines.

  • Success is sequential, not simultaneous. Peak physical success is built slowly over time through a step-by-step process, as exemplified by Adam Archuleta's 6-year plan to reach the NFL.

Here's a summary:

  • Arnold Schwarzenegger built his physique through disciplined, long-term training, not genetics alone. Before becoming Mr. Universe and an actor, he spent years powerlifting to build a strength base.

  • Success in any field requires a sequential, step-by-step process. Start with the end in mind and work backwards, focusing on mastering one goal or task at a time. This "domino effect" allows for exponential progress.

  • Most people fail to make progress in fitness because they skip fundamentals and rush ahead. Rebuild your body by starting with core stability, mobility, and movement patterns. This translates to strength, improved physique, and less pain faster than expected.

  • Take the unpopular approach of addressing weaknesses instead of avoiding them. Scrap dogma and think long-term. Most lifters plateau, decline, or get injured. You can avoid this by practicing good posture and movement, walking daily, and varying your routine.

  • Prioritize health and function over aesthetics or performance. Without health, nothing else matters. Set reminders to review and adjust your progress. Track workouts to stay on track. Be flexible and adapt exercises as needed.

  • Resolve joint pain before progressing. "Toughing it out" causes damage. Correct muscle imbalances, which most lifters ignore, or gains won't last.

  • Improve movement in pushing, pulling, squatting, lunging, hinging, rotating, and carrying. Many lifters lack basic skills, risking injury. All movement capabilities relate and enhance each other.

  • Build a base of strong, flexible connective tissue and joint mobility. Only then progress to more advanced techniques. Connective tissue takes longer to strengthen but prevents injury.

  • Consistently practice good form. Perfect practice makes perfect. Focus on balance, alignment, and control. Leave ego aside.

  • Progress gradually. Add weight and volume over weeks and months, not days. Increase intensity in small increments. Overreaching leads to burnout, injury, and poor results.

  • Joint health depends on lifestyle factors, not just age. Exercise, diet, and mobility can all influence joint health.

  • Traditional cardio and weight training are not enough. Include eccentric exercise, high-intensity interval training, endurance training, power training, and mobility work.

  • Focus on collagen and connective tissue health as much as muscle health. This will lead to better joint health, injury resilience, and aging.

  • Establish a baseline of full-body mobility and range of motion. Dynamic stretching and mobility are more effective than static stretching. Aim for pain-free movement in all ranges of motion.

  • Build foundational and functional strength. Strength that translates to real-world activities. Be prepared for anything from lifting heavy objects to preventing falls. Functional fitness also leads to a more active and enjoyable life.

  • Major weight loss or body transformations often involve a transition from micromanaging calories and workouts to a more intuitive macromanagement approach. Technical knowledge becomes second nature. This is key to long term success.

  • The program provides beginner workout routines focused on connective tissue remodeling, endurance, hypertrophy, strength, and high-intensity interval training. It incorporates resistance training, mobility, and stretching. The workouts can be done 2 days a week, with rest days in between.

  • Additional resources are available on the SaltWrap website, including a blog and natural supplements for joint and connective tissue health.

The key messages are: focus on joint health and connective tissue; take a balanced, functional approach to fitness; develop the technical knowledge and skills to then apply intuitively; follow a progressive program to build up strength and range of motion over time. The beginner program provided is a good place to start. Let me know if you have any other questions!

Here is a summary of the workout plan:

DAY 1: Lower Body (Low Back/Posterior Chain Focus) Sets x Reps: 2x7, 51513 x 8–12,31313 x 5–7, 31113 x 15, 1010 Rest between sets: 60-90sec Exercises:

  1. Cable Pull Through

  2. Bulgarian Split Squat

  3. Dumbbell Romanian Deadlift

  4. Cossack Squat (each side)

  5. Single Leg Calf Raise from Block, Straight Knee

DAY 2: Upper Body (Horizontal Focus) Sets x Reps: 2 x 7, 51513 x 8–12,31313 x 5–7, 31113 x 15, 1010 Rest between sets: 60-90sec Exercises:

  1. Suspension Trainer High Row

  2. Push-up Plus with Band

  3. Incline Dumbbell Row

  4. Incline Dumbbell Fly Press

  5. Alternating Dumbbell Curl with Supination

DAY 3: Full Body
Sets x Reps:
3 x 10, 31313 x 15, 31313 x 10,31113 x 15, 1010 Rest between sets: 60-90sec Exercises:

  1. Box Stepdown

  2. Spanish Squat

  3. Swiss Ball Leg Curl

  4. Dumbbell Goblet Squat

  5. Single Leg Calf Raise from Block, Bent Knee

DAY 4: Upper Body (Shoulder Stability Focus) Sets x Reps:
2 x 7, 51513 x 8–12,31313 x 5–7, 31113 x 15, 1010
Rest between sets: 60-90sec

  1. Seated Cable High Facepull

  2. Scapula PlaneDumbbell Raise

  3. Single Arm Dumbbell Row, Strict Variation (Split Stance)

  4. Bottoms-Up Kettlebell Press

  5. Reverse Grip Cable Pulldown

Active Recovery Days: Days 6-7

Here is a summary of the workout plan:

Day 1 (Lower Body Focus)

  • Supine Drawing In: 10 contractions

  • Cat-Cow: 20 reps

  • World's Greatest Stretch: 10 reps each side

  • Bird Dog: 20 reps each side

  • Fire Hydrant: 25 reps each side

  • Glute Bridge with Hip Band: 20 reps + 10 sec hold

  • Single Leg Romanian Deadlift: 10 reps each side

  • Band Pull Through: 2x7, 5-15 reps

  • Bulgarian Split Squat: 3x8-12 reps

  • Kettlebell Romanian Deadlift: 2x7, 5-15 reps

  • Kettlebell Cossack Squat: 2x7, 5-15 reps each side

  • Single Leg Calf Raise: 2x7, 5-15 reps

Day 2 (Upper Body Focus)

  • etc.

Day 3 (Lower Body Focus)

  • etc.

Day 4 (Upper Body Focus)

  • etc.

The plan incorporates dynamic warmups, strength training with varied rep ranges, core work, balance challenges, and stretching. The exercises can be done with minimal equipment like bands, kettlebells and a foam roller. Rest days are also included in the overall structure.

The workout plan involves four days of training per week, with each day focusing on a different area - lower body posterior chain, upper body horizontal muscles, lower body anterior chain, and upper body shoulder stability. Each workout includes dynamic warmups, strength training exercises, and active isolated stretching.

The plan progresses over four weeks, starting with connective tissue remodeling and building up to hypertrophy, strength, and power plus endurance. Rest periods between sets decrease each week. The exercises utilize resistance bands, kettlebells, dumbbells, bodyweight, and other minimal equipment.

In addition to the four resistance training days, the plan includes a daily morning mobility routine with bodyweight and weighted exercises to encourage joint mobility and range of motion. The plan also incorporates references related to the benefits of strength training and details on exercise techniques and physiology.

The overall objective of the workout plan is to build strength and mobility through progressive overload using minimal and accessible home exercise equipment options. The plan can likely be adapted based on individual needs and available equipment.

Here is a summary of the cited literature:

•Greater muscle mass and strength are associated with lower mortality risk in older adults. Loss of muscle mass and strength with aging, known as sarcopenia, increases health risks.

•Regular resistance exercise training can help mitigate sarcopenia, maintain muscle and bone health, improve cognitive function, and promote healthy aging.

•Joint pain, stiffness, and osteoarthritis are common in older adults and associated with reduced mobility and quality of life. Exercise and physical activity help reduce joint pain and improve function.

•Poor posture, excess weight, injury, overuse, and chronic inflammation contribute to joint pain and musculoskeletal disorders. Addressing these factors can help prevent and manage conditions like tendinopathy, arthritis, and back pain.

•The body's inflammatory response is crucial for tissue healing and repair but can become problematic when chronic. Chronic inflammation is linked to many age-related health conditions and diseases.

•Chronic inflammation can be caused or exacerbated by excess weight, sleep deprivation, smoking, long-term use of anti-inflammatory drugs, poor diet, and other lifestyle factors. Losing excess weight and improving lifestyle habits may help reduce chronic inflammation.

•Pain perception and sensitivity tend to increase with age due to changes in the nervous system and inflammation. Various strategies can help manage chronic pain in older adults, including exercise, physical therapy, cognitive behavioral approaches, and medication.

•Synovial fluid analysis and other tests can help determine the underlying cause of joint pain, swelling, and inflammation for appropriate treatment. Options include rest, ice, medication, physical therapy, surgery, and lifestyle changes.

•A multidisciplinary approach focused on self-management, with an emphasis on exercise and lifestyle, may provide the greatest benefits for reducing pain, improving mobility and quality of life, and maintaining independence in older adults.

Here is a summary of the references:

  • Weight loss can reduce stress on knee joints and decrease inflammation in people with osteoarthritis. (54)

  • Anti-inflammatory drugs may negatively impact tendon remodeling and healing. (55, 56)

  • Low-carb and ketogenic diets may help reduce inflammation and ease osteoarthritis pain. (57)

  • Insulin, omega-3 fatty acids, exercise, sleep, stress reduction, and heat exposure can help combat inflammation. (58-64)

  • Fish oil, curcumin, boswellia, undenatured collagen, and resveratrol supplements may help reduce inflammation and ease osteoarthritis symptoms. (65-77)

  • There is a difference between tendinitis (inflammation of a tendon) and tendinosis (damage to tendon collagen). Tendinosis, not tendinitis, is the underlying pathology in most chronic tendon issues. (78-84)

  • Tendons go through stages of pathology as they degrade. Early interventions focused on load management and rehabilitation may help improve tendon health and function. (84-92)

  • Increased loads and muscle imbalances early in life may increase the risk of tendon pathology. Preventive interventions in youth are important. (89)

  • Synovial fluid lubricates joints and cartilage. Decreased lubrication and joint immobilization can lead to increased inflammation and damage. Staying active helps keep joints lubricated and healthy. (93-96)

In summary, the references point to inflammation as a key factor in osteoarthritis and tendon degradation. They highlight a variety of lifestyle interventions (weight loss, diet, exercise, stress reduction) and supplements (fish oil, curcumin, boswellia) that may help combat inflammation and support joint/tendon health. They also emphasize the importance of early diagnosis and management of tendon issues before the tendon pathology becomes severe. Preventive measures in youth and staying active throughout life are key to overall joint and tendon health.

Here is a summary of the research articles:

  • Exercise that reduces synovial fluid hyaluronan concentration leads to changes in synovial intimal cell populations in osteoarthritis.

  • Isometric exercise training can help lower blood pressure through various potential mechanisms.

  • Isometric quadriceps exercise can improve muscle strength, reduce pain, and improve function in knee osteoarthritis.

  • Eccentric exercise in tendinopathy, hamstring strains, and ACL reconstruction rehabilitation can mitigate muscle impairments.

  • Plyometric exercise may preferentially damage type II muscle fibers.

  • Slower strength training like superslow training may produce similar early-phase adaptations as traditional resistance training in women.

  • The series elastic component stiffness is optimized at an intermediate level during stretch-shortening cycle activities.

  • Plyometric and isometric training can increase muscle and tendon stiffness.

  • The stretch-shortening cycle enhances performance through proposed mechanisms like increased stiffness, storage and release of elastic energy, and potentiation of contractile mechanisms.

  • Eccentric exercise may be superior to concentric exercise for tendinopathy rehabilitation due to mechanisms such as collagen synthesis, fiber cross-sectional area changes, and reduced tendon pain.

The summary outlines the key findings and potential mechanisms discussed in the research articles related to exercise, muscle, tendon, and rehabilitation. Please let me know if you would like me to clarify or expand on any part of the summary.

Here is a summary of the references:

The studies examined effects of exercise, diet, hormones, and other interventions on collagen production and health. Key findings include:

  • Eccentric muscle contractions during exercise can decrease biceps femoris activity and lead to weakness (Reference 136).

  • Protein synthesis rates differ in various tissues, with tendon having the highest rate (Reference 137).

  • Glucocorticoids stimulate collagen synthesis in vascular smooth muscle cells (Reference 138).

  • Engineered ligaments can provide insights into minimizing injury and optimizing return to play (Reference 139).

  • Amino acid composition of the diet can improve skin collagen synthesis and wound healing (References 140 and 141).

  • Estrogen has effects on tendon and ligament metabolism and function (Reference 142).

  • Inflammation from wound healing and conditions like osteoarthritis involve collagen remodeling (References 143 and 144).

  • Certain lifestyle factors like sleep, diet, and smoking can influence collagen health and aging (References 145 through 148).

  • Hormones like insulin, IGF-1, and growth hormone stimulate collagen synthesis (References 149 through 151).

  • Interventions like massage, tea extracts, and whey protein may support collagen production (References 152 through 158).

  • Collagen supplementation, especially hydrolyzed collagen, may benefit joint and bone health and skin aging (References 159 through 163).

  • Vitamin C stimulates collagen synthesis and can aid in recovery from injury (References 164 and 165).

  • Natural body movement and exercise, especially variable, intermittent activity, promotes collagen health (References 166 through 174).

  • Optimal training loads and avoidance of overtraining are important for collagen and soft tissue health (References 175 through 177).

  • Supervised walking programs can benefit individuals with osteoarthritis and other chronic pain conditions (References 178 and 179).

In summary, the references indicate that collagen production and health can be enhanced through proper diet, exercise, hormone balance, reduced inflammation, and correct training levels. A variety of interventions, from nutrition to modalities, may also specifically support collagen synthesis and benefit conditions related to collagen decline or damage.

Here is a summary of the research studies:

• A systematic review and meta-analysis of 21 randomized controlled trials found that walking exercise was more effective than no exercise for improving pain, physical function, and disability in people with chronic low back pain. Exercise therapy had small to moderate effects on pain intensity and physical function.

• An experimental study found that moderate intensity walking for 30 minutes decreased pain sensitivity in healthy females. Walking may have potential as an adjunctive intervention for chronic pain.

• Studies show that walking helps lubricate and nourish joint tissues, strengthen bones, aid weight loss, and release endorphins to improve mood.

• Studies show strength and flexibility exercises, balance training, and proprioceptive exercises can help prevent sports injuries. Prevention programs like the FIFA 11+ reduce injury risk in soccer players.

• Stretching and range of motion exercises help improve flexibility and mobility. PNF stretching techniques also facilitate strength gains. Self-myofascial release techniques like foam rolling may enhance range of motion and recovery.

• Exercise causes adaptation through mechanisms like muscle hypertrophy, lengthening of muscles through the addition of sarcomeres, and changes in sensation and neural signaling. Stretching helps modify muscle length and sensation to improve range of motion and flexibility.

• Manual therapy techniques like massage help improve peripheral circulation, range of motion, and muscle recovery after exertion. Post-isometric relaxation and reciprocal inhibition are muscle energy techniques that aim to relax tight muscles.

• Studies show the importance of correcting muscle imbalances and restoring proper movement patterns to prevent or rehabilitate from injury. The 'Janda approach' focuses on muscle imbalance and restoring proper activation of muscles.

• Exercise and physical activity have psychological benefits for pain and mood. Movement helps release endorphins to naturally elevate mood and decrease perception of pain.

Here is a summary of the references:

  • Physical therapy and exercise can help strengthen the core muscles, improve posture and mobility, and reduce back pain. Core muscles include the transverse abdominis, pelvic floor muscles, diaphragm and multifidus.

  • The shoulder joint and rotator cuff muscles are important for upper limb function. Imbalances or weaknesses in the rotator cuff can lead to shoulder impingement and pain. Physiotherapy, exercise and scapular stabilization can help.

  • Common knee injuries include patellofemoral pain syndrome, meniscal tears and ligament sprains. Treatment may involve hip and quadriceps strengthening, neuromuscular training and balance exercises.

  • Hamstring strains are common in sports. Eccentric strengthening of the hamstrings can help prevent injury.

  • Ankle sprains can be treated with range of motion, strengthening, balance and proprioception exercises. Taping or bracing may also provide support.

  • Rest, ice, compression and elevation (R.I.C.E.) can help reduce pain and swelling for muscle or joint injuries. However, ice may delay recovery and restoration of range of motion and strength.

  • Mechanotherapy uses mechanical forces and exercise to promote healing of injured tissues. Progressive loading helps tendons and ligaments heal.

  • To maintain muscle and strength gains from resistance training, continued exercise at a reduced frequency or intensity is required. This helps combat loss of adaptations during periods of inactivity.

The summary outlines key points related to core strengthening, shoulder rehabilitation, knee and ankle injuries, hamstring strains, mechanotherapy and maintenance of resistance training adaptations. A biomedical approach is taken using references from physical therapy, sports medicine and exercise science literature.

• Deloading, or programmed rest, is important for long term progress and preventing overtraining. Overtraining can lead to decreased performance, increased injury risk, and psychological burnout.

• The general adaptation syndrome model shows how stress leads to fatigue and decreased performance if there is inadequate rest. Deloading helps avoid this.

• There are different ways to deload, including reducing intensity, volume, frequency, or a combination. Many experts recommend deloading every 4-6 weeks.

• Deloading may not be needed for beginners or less intensive training. As intensity and volume increase over time, deloading becomes more important.

• Other strategies for managing fatigue and preventing overtraining include: variety in programming, adequate sleep, nutrition, and managing life stress.

• Some argue deloading is not needed if volume and intensity are properly managed and ramped up overtime. But for most athletes, programmed rest helps maximize long-term progress.

• Deloading does not mean stopping training altogether. It means reducing some aspects of training to allow recovery while maintaining adaptations. Complete rest may be needed in some situations, but deloading is usually sufficient.

• There are many ways to deload. Find the approach that works for you based on your needs, abilities, and training goals. The optimal deloading method may change over time as your training progresses.


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