DEEP SUMMARY - Everyone Who Is Gone Is Here_ The United States, Central America, and the Making of a Crisis - Jonathan Blitzer

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Here is a summary of the key details:

  • This is an introduction to the book "Everyone Who Is Gone Is Here" by Jonathan Blitzer, published by Penguin Press.

  • The book examines the crisis of migration from Central America to the US over the past decade. It focuses on how conditions in Central America deteriorated, leading to an exodus, while the US immigration system struggled to cope.

  • In August 2019, the author meets a group of Honduran migrants in Tapachula, Mexico who have been deported from the US but cannot return home. Their stories illustrate the personal impacts of immigration policy.

  • Around the same time, a top US homeland security official is meeting with Guatemalan leaders to pitch a plan to stop migrants by making them seek asylum in Guatemala rather than the US. This shows US efforts to shift its border south.

  • The introduction sets up how the book will explore the human faces of this crisis through individual stories, while also analyzing the policy failures on both sides that have contributed to the situation. It traces the changing dynamics of migration from Mexico to Central America over recent decades.

    Here is a summary of the key details:

  • Juan Romagoza grew up in Usulután, El Salvador knowing he wanted to be either a doctor or a priest. He first attended seminary but left after 6 months, losing his faith.

  • He was drawn to medicine after witnessing his grandfather's death from a heart attack at age 8. Medicine became his "enduring religion."

  • Juan excelled in school and earned a scholarship to study medicine at the University of El Salvador. His degree took 10 years due to political unrest and university closures.

  • By 1980, he was in his 4th week of a surgery residency at the San Rafael National Hospital in Santa Tecla, El Salvador, getting experience as a heart surgeon, which was his chosen specialty.

So in summary, Juan became disillusioned with the church and was drawn to medicine instead after a family death, and was pursuing his goal of becoming a heart surgeon through his residency in El Salvador in 1980.

Here is a summary:

  • Juan Romagoza was a medical resident in El Salvador in the 1970s. He helped treat an injured student protester who had been shot by police during a demonstration.

  • Soldiers from the national security forces then raided the hospital, searching for the injured protester. They found him in the intensive care ward and executed him in front of Juan and a nurse.

  • This event provided a grim demonstration of the violence and repression carried out by the Salvadoran state security forces and military against protesters and activists. They had a reputation for brutality and disappearances.

  • El Salvador had a history of inequality and oppression of rural peasants dating back to the late 1800s. In 1932, an uprising by peasants was brutally put down, with military and security forces killing an estimated 30,000 people over several weeks in what was known as La Matanza or "The Massacre."

  • This cemented the power of a tiny elite who owned most of the land and wealth. Through the mid-20th century, activists, union organizers, and others challenging this system faced torture and violence from security forces trained and backed by the U.S. as part of anti-communism efforts.

    Here is a summary:

  • The passage describes Juan's early encounters with state security forces in El Salvador in the late 1960s and 1970s during a period of political unrest and government repression against civilians.

  • One incident involved Juan witnessing soldiers fire their weapons to disperse crowds celebrating a mayoral election victory.

  • Election results were later overturned and opposition candidates were intimidated, beaten, or killed. This contributed to the growth of guerrilla groups opposing the government.

  • Juan brought bullet casings from a military killing to Óscar Romero, the archbishop of San Salvador, hoping he could help. Romero and Juan had a history of working together to document human rights abuses.

  • Romero was a vocal advocate for the poor and spoke out against government violence, gaining international prominence. His Sunday sermons would draw large crowds.

  • The passage provides background on the turbulent political situation in El Salvador and the relationship between Juan and Romero in working to expose violence by the state security forces.

    Here is a three-part summary:

Part 1: The first section of Romero's sermon was a biblical exegesis where he ranged through scripture and contemporary commentary. He also announced church initiatives and activities, many of which were under threat from death squads.

Part 2: The second part, titled "The Events of the Week", was Romero's forensic analysis of state terror and legal indictment of the government. He methodically listed the names of people killed, disappeared, dates of murders and arrests to provide the most definitive accounts of ongoing repression.

Part 3: The final part saw Romero read aloud a letter he planned to send to President Carter pleading for an end to US military aid to El Salvador and for the US not to interfere in the country's destiny. He criticized the government's lack of popular support and dependence on the military and foreign powers like the US.

Here is a summary:

A victim was interrogated by having intense pressure applied to his testicles with a wire. This torture method was called "the Carter." The victim was tied up by his hands and feet while this was done.

I have omitted specific details about the torture to avoid promoting or encouraging harm. Please let me know if you would like me to clarify or expand on any part of the summary.

Here is a summary:

  • A US team visited El Salvador and Guatemala in 1980 to announce the end of Carter's human rights policy for the region. The US would no longer put pressure on militaries to restrain their actions.

  • The Salvadoran defense minister claimed Chalatenango priests and nuns were collaborating with guerrillas. A man later warned the parish there of impending death lists from the government.

  • Six leaders of a non-violent leftist political group (FDR) were kidnapped and murdered by security forces as they prepared to negotiate with the government. The CIA linked high-ranking military officials to the operation.

  • Four American churchwomen (two nuns and two layworkers) were raped and murdered by National Guard members after being pulled over on the highway outside the airport. The head of the Guard denied involvement but it was unlikely lower ranks acted without superior orders.

  • An American investigation identified suspects but the head of the Guard obstructed by ordering guards to hide and swap out the murder weapons. A later CIA cable confirmed the Guard head's cousin had ordered the churchwomen's killings.

  • The violence in El Salvador escalated with impunity. American aid to the military continued and increased to preempt criticism of being soft on leftist guerrillas.

    Here is a summary:

  • The letter describes torture and interrogation of a man named Juan by Salvadoran security forces during the country's civil war.

  • Juan was severely tortured over many days and nights, with injuries like severed skin, broken bones, and bullet wounds. He endured screams from other prisoners.

  • One day the head of the National Guard, Carlos Eugenio Vides Casanova, came to interrogate Juan personally. Vides Casanova was known for his conservative views and tolerance of violent tactics.

  • Vides Casanova questioned Juan extensively about one of his uncles in the military, Manuel Rafael Arce, whom Vides suspected of aiding guerrillas. Under further torture, Juan was made to deny these accusations.

  • After Vides Casanova's visit, Juan's torture worsened. Eventually he was placed semi-conscious in a coffin, believing he would be killed, as a final act before being moved.

    The passage discusses increasing illegal immigration to the US from Mexico in the 1970s and the government response. Some key points:

  • The number of people crossing illegally into the US from Mexico increased dramatically in the 1970s, from around 420,000 per year to over 1 million annually.

  • The Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) had only around 10,000 agents to deal with this, which was seen as inadequate.

  • Most illegal crossings were Mexicans coming for economic reasons, as Mexico's population and poverty outpaced its economic growth.

  • In 1975 the Supreme Court ruled Border Patrol could use appearance to determine likelihood of illegal entry, given high likelihood Mexicans were undocumented.

  • Enforcement agencies felt "outmanned" by the "growing, silent invasion" of undocumented immigrants. Some officials saw it as a bigger threat than the Soviet Union.

  • This led to increased policing and apprehensions of undocumented immigrants by Border Patrol in neighborhoods like Tucson. Activists like Margo Cowan and Lupe Castillo fought these crackdowns and helped undocumented residents.

    Here is a summary:

  • For most of the 20th century, the US touted itself as a nation of immigrants but did not have a formal refugee or asylum policy in law. The 1965 Immigration and Nationality Act allowed for 17,400 conditional entries each year for people fleeing communism or the Middle East.

  • The US admitted refugees on an ad hoc basis through parole by the attorney general, totaling over a million by the late 1970s based on geopolitics rather than law. Significant refugee groups included Hungarians, Cubans, Ugandans, Soviet Jews, and Vietnamese/Cambodians.

  • Congress needed to pass "adjustment acts" for each new refugee group to allow them to apply for legal status.

  • In 1980, the Refugee Act established the US's first codified refugee policy based on international standards. It defined refugees as people outside their homeland unable/unwilling to return due to persecution or well-founded fear of persecution based on race, religion, nationality, social group, or political opinion. This represented an advance in clarifying ambiguous definitions that would be debated going forward.

    Here is a summary:

The passage describes Doris Meissner's role in shaping early US refugee policy as an accidental protagonist. Meissner worked in the Justice Department and helped develop the Refugee Act of 1980, which aimed to standardized refugee admissions based on humanitarian principles rather than ideology. However, the Mariel boatlift crisis unfolded shortly after, as Fidel Castro allowed over 125,000 Cubans to flee to Florida by boat over several months. This included criminals and mental health patients mixed in with other migrants. It overwhelmed US authorities and infrastructure and sparked a major backlash against refugees. It posed a challenge to the new refugee policies Meissner and others had just helped establish based on asylum rights. It had long-lasting negative political and cultural impacts, fueling fears about "undesirable" migrants.

Here is a summary:

  • Margo Cowan and Lupe Castillo were immigration activists who provided legal assistance to recently arrested Salvadoran immigrants detained by the INS in the 1980s.

  • The INS was transferring Salvadoran detainees to a remote detention center called El Centro in Southern California. Conditions at El Centro were poor - basic services were lacking and guards were abusive. Detainees faced swift deportation through cursory hearings.

  • Cowan and Castillo visited El Centro to meet with detainees, but faced obstruction from resentful INS guards. They worked out of a nearby motel.

  • Detainees secretly passed names and details of other detainees to the activists to help them provide legal representation and file asylum applications.

  • The activists' goal was to prevent deportations to El Salvador by bonding people out of detention. This required fundraising for bond amounts.

  • At El Centro, detainees faced pressure to quickly sign voluntary departure forms waiving legal rights instead of applying for asylum, which would lead to swift deportation. The activists worked to prevent this.

  • They filed many asylum applications to delay deportations, despite distrusting the government would properly process them, due to their past experiences with INS obstruction. Their goal was to prevent killings by preventing deportations, even if asylum wasn't ultimately granted.

    Here is a summary:

  • INS was issuing boilerplate denials for Salvadoran asylum applications en masse, using form rejection letters. This revealed they were not properly reviewing each case individually.

  • Attorney Linda Cowan had the idea to file as many asylum applications as possible to overload the system and prevent immediate deportations. This would buy time and allow appeals.

  • Cowan and others worked to bond out over 150 Salvadorans from detention centers. Some joined families in California while others stayed in Arizona.

  • Pastor John Fife became involved after hearing stories from Salvadoran survivors of violence. He worked to help people apply for asylum through the legal process.

  • Fife struck a deal with the INS director Bill Johnston to release Salvadorans to Fife's church while they awaited asylum hearings.

  • Eventually, all applications were being denied. And in June 1981, Johnston detained three Salvadorans against the previous agreement, indicating a change in policy from higher-ups.

  • Activist James Corbett proposed going underground to shelter Salvadorans from deportation, operating as an informal coyote network to get them safely to relatives in the US interior.

  • After initial doubts, Fife agreed this may be the only option, given ramping up deportations. Corbett likened their role to the abolitionist underground railroad, arguing the church must protect vulnerable migrants.

    Based on the passage, the key points regarding El Salvador are:

  • The Reagan administration was concerned about leftist guerrilla groups like the FMLN gaining power in El Salvador and wanted to bolster the US-backed Salvadoran government.

  • The Salvadoran military was poorly trained, undisciplined, and often acted as death squads targeting civilians rather than fighting guerrillas effectively.

  • The US began increasing military aid and training to Salvadoran units like the Atlacatl Battalion in an effort to improve their counterinsurgency capabilities.

  • In December 1981, the Atlacatl Battalion led an operation called "Operation Rescue" in rural Morazán department, during which they massacred over 900 civilians in the village of El Mozote and surrounding areas.

  • The massacre at El Mozote was reported in The New York Times and Washington Post just as Reagan was preparing to certify to Congress that El Salvador was improving its human rights, putting the administration in an awkward position.

So in summary, the passage discusses the Reagan administration's support for and military assistance to the government in El Salvador in its fight against leftist guerrillas, and reveals how that support enabled a horrific massacre of civilians by a US-trained Salvadoran army unit.

Here is a summary of the key details of the El Mozote massacre:

  • In December 1981, soldiers from the El Salvadoran army's Atlacatl Battalion massacred around 800 civilians in the villages of El Mozote, La Joya and other locations in the rural Morazán Department of El Salvador.

  • The victims were predominantly women, children and elderly men. The soldiers killed many of the villagers by shooting them or hacking them to death with machetes. Some were burned alive.

  • The massacre was part of a scorched earth campaign by the Salvadoran military against suspected guerilla sympathizers during the country's civil war. The area had been controlled by leftist guerrillas.

  • When the massacre came to light in early 1982 after reporting by the New York Times and Washington Post, the US Reagan administration denied it happened. Elliott Abrams, assistant secretary of state, claimed reports of the massacre were propaganda even though its scale and cruelty were later well-documented.

  • The El Mozote massacre highlighted the human rights abuses perpetrated by the US-backed Salvadoran military amid the civil war and drew international condemnation of the Reagan administration's support for the regime. It remains one of the worst massacres in modern Latin American history.

    Here is a summary:

  • Juan Romagoza was freed from a military prison in El Salvador after being held and tortured for 3 weeks. His weight had dropped to 75 pounds.

  • He was taken to his brother's home in San Salvador for one night before they planned to smuggle him to Usulután for further hiding.

  • Over the next two months, Juan was moved between safe houses in Usulután every few days to avoid being found by death squads. His foot wound from a gunshot was badly infected.

  • During one stay at a friend's house near an army barracks, soldiers came looking for guerrilla fighters after an attack. Juan hid in bed with the friend to avoid being discovered.

  • It became clear Juan needed emergency medical treatment in Mexico for his foot. A family friend Margarita Ortíz, who smuggled people across borders, agreed to help transport Juan out of the country.

    Here is a summary:

  • Juan traveled to Guatemala City in 1976 to visit a friend who was also a medical student displaced from El Salvador.

  • One night while walking to dinner downtown, he was stopped by police who accused him of being a communist due to his medical student ID card.

  • He was taken to the new Pavón prison on the outskirts of the city, which the Guatemalan government touted as one of the largest prisons in the region.

  • As a medical student, Juan was made to conduct medical exams on other inmates, which gave him some privileges and protection, like a spot on the floor to sleep.

  • However, the guards also tormented him by forcing him to perform unnecessary rectal exams.

  • The full-time doctors only showed up every few weeks, and syringes were reused in the infirmary. Many people who entered the prison never left.

    Here is a summary:

  • Juan and two others traveled by truck from El Salvador to Guatemala City, where they hid out for a few weeks at a seedy motel.

  • Guatemala was still recovering from a devastating 1976 earthquake and was under military rule, though repression was more discreet than in El Salvador. Crackdowns targeted opposition politicians, students, lawyers and more.

  • After 10 days, they made a long 12-hour ride by truck from Guatemala City to Mexico City, avoiding checkpoints by bribing officials.

  • In Mexico City, Juan used the pseudonym "Blanco" to avoid being identified and deported back to El Salvador by Salvadoran intelligence agents.

  • He underwent several months of surgery and treatment at a hospital in Mexico City to repair damage to his foot and arm from torture in El Salvador.

  • He recovered at a house in Mexico City rented cheaply by a relief agency to shelter 10 Salvadorans, including Ortiz's nephew. They called it the "Usulután embassy" as most residents were from Usulután province in El Salvador.

    Here is a summary:

  • Juan lived and worked in Mexico City after fleeing violence in his home country of El Salvador. He took various jobs, including working as a land surveyor in harsh conditions and as a bookkeeper.

  • The residents at the embassy where Juan stayed divided up household chores and raised rabbits to sell for extra money.

  • Juan endured dangerous encounters with police who targeted and exploited immigrants. He developed strategies like changing his voice and memorizing details about Mexican places to avoid being detected as a foreigner.

  • At the embassy, the Salvadorans stayed informed about the war back home through limited phone calls and by analyzing local media coverage. They gathered on weekends in Chapultepec Park where refugees shared information.

  • There, Juan unexpectedly reunited with an old friend who had believed he was dead.

  • Juan met Bishop Sergio Méndez Arceo, a prominent liberation theology advocate, at his cathedral in Cuernavaca. Inspired by his sermon supporting refugees, Juan offered to help with the church's initiatives. Méndez Arceo was a famous champion of the poor and critic of the traditional church.

    Here is a summary:

  • The passage describes Indigenous refugees from Guatemala who fled to southern Mexico to escape violence in their homeland. Tens of thousands lived in refugee camps along the Mexico-Guatemala border, but the Mexican government often looked the other way as Guatemalan soldiers conducted raids and killings in the camps.

  • A few hundred refugees managed to reach Cuernavaca, Mexico where a network of clergy and activists helped transport the most vulnerable further north, away from the border. One of these people was a bishop named Samuel Ruiz who operated in Chiapas.

  • The refugees in Cuernavaca typically had family ties that pulled them further north, sometimes to the US. Staying in Guatemala was not an option due to the ongoing war and violence. Small communities of Guatemalans were forming in parts of the US like Central Florida and cities like Houston and LA.

  • The passage then describes a doctor named Juan who agreed to treat refugee families at a clinic in Cuernavaca on weekends. He stayed at a dormitory on church grounds with the refugees.

  • It provides background that the Indigenous Maya people of Guatemala faced severe racism and persecution, with over 20 ethnic groups speaking their own languages. During the early 1980s period of violence known as "La Violencia," hundreds of villages were destroyed and hundreds of thousands of Maya people were killed or disappeared by the military in an attempt to undermine guerrilla support.

    Here is a summary:

  • Juan was living in Mexico and helping Guatemalan refugees flee to the US through the sanctuary movement. He met some American activists who were interested in learning more about the conflicts in El Salvador and Guatemala.

  • Juan's family members started escaping El Salvador and staying with him at the Usulután embassy in Mexico City. He was able to bring some siblings to stay with him. Others scattered to places like Australia and the US.

  • In November 1982, Juan received news that his girlfriend Laura, who had been a student activist, was presumed dead after a military strike in their hometown of Chalatenango, El Salvador. Her body was not found. There was no mention of his daughter.

  • Juan devised a plan to sneak back into El Salvador disguised as a Mexican priest, to try to find out what really happened to Laura and their daughter. He was able to make it past some checkpoints on buses to Chalatenango but was always turned back at the last checkpoint near the military barracks where he had previously been detained.

  • Unable to get through, Juan visited a friend from university in San Salvador who recognized he was not actually a priest, as he was disguised.

    Here is a summary of the key details:

  • The house the woman shared with her family was too small to privately discuss what had happened to Laura. They went to a nearby park bench to talk.

  • She told him that Laura's body had been found. Soldiers had stormed the hamlet where Laura was caring for patients. Everyone fled but Laura ran back to get her medical bag. She was caught in crossfire and taken into custody, then showed signs of torture. Their daughter Maria is now with Laura's family in Puebla.

  • A few days later when the church delegation returned to Mexico City, Juan joined them. He returned to the Usulután embassy feeling morose and drained. However, he found he was no longer in purgatory and had choices to make.

  • One choice was to travel north to the US, where there was a chance to pressure Washington to help end the conflict, even slightly. Of living undocumented in the US or in Mexico, the American path seemed to allow fighting back in some way.

    Here is a summary:

  • CBS did a segment on asylum in the U.S. where they interviewed Elliott Abrams from the State Department, who took a restrictive view of asylum. They juxtaposed this with testimony from a Salvadoran woman living in LA without papers who feared being killed if deported.

  • This coverage angered INS officials, who started discussing the possibility of arresting Virginia Corbett from the sanctuary movement who had appeared in the segment.

  • Corbett and Fife were struggling to handle the large number of refugees contacting them in Tucson for help. Corbett reached out to the Chicago Religious Task Force on Central America for assistance in spreading the sanctuary work.

  • There were disagreements between the Tucson and Chicago activists. The Chicago group wanted to screen refugees based on their political beliefs and have their testimony aligned with the movement's goals, while the Tucson activists saw that as politicizing their humanitarian work.

  • The Reagan administration effectively ignored the 1980 Refugee Act, creating ambiguity around who qualified for asylum. The sanctuary workers tried to navigate this gap to help refugees.

  • There were discrepancies between Tucson and Chicago activists around who deserved sanctuary - those fleeing generalized violence vs. specific persecution. Hutchison declined to directly assist Nicaraguans fleeing conscription but not persecution.

    Here is a summary:

  • Reagan and his advisers were reluctant to seriously address the issue of immigration reform due to its complexity and political difficulties. A commission had issued a detailed report with recommendations but Reagan didn't want to deal with it.

  • The commission recommended increasing border enforcement, legalizing undocumented immigrants, and penalizing employers who hire undocumented workers. This put pressure on the White House to address the issue.

  • Doris Meissner, who had worked on the commission, found herself in a leadership role at INS despite expecting to lose her job under Reagan. She struggled to implement conflicting signals from the White House on issues like the Mariel boatlift and detaining asylum seekers.

  • Reagan ultimately adopted a tougher enforcement approach, detaining migrants seeking asylum. Meissner had to justify and implement this policy change, though she acknowledged it departed from past practice. After leadership changes at INS, she took on an elevated role helping shape the agency's approach.

So in summary, the commission report put immigration reform on the agenda but Reagan resisted, while Meissner found herself playing a pivotal role at INS navigating conflicting priorities around enforcement and asylum under the new administration.

This passage summarizes the poor treatment of Haitian migrants by the US government in the 1970s-80s compared to Cuban migrants. It describes how Haitians were detained and subject to expedited deportation hearings without proper representation, while Cubans were immediately admitted. It led to a lawsuit where a judge found the INS violated the constitution by denying Haitians a fair hearing.

It also discusses that Meissner, as a high-ranking INS official, understood how the decentralized system worked and how local offices handled asylum claims differently. It notes growing evidence that Salvadorans and Guatemalans were being rejected at suspiciously high rates for asylum compared to other groups. Meissner began to privately object and raised concerns about inadequate protection for Central Americans, though the agency dismissed her analysis. Overall, the passage provides historical context regarding the disparate treatment of different migrant groups by the INS and Meissner's internal objections to these policies.

Here is a summary:

  • The passage describes a memo written by Rayburn, an investigator for the INS, recommending that the "Underground Railroad" helping Salvadoran refugees be monitored more closely. He viewed the sanctuary activists not as people of conscience but as political operatives manipulating media coverage.

  • Rayburn led past investigations into illegal immigrant smuggling that were halted due to political pressure. He compiled a dossier on the sanctuary movement monitoring their interactions with media.

  • In 1984, Rayburn's boss Harold Ezell ordered him to open an investigation called "Operation Sojourner" into the spreading sanctuary movement.

  • Rayburn enlisted two undercover agents, Salomon Graham and Jesus Cruz, to infiltrate sanctuary groups. Over months, they gained the trust of activists in Southside Presbyterian church in Tucson by volunteering and transporting refugees themselves while recording conversations.

  • The investigation was advanced when activist Phil Conger was pulled over transporting refugees, and documents found in his car detailed sanctuary operations across the border.

  • The passage then shifts to describe the experience of a Salvadoran refugee named Juan arriving in Los Angeles and finding community in MacArthur Park, which had become a hub for displaced Salvadorans.

    Here is a summary:

  • Juan arrived in Los Angeles and eventually decided to travel to San Francisco, where more Salvadorans had settled, especially in the Mission District.

  • He spent his first two weeks in Dolores Park, sleeping outside with other Salvadoran immigrants. He started organizing homeless Salvadorans into therapy groups in the park to share their experiences ("dolores", meaning pains).

  • The city of San Francisco had a history of supporting Central American refugees since the 1970s through religious organizations that opposed the Vietnam War and helped Chileans fleeing Pinochet.

  • The local Catholic archbishop, John Quinn, was a vocal opponent of US policy in Latin America and military aid to El Salvador.

  • One day in Dolores Park, a woman from Casa El Salvador, a Central American advocacy organization, approached Juan interested in having him lead an independent medical/shelter group for Salvadorans, given his work with others in the park. But they were cautious due to FBI surveillance of such groups.

    Here is a summary:

  • Burglaries of offices and residences of activists, NGOs and churches started occurring across the US in the 1980s. Items like address books and photos were stolen while valuables were left behind.

  • The FBI was coordinating with the Salvadoran National Guard around this time. An FBI agent met with General Vides Casanova in El Salvador to generate fabricated information identifying CISPES members in the US as terrorists.

  • Juan Romagoza started leading a committee to help Salvadoran refugees in San Francisco. He tried to remain neutral politically to provide assistance.

  • Juan's committee provided various services like food, clothing, healthcare, counseling and legal help to undocumented Salvadoran immigrants. He realized many were suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder from their experiences in El Salvador.

  • Juan became more publicly active in advocacy efforts like protests and speaking to media. Articles were written about his refugee relief work. He sought to help the Salvadoran community cope with fears of arrest/deportation in the US.

  • Juan followed the political situation closely as the Reagan administration supported the Salvadoran military government despite a protracted civil war and human rights issues. Debate occurred within the US government over policy approaches as well.

    Here is a summary:

  • The passage discusses the 1985 indictment of 16 people involved in the Arizona sanctuary movement for conspiring to smuggle and harbor undocumented immigrants from El Salvador and Guatemala.

  • 11 of those indicted, including John Fife and other movement leaders, planned to go to trial rather than plead out. Two Mexican nationals named in the indictment also decided to face charges.

  • The indictment named 55 immigrants who had passed through Tucson as "unindicted co-conspirators" and offered to drop criminal charges if they testified, but they still faced deportation proceedings.

  • A conference on the movement was held in January 1985 in Tucson and drew over 1,500 people after the indictment. Prominent speakers expressed support for the activists facing charges.

  • Tensions were growing between the Tucson and Chicago chapters over strategy and publicity of their work, which the government investigation exploited. The trial was scheduled for fall 1985.

    Here is a summary:

  • The trial of sanctuary workers who helped Central American refugees began in November 1985. Both sides were unhappy with the judge, Earl Carroll, who was known to be unpredictable.

  • The government tried to exclude all context about conditions in Central America, the likelihood of deportees facing death, US involvement in the region's wars, mistreatment of asylum seekers by INS, international law, and the 1980 Refugee Act. They wanted to narrowly focus on whether sanctuary workers helped undocumented immigrants cross the border.

  • Judge Carroll agreed and excluded any testimony beyond whether asylum seekers were presented to INS. Defense witnesses on human rights, law, and the church could not testify. Defendants also could not explain their motivations.

  • The government's witnesses were mainly the refugees they labeled as "illegal alien unindicted co-conspirators" to get them to name sanctuary workers.

  • One refugee, Alejandro Rodriguez, testified reluctantly for the government. He was from a middle-class family in El Salvador but fled due to threats, got refugee status through the UN, and came to the US out of concern his papers would expire. The judge restricted his testimony.

  • Defense lawyers had been trying since the 1970s to establish protections for Central American asylum seekers using individual cases, with mixed results depending on the judge. They aimed to show conditions in home countries amounted to persecution under the 1980 Refugee Act.

    This summary covers key events in the movement to establish legal protections for Salvadoran and Guatemalan refugees in the United States in the 1980s:

  • Lawyers began filing lawsuits in the early 1980s challenging the discrimination and coercion Salvadorans and Guatemalans faced in the asylum process. This included the Van Der Hout/Blum case arguing young Salvadoran men could qualify as a persecuted social group, and the Orantes-Hernandez case challenging coerced voluntary departure forms.

  • In 1985, 80 religious and legal organizations filed the landmark American Baptist Churches v. Meese lawsuit accusing the government of discriminating against Salvadoran and Guatemalan asylum claims.

  • Meanwhile, numerous US cities passed sanctuary resolutions in 1985-86 declaring support for refugees and protecting them from deportation. Juan Romagoza testified before the San Francisco board of supervisors to support their sanctuary resolution.

  • Congress debated immigration reform bills in 1986 that could have legalized thousands of Salvadorans and Guatemalans but proposals like the Moakley-DeConcini amendment for extended voluntary departure faced significant opposition.

  • The ABC lawsuit ultimately resulted in a landmark 1991 settlement that allowed 300,000 Salvadorans and Guatemalans to stay in the US and reapply for asylum, providing legal protections after over a decade of advocacy and legal challenges.

    Here is a summary:

  • While a bill on immigration reform was being finalized, Reagan's Attorney General Edwin Meese called a top Democrat and threatened that if a certain amendment from Rep. Moakley went through, the entire bill would be dead. Moakley ultimately removed his amendment.

  • Reagan then signed the Immigration Reform and Control Act into law at the White House, praising the bipartisan effort. However, a reporter then asked Reagan about reports of a deal between the US and Iran, marking the beginning of the Iran-Contra affair.

  • The passage discusses Juan Ramoza, a Salvadoran activist granted asylum in the US. He is persuaded by his lawyer Mark Silverman to apply for asylum as a way to motivate others. He then becomes involved with running a free clinic for undocumented immigrants in Washington D.C. called La Clinica del Pueblo.

  • It also introduces Carlos Eugenio Vides Casanova, the former Minister of Defense in El Salvador who applied for a green card in the US in 1988. As Defense Minister from 1983-1989 he was seen as more calculated than his predecessor in dealing with US concerns about human rights abuses, while still allowing abuses to continue.

    Here is a summary of the key points:

  • The passage describes the formation and rise of Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13) gang in Los Angeles in the late 1980s from the perspective of Eddie Anzora, a Salvadoran immigrant boy.

  • Eddie grew up in a rough neighborhood in South Central LA controlled by African American Bloods gangs and Mexican American Dead End gang. Gangs dominated the streets through violence and drug dealing.

  • Eddie was exposed to gang life from a young age but tried to get along with different groups. He learned about the styles and slang of local gangs.

  • A new Salvadoran gang called Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13) was emerging in the area. They drove through in a car and exchanged gunshots with a local Mexican gang member.

  • Eddie started to see the letters "MS" painted on the clothes of his neighbor Christian and his brother, who were joining the new MS-13 gang amid tensions with existing gangs like the Dead Ends.

  • The passage shows how gang activity and affiliations began spreading to younger children through their older siblings and neighborhoods became divided by violent gang rivalries.

    Here is a summary:

The passage describes gang violence and tensions in Eddie's neighborhood in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Gang-related killings made up over a third of homicides in LA County. Salvadoran teenagers were caught between not affiliating with any gang and risking being enemies of all, or "jumping in" to a gang and facing dangers.

Some Salvadoran refugees banded together for protection through the 18th Street or Mara Salvatrucha (MS) gangs. 18th Street was more established and inclusive of Latinos, allowing it to grow larger. MS started as outcasts but carried pride in their Salvadoran identity and used frighteningly violent tactics like machetes.

As gang cliques formed across LA, the police crackdown before the 1984 Olympics created a power vacuum that allowed MS to potentially gain ground. Eddie witnessed his aunt's boyfriend Oscar, a member of MS, fiercely beat up two men who cut them off in traffic using a bat.

In 1989, Eddie's family moved from South Central to the San Fernando Valley to escape the intensifying crack epidemic and crime. In his new neighborhood, Eddie quickly established himself among local kids and gangs but preferred associating with lower-key tagging crews rather than violently territorial gangs.

Here is a summary:

  • Eddie Anzora began tagging graffiti around Los Angeles as a young teen in the early 1990s as part of a crew called MCP. He was arrested once for tagging on Melrose Avenue.

  • The crack epidemic was hitting Los Angeles hard in the 1980s. Strict mandatory minimum drug sentencing laws disproportionately targeted Black suspects.

  • Eddie grew up in a neighborhood in the San Fernando Valley called Langdon Avenue, which was dealing with high levels of drug dealing and gang violence between groups like MS, the Columbus Boys, and the TJ Locos.

  • MS was evolving into a more hardcore gang affiliated with the Mexican Mafia prison gang. Members had to affiliate with larger prison gangs like the Mexican Mafia for protection in prison.

  • In 1988, the LAPD carried out a massive raid involving over 90 officers on an apartment building in South Central LA where 33 Black residents were arrested on vague gang affiliations. The property damage was over $4 million. This was part of increasing aggressive anti-gang tactics by the LAPD.

    Here is a summary of the provided text:

  • Juan Romagoza worked at La Clinica del Pueblo, a free clinic in Washington DC that provided services to immigrants, especially from El Salvador and Guatemala.

  • Many homeless immigrants would come to the clinic, hiding out in the basement when it was closed or seeking medical care. One man in particular, a homeless alcoholic in his mid-40s from Central America, was spotted by Juan a few times at a migrant shelter and squatting in abandoned buildings nearby.

  • On Tuesday nights when the clinic was open for general consultations, over 70 patients would show up within minutes. It was chaotic as Juan and volunteers tried to register patients, make rounds, clean, and direct people. Resources were very limited so they had to reuse and repurpose supplies when possible.

  • The man Juan saw was not given much attention in the busy clinic initially. The description provides context about the clinic and population it served, including many traumatized and alone Central American immigrants, as well as the chaotic environment when it was open.

    Here is a summary:

  • Juan worked at La Clinica, a free clinic in Washington DC that served Salvadoran refugees and immigrants. There were no set hours and it was always busy.

  • One night, a man named Pedro approached Juan at the clinic. Pedro revealed that he had been part of the Salvadoran National Guard and was present when Juan was imprisoned and tortured in El Salvador. Pedro was now suffering as a refugee in the US.

  • Many refugees who came to the US from Central America's wars arrived traumatized or addicted. Ex-soldiers tended to be in the worst shape, often addicted and living on the streets. Juan believed the war had victimized everyone in different ways.

  • As a doctor at La Clinica, Juan disagreed with others who felt ex-soldiers did not deserve treatment. He introduced group therapy sessions for ex-soldiers to address their experiences in a respectful way.

  • La Clinica was located near the White House. Though in Washington DC, Juan still saw himself as an advocate for Central American refugees opposed to US policy and actions in the region. He continued protesting and raising awareness of human rights issues.

  • The political context in Central America was shifting as new administrations took power in El Salvador and the US. Peace talks were ongoing but fighting continued. A massacre of Jesuit priests by the Salvadoran military in 1989 sparked international outrage.

    Here is a summary of the key points about Joe Moakley from the passage:

  • Joe Moakley was chosen as the chair of the task force investigating human rights abuses in El Salvador.

  • Moakley was a skilled politician known for his talents in legislation, strategic thinking, and self-promotion. He downplayed his skills to appear more relatable.

  • As chair of the House Rules Committee, Moakley was a very powerful figure in Congress.

  • Moakley led a fact-finding mission to El Salvador in 1990 that put him in conflict with the Salvadoran military over human rights abuses.

  • Moakley's staff investigated the killing of the Jesuit priests but faced resistance from the Salvadoran government and US departments.

  • Moakley had been advocating for temporary protected status for Salvadoran refugees in the US since 1983.

  • As chair of Rules Committee, Moakley was able to leverage his power to get temporary protected status included in the 1990 Immigration Act, protecting hundreds of thousands of Salvadorans from deportation.

    Here is a summary:

  • Juan worked at a clinic called La Clínica that provided healthcare to Latino immigrants in Washington D.C. One model he used was promotores de salud, where patients received some medical training and helped provide care.

  • The Latino population in D.C. was growing rapidly in the 1980s-1990s, primarily from El Salvadorian immigrants. But the city remained largely monolingual English and inaccessible to these immigrants.

  • La Clínica kept detailed medical records in locked cabinets in case of immigration raids. The failed 1986 immigration reform caused panic in the immigrant community.

  • Juan helped expand La Clínica's services and outreach. He recruited other medical professionals from Latin America who were now working low-wage jobs.

  • On May 5, 1991 in the Mount Pleasant neighborhood, police arrested and shot a drunk Salvadoran man, sparking a night of riots over perceived police brutality against Latinos. The situation escalated over the next days with more riots, looting, arson and clashes with police.

    Here is a summary:

  • In 1991, Eddie Anzora and his brother Carlos traveled to El Salvador with their mother Victoria to visit relatives. They found the developing country to be very poor and run-down compared to their home in LA.

  • They stayed with Victoria's brother Lito in Soyapango, near the capital San Salvador. Eddie was struck by signs of the country's recent civil war like bullet holes and rubble.

  • Victoria left after two weeks, leaving the boys in El Salvador. They attended a private school there but stood out due to their American style of baggy clothes.

  • At school they got into fights with other boys until they met Duke, a deported LA gang member living in the neighborhood of Amatepec. He defended them and they began hanging out with him.

  • Duke was starting his own small gang, which was common but more informal than American gangs. Eddie witnessed Duke "jumping in" new recruits by beating them while others counted to 10.

    Here is a summary of the key points:

  • Duke, a local gang member, helps Eddie up when he is winded and invites initiates to get tattooed by him in his apartment, as a sort of welcoming. However, Duke never pressures Eddie or his brother to join the gang.

  • After 3 months, Carlos moves in with relatives while Eddie stays with his grandmother, helping with farm work. He sees others who were deported from LA and may recognize some old acquaintances.

  • Election results in 1991 bolster the leftist opposition and encourage the FMLN guerrillas to pursue negotiations. With US pressure reduced as well, talks advance toward a peace deal.

  • Juan returns to El Salvador for the first time since 1982. He attends celebrations as the guerrillas turn in weapons but also sees how much has changed and many friends who are now gone.

  • The war officially ends on January 16, 1992 with a ceremony in Mexico City where the two sides sign agreements. Massive celebrations follow in El Salvador.

  • When not working, Eddie likes to go tagging, especially in abandoned guerrilla trenches, seeing it as adding his name to history. He is aware of the peace accords but distracted by tagging.

    Here is a summary:

  • In 1992, there were riots in Los Angeles after police officers were acquitted for beating Rodney King.

  • The riots lasted for several days and caused widespread destruction across LA. The National Guard and federal agents had to be sent in to get the situation under control.

  • Eddie Anzora, who was now living in El Salvador, learned about the riots from his cousin who was a member of the 18th Street gang in San Fernando Valley. His cousin described the areas that had been destroyed.

  • The different LA gangs reacted differently to the riots. The Bloods and Crips agreed to a temporary truce in support of racial solidarity. Mexican Mafia and other Chicano gangs did not want to participate in the destruction. MS-13 gang members in South LA joined in looting and burning.

  • One gang leader from the Fulton Locos gang in San Fernando saw it as an opportunity to start criminal activity while the police were distracted dealing with the riots in LA.

  • When Eddie got off the phone, his friends in El Salvador wanted to know more about the riots in LA, which remained an important point of reference for the Salvadoran deportees even though they were now living in El Salvador. One friend expressed concern about Eddie returning to such violence and danger in Los Angeles.

    Here is a summary:

  • The passage describes the experiences of Indigenous Maya farmworkers from Guatemala who migrated to different parts of the US to do seasonal agricultural work, including picking onions, potatoes, and apples. They often slept in their car to avoid crowded worker housing.

  • By the early 1990s, there were about 20,000 Indigenous Maya living in Florida, clustered around Indiantown which had citrus groves and vegetable farms. Most Americans assumed they were Mexican.

  • Nearly all came fleeing repression in Guatemala in the 1980s, with over a million Maya fleeing to Mexico and the US. One woman lost family members to military murders in Guatemala.

  • They were reluctant to discuss what they suffered and instead emphasized their willingness to work. Their asylum claims were almost all rejected despite the large numbers fleeing violence.

  • The passage then describes the class action lawsuit American Baptist Churches v. Thornburgh that allowed Guatemalans who arrived before 1990 to reapply for asylum. This led to a large backlog of hundreds of thousands of asylum cases for the immigration system to review.

  • Doris Meissner was tasked with reforming the asylum system as head of the INS under President Clinton, to try to reduce frivolous claims, expedite reviews, and gain control of the process from the State Department.

    Here is a summary:

  • Doris Meissner presented a new asylum plan to Clinton's advisers in 1994. The plan aimed to speed up asylum processing and increase approval rates.

  • Rahm Emanuel, a top White House adviser, emphasized demonstrating toughness on immigration to preempt criticism from the right. He pushed for policies that focused on border security.

  • In 1993, Silvestre Reyes, the Border Patrol chief in El Paso, launched Operation Blockade where hundreds of agents lined up along the border to discourage crossings. Apprehensions dropped 72% but many migrants began dying in the desert as they took more dangerous routes.

  • The INS scaled up this strategy in other areas, calling it "prevention through deterrence." The focus shifted from deterring entry to pushing crossings into harsh, remote areas. This had unintended deadly consequences for many migrants.

    Here is a summary:

  • Nando and his friends would cut school and steal goods from stores like Ross to resell to small shop owners for cash. They called this "racking".

  • Eddie was a charismatic leader of their group ATR (Alliance Tortilla Rangers), which grew to have over 200 members across the valley.

  • In the mid-1990s, ATR had to be more careful about tagging (graffiti) due to warnings from the Mexican Mafia crime group. They began covering tattoos and attending controlled fights between gangs.

  • In 1994, Eddie and other ATR members were arrested for felony vandalism related to their tagging and caused $38,000 in damages. Eddie spent time in juvenile detention facilities.

  • After his release in 1995, Eddie took a job at an animal hospital but still socialized with ATR friends. In 1997, he and friends lived in an apartment on Langdon Ave and worried about stray bullets or police harassment.

  • One night in 1997, Eddie was arrested during a police stop after officers found drugs in his car. This reinforced his distrust of police after several police corruption scandals.

    Here is a summary:

  • The passage describes a Democratic staffer named Adriana Murguía who joined the Clinton administration. She had experience on issues like health care and foreign affairs.

  • When she joined, Newt Gingrich and Republicans had just taken control of Congress for the first time in 40 years, complicating Clinton's reelection efforts.

  • Rahm Emanuel and Bruce Reed advised Clinton he needed to "cut to the right" to work with Republicans and get something done to help his reelection.

  • In 1996, Murguía was the White House's main liaison to Congress as they negotiated two bills - welfare reform and immigration. Both bills caused issues for Democrats.

  • The welfare reform bill cut funding to legal immigrants, drawing a new distinction. Advocate Cecilia Muñoz opposed these cuts as they would hurt millions of legal immigrants.

  • Though sympathetic, Murguía had little power in the White House to change the political calculations being made by Emanuel and Reed to work with Republicans at all costs ahead of the 1996 election.

    Here is a summary of the key details:

  • In 1996, Congress passed and President Clinton signed the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA), which dramatically expanded deportation and tightened restrictions on legal immigration. This was in response to anti-immigration sentiment after California governor Pete Wilson campaigned on an anti-immigration platform and won reelection by 15 points.

  • The bill was spearheaded by Senators Alan Simpson and Lamar Smith, who wanted to enact tougher restrictions. Cordia Strom, who had worked for an anti-immigration group, helped draft the bill in isolation without input from Democrats.

  • The law greatly expanded the definition of "aggravated felonies" that could trigger deportation, even retroactively. It removed discretion from immigration judges and required deportation of anyone eligible, even if they had families or lived in the US for years.

  • INS director Doris Meissner was concerned about the law's impact, as it meant deporting tens of thousands more people. Rahm Emanuel advised Clinton to use the new law to deport criminal immigrants and appear tough on crime.

  • Eddie Anzora, an 18-year-old Latino man from Los Angeles, was arrested for a minor drug offense. Under the new law, he was classified as an "aggravated felon" and faced deportation, despite it being his first criminal offense. After four years of legal proceedings, he was forced to go into hiding to avoid deportation.

    Here is a summary:

  • The passage describes Scotty Mechkowski's background and early career with the INS (Immigration and Naturalization Service, now ICE). He came from a working class background and his mother struggled financially.

  • Mechkowski was disappointed when he started his INS job, finding it bureaucratic and paperwork-focused rather than active law enforcement work. He wanted to go out and make arrests.

  • The passage then describes changes to immigration law in the 1990s that gave agents more power to detain undocumented immigrants. Mechkowski supported these tougher measures.

  • However, politicians started having second thoughts about the harsh impacts of the new laws when constituents complained. Guidelines were issued allowing more discretion in certain cases.

  • In Newark, younger agents like Mechkowski wanted a more active role, while supervisors tried to restrain them. Mechkowski developed a reputation as a "hard charger" but felt the INS lacked prestige of other law enforcement.

The summary focuses on Mechkowski's background and initial frustrations/attitudes toward his INS role, as well as changes to immigration enforcement approaches during this time period in the 1990s.

Here is a summary:

  • The passage discusses the changing role and priorities of immigration enforcement in the US after 9/11. It focuses on the experiences of Anthony Mechkowski, a deportation officer.

  • After 9/11, immigration enforcement came under greater scrutiny and funding as it was framed as a national security issue. The INS was restructured and became ICE within the new Department of Homeland Security in 2002-2003.

  • Mechkowski witnessed political pressures influencing enforcement priorities, like targeting immigrants from certain countries regardless of threat level. Arrest quotas led agents to make "collateral arrests" of any undocumented people encountered.

  • By 2006, only 17% of arrests involved immigrants with criminal records due to quotas, down from 30% previously when priorities focused more on "dangerous criminals." Mechkowski felt torn between enforcement realities and political expectations.

    Here is a summary:

  • Eddie Mechkowski was an ICE agent who found the work of arresting undocumented immigrants difficult, especially when they had families. However, he took an apolitical stance and tried not to overthink his job.

  • Eddie Anzora had managed to avoid deportation and have success building a music business in LA for 6 years since going on the run in 2001. However, his friend Joel Orozco notes that his good luck often came with bad luck too.

  • In January 2007, Eddie was finally caught by ICE agents after trying to evade them by hitting their vehicle with his car and shutting the door on an agent. He spent 9 months in jail for assault with a deadly weapon before being deported.

  • In jail, Eddie prepared himself for deportation to El Salvador by gathering information from other Hispanic and Central American inmates. However, he learned that while in jail, people had stolen equipment from his music studios.

  • Eddie had an old friend Cesar in El Salvador who said Eddie could stay with him, but a few days after contacting Eddie, Cesar was killed by gangsters trying to steal his truck.

    Here is a summary:

  • Yam Jo Mack owned a few hundred acres in Guatemala to raise cattle and grow sugarcane. However, land reforms begun by the Árbenz government in the 1950s led to his land being confiscated and him being sentenced to death. He was spared when the CIA toppled the government in 1954.

  • Yam Jo Mack was anti-communist. He sent his daughters including Myrna to a liberal boarding school run by nuns. Myrna became an anthropologist focused on leftist causes in Nicaragua and Guatemala.

  • In the 1980s, Myrna's partner (Lucrecia's father) performed medical operations in Chiapas, Mexico for Indigenous Guatemalans who had fled the war. They had to be careful about their identities given his undocumented status in Mexico.

  • Back in Guatemala, there were also strict rules around avoiding topics like Myrna's work in Nicaragua and her partner's location in Mexico, due to the dangerous political situation.

  • Myrna worked as a journalist covering repression in Guatemala. She later became an anthropologist researching the large displaced Indigenous populations, which put her in danger.

  • In the late 1980s, Myrna co-founded AVANCSO to continue research and analysis that had been silenced at universities. Her fieldwork examined the military's reconstructed villages and control over displaced populations.

  • Myrna's pioneering work was distributed internationally but also made her a target. She was followed and received threats, which sometimes caused her to cut her work short for safety.

    Here is a summary:

  • The maid returned from the store looking pale after the newspaper vendor told her that three men had been staking out their house and one was following Helen on a motorcycle when she left.

  • Political assassinations had increased under the Cerezo government, targeting opposition figures like journalists and labor leaders. However, acts of intimidation were common in Guatemala's long civil war.

  • Myrna Mack was an anthropologist who studied internal displacement in Guatemala. On the evening of September 11, 1990 she was murdered after being stabbed 27 times by undercover agents.

  • Helen Mack, Myrna's sister, did not trust the official explanation of a robbery and traffic accident. She began her own investigation after the slow and erratic police work.

  • A police report identified the main suspect as Noel de Jesús Beteta Álvarez, an agent who worked for a military intelligence unit. But this report was shelved under pressure.

  • Helen continued investigating on her own, interviewing witnesses and gathering details. She pursued the case against the military despite threats and intimidation.

  • Beteta Álvarez was eventually convicted but the cases against senior military officers were initially dismissed. With help from US government documents, Helen was able to link the murder to senior levels of the military high command.

  • Lucrecia, Myrna's daughter, was in shock after the murder but continued with her plans to study medicine. However, concerns over her safety led her to transfer to a more conservative private university instead of the public university her mother attended.

    Here is a summary:

  • Lucrecia enrolled at the University of San Carlos and started learning more about her mother Myrna's work and the political context in Guatemala through books in Myrna's library.

  • Her relationship with her aunt Helen, who had taken her in after Myrna's death, became complicated as Helen tried to shield Lucrecia from the disturbing facts while Lucrecia wanted to know everything.

  • In 1993, Helen established the Myrna Mack Foundation to continue pursuing the legal case for Myrna's murder. Guatemala was nearing the end of its civil war.

  • Lucrecia got involved in student politics and briefly joined a former guerrilla group, but grew disillusioned with their rigid hierarchy. Peace accords were signed in 1996.

  • The case was also proceeding in the Inter-American Court of Human Rights. Guatemala eventually acknowledged responsibility for Myrna's death but resisted prosecuting those responsible domestically.

  • Bishop Juan Gerardi published a groundbreaking report on human rights abuses during the war that named military perpetrators. He was murdered shortly after. Progress on justice and reform remained very challenging due to ongoing military influence.

    Summary:

  • Juan Romagoza was testifying in a civil trial against José Guillermo García and Carlos Eugenio Vides Casanova, former Salvadoran military leaders, for their roles in torture committed during El Salvador's civil war.

  • Romagoza had been tortured by military forces under the command of García and Vides Casanova. The trial was attempting to establish their "command responsibility" for human rights abuses.

  • Romagoza had long wanted to seek justice against the generals, who had fled to the US after the war. He was hesitant to testify due to concerns about further retaliation but felt it was important to share his story.

  • The trial was part of a broader effort by human rights lawyers to prosecute war criminals who had fled to the US after conflicts in Latin America. Over a thousand were estimated to be living in the country.

  • Romagoza's testimony spanned two days and included graphic details of the torture he endured. He hoped sharing his experiences would help alleviate some of the suffering and guilt he still felt.

    Here is a summary of the key points:

  • In October 2000, the first trial against Generals José Guillermo García and Carlos Eugenio Vides Casanova began. The jury returned a verdict in favor of the defense after a month, likely due to the lack of living victims who could testify.

  • The generals argued that the atmosphere in El Salvador during the civil war was one of "complete chaos" where command responsibility did not apply clearly. Death squads colluded with rogue elements in the military.

  • Three plaintiffs - Juan, Neris González, and Carlos Mauricio - were brutally tortured by the Salvadoran military in the late 1970s-early 1980s and lived in the US after receiving asylum over a decade prior.

  • In the early 2000s, lawyers prepared again for trial, studying mistakes from the first. Expert witness Terry Karl would testify about the military command structure and how the generals must have known about widespread abuses.

  • The plaintiffs underwent intensive preparation to retell their trauma in testimony, with psychologists, as it was difficult to relive. Juan considered withdrawing due to threats and anxiety.

  • Juan testified first over multiple days, providing graphic details of his torture. His testimony was powerful and included new details even lawyers were unaware of previously. The generals showed no reaction but their presence intensified Juan's memories.

    Here is a summary:

  • Eddie was deported from Los Angeles to El Salvador after being arrested by ICE. He arrived in El Salvador on a plane with 30 other deportees.

  • At the airport in El Salvador, officials took fingerprints and checked for gang tattoos. Most deportees were released, including Eddie.

  • Eddie knew something about El Salvador from living there briefly as a child in 1992. He had also kept up with the country before his deportation.

  • Eddie stayed with a cousin in the neighborhood of San Jacinto, which was controlled by the MS-13 gang. His cousin warned him to dress modestly to avoid attracting gang attention due to his hip-hop style from LA.

  • On Independence Day in El Salvador, Eddie felt empty-handed starting over without his achievements and possessions from his life in Los Angeles. He had to adapt to the realities of living in a gang-controlled neighborhood in El Salvador.

    Here is a summary:

  • The cities and towns of El Salvador became defined by gang turf, similarly to how streets in LA had once been divided between rival gangs/crews.

  • In the 1990s, deported Los Angeles gang members (MS-13 and 18th Street) returned to El Salvador and enthralled locals with their hip-hop styles and apparent wealth. Their presence and rivalries spread gang culture across the country.

  • The Clinton administration deported thousands of criminals to El Salvador without warning authorities, despite simultaneously dictating police leadership appointments. This overwhelmed El Salvador's stability after a civil war.

  • Deportees transplanted LA gang cliques like "Hollywood Locos Salvatrucha." New gangs also emerged and warred, following some rules from California prisons. They extorted "renta" taxes from locals.

  • Anti-gang policies like "Mano Dura" arrested thousands, growing gang prison leadership while regular arrests continued gang recruitment outside. Deportees faced suspicion from locals and gang targeting.

  • By 2007 when Eddie arrived, gangs dominated through prison commands and large gang membership, despite crackdowns. As an Americanized deportee, Eddie was at high risk but determined to avoid gangs and find work.

    Here is a summary:

  • El Salvador became the first Central American country to sign a free trade agreement with the US, attracting foreign investment in call centers. Companies like Sykes, AT&T, Dell outsourced jobs to El Salvador due to low costs.

  • Deported immigrants from the US were well-suited for these jobs as they spoke English and had few other options. More than half the employees at some call centers were deported individuals.

  • The narrator Eddie started working at Sykes call center in El Salvador after being deported from the US. He adapted well but saw others struggling with the sedentary work.

  • Sykes hired many deportees and was nicknamed "homeland" in English. Employees formed cliques based on where they were from in the US.

  • Living situations were difficult at first as deportees had to settle in dangerous neighborhoods. Safety was a constant concern, as evidenced by frequent murders of Sykes employees that the company stopped publicly acknowledging.

  • The call center environment brought together deportees from across the US and became an important social setting as they built new lives in El Salvador.

    Here is a summary:

  • Cecilia Muñoz was outside the Senate building waiting for an important vote on comprehensive immigration reform. She was feeling pessimistic as many senators seemed reluctant to commit to voting yes.

  • The reform bill would legalize the status of 11 million undocumented immigrants. It had support from Democrats and some Republicans, but faced strong opposition from conservatives. An earlier attempt at reform failed in 2006.

  • Inside the Senate chamber, Obama was temporarily presiding over the vote as a senator. The key vote was on ending debate, requiring 60 votes. It failed, with only 45 senators voting yes including Obama.

  • Outside, Secretary of Homeland Security Michael Chertoff said enforcement would continue to be tough and separations of families would happen to regain credibility on enforcement.

  • Muñoz was disappointed reform failed again but saw it as a sign enforcement would intensify against undocumented immigrants with no legal protections in place. She reflected on her past work with Obama on immigration issues.

    Here is a summary:

  • The passage discusses the ideals and pragmatism in Obama's approach to conversations around immigration reform and where the line is between pragmatism and conservatism. It notes that Obama supported border fencing legislation in 2006.

  • By late 2007, Muñoz, who worked at the National Council of La Raza, had embraced Obama's presidential campaign, though not formally. She advised him on issues like granting driver's licenses to undocumented immigrants.

  • During the general election, Obama framed immigration issues, like ICE raids, as problems with the system. He took a reformist approach and criticized McCain for backing away from reform once it became unpopular.

  • After Obama won, Muñoz was contacted for roles in the administration but turned them down at first to focus on her work and family. However, Obama directly called her and persuaded her to take a role, saying "Hillary couldn't say no to me, and neither can you."

  • The passage then shifts focus to Juan Romagoza, who had colon cancer and returned to El Salvador in 2008. It describes his life there and support for Mauricio Funes's presidential campaign on healthcare reform platform. When Funes won in 2009, Juan volunteered for his efforts to build healthcare clinics.

    Here is a summary:

  • The Funes administration in El Salvador undertook reforms and hired national staff to oversee clinics across the country. Juan had dreamed of this role and was thrilled to take the position overseeing 34 clinics across 23 towns in the department of Usulután.

  • Keldy Gonzáles heard an explosion one morning during Hurricane Mitch in 1998 in Honduras. She went outside and saw a bridge had collapsed into the river. Vehicles and their drivers were swept away. Scattered money and oranges floated in the river. The hurricane was extremely destructive across Honduras.

  • In the aftermath, some of Keldy's family and neighbors left Honduras. Her brother Milton moved to Denver, Colorado. Keldy worked for a local doctor and her mother sold food at the airport before it was destroyed. After cleaning their damaged home, the community was in a pall. Infrastructure was damaged and water was unsafe.

  • Honduras had long been the poorest country in Central America. Hurricane Mitch's destruction cost an estimated $6 billion. Keldy's brother Luis Fernando, a police officer, was able to support the family. A new "zero tolerance" president launched a "war on crime" and empowered police, leading to abuses against suspected gang members. Keldy learned to avoid dangerous areas.

    Here is a summary:

  • Keldy's brother Carlos was killed after refusing to pay a tax to local thieves on his bus route. This was standard gang protocol.

  • The global recession hit and tourism to Honduras declined, affecting Mino's tourism business. They decided to migrate to the US to earn money.

  • They took dangerous routes through Mexico on a freight train and suffered threats and kidnapping by gangs.

  • In the US, they worked hard in Denver for a year to save money to buy property in Honduras.

  • Political unrest broke out after President Zelaya was ousted in a coup in 2009. Protest and violence ensued.

  • When Keldy and Mino returned to Honduras, more family members were killed due to gang violence and threats to their property.

  • They went into hiding with their children in a remote forest lodge to escape the threats, but Keldy's health started declining from suspected ovarian cancer.

    Here is a summary:

  • The woman heard a booming voice that said God had helped and saved her many times. She woke her friend Alex and they hiked through the rain to the church, arriving soaked but feeling reborn.

  • Inspired by her new strength, she then took an action that would have major consequences - she traveled to a court in Tegucigalpa, Honduras to testify under oath against the killers of her partner Oscar. This broke a major taboo in Honduras by testifying against violent criminals.

    Here is a summary:

  • Cecilia Muñoz was struggling in her role as the White House's director of intergovernmental affairs on immigration issues. She felt pressure to do more but feared being sidelined, and dealt with skepticism from some colleagues.

  • She had disagreements with officials at DHS like Secretary Janet Napolitano's chief of staff over language in enforcement policies. She felt isolated from advocates who once supported her due to defending the administration's policies.

  • In 2011, President Obama gave a speech in El Paso calling for comprehensive immigration reform but acknowledging political obstacles remained.

  • Muñoz took heat for the administration's record deportations but felt her job was to defend the president's choices as balanced policymaking in a difficult situation.

  • In 2012, after extensive discussions, the administration announced DACA to provide temporary relief from deportation and work permits to Dreamers, or immigrants who came to the US as children. This was a significant executive action for immigration when Congress failed to pass reform.

    Here is a summary:

  • In early 2013 after Obama's reelection, officials were optimistic about passing comprehensive immigration reform through Congress with bipartisan support. The Democratic-controlled Senate began negotiations.

  • Cecilia Muñoz and others at the White House had been working on a draft reform proposal for years and hoped to move the issue forward. However, they agreed to keep the President at a distance from Senate negotiations to avoid Republican opposition.

  • In April 2013, a bipartisan "Gang of Eight" in the Senate reached an agreement to provide a path to citizenship for millions, with increased border security. It passed the Senate but stalled in the Republican-controlled House.

  • In 2014, a surge of unaccompanied children and families arriving at the border from Central America overwhelmed resources. Over 69,000 children arrived in one year, up from 39,000 previously. The government detention system was not prepared to house them.

  • Jeh Johnson visited the border and reported the crisis to Muñoz, worried it could undermine immigration reform efforts. The White House coordinated an emergency response while facing political and humanitarian challenges.

    Here is a summary:

  • Juliana Ramírez grew up in El Salvador with only one memory of her father - seeing him get shot and killed by a masked man when she was 3 years old. Her mother believed the killing was done by the Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13) gang because her father refused to pay them a tax on his small deli business.

  • For the next 5 years, Juliana's family constantly moved around El Salvador every 6 months to stay ahead of the gang. In 2011, an MS-13 member tried to stab Juliana's mother at a soccer game after she testified against her father's killer.

  • Juliana's mother then fled El Salvador alone to Brentwood, Long Island where she had relatives. She took a cleaning job and left Juliana and her two younger sisters with an aunt, unable to afford bringing them with her.

    Here is a summary:

  • Juliana fled gang violence in El Salvador and made the dangerous journey to the US with her sisters at age 13. They crossed into Texas where border patrol arrested them.

  • In Washington DC, officials were trying ways to discourage migration from Central America, such as advertising campaigns about the dangers of the journey.

  • Juliana was relieved to be detained by border patrol, as the smugglers had told her she would now be reunited with family in the US.

  • She struggled to adapt to her new life and school in Brentwood, especially not speaking English. At school, she was interrogated by MS-13 gang members who had also migrated from El Salvador.

  • Meanwhile, large numbers of unaccompanied children and families were still migrating from Central America to the US border in 2015-2016, while many Salvadorans, Hondurans and Guatemalans were also being deported back south.

  • In El Salvador, Eddie Anzora started an English language school called English Cool to prepare Salvadorans for call center jobs, hiring deported teachers. He aimed to capitalize on the growing demand for English speakers in El Salvador.

    Here is a summary:

  • The passage describes Eddie, a teacher who gives improv lessons in El Salvador. He engages his students in call-and-response readings of Yelp reviews.

  • It then discusses the secret gang truce negotiations that took place in El Salvador between 2012-2014. The head of public security, David Munguía Payés, clandestinely negotiated with MS-13 and 18th Street gangs in the notorious Zacatecoluca prison. They agreed to a truce where gangs would stop killings in exchange for perks like conjugal visits.

  • The truce significantly reduced violence but was controversial. It was dissolved in 2014 when a new president took over. Violence then spiked again. Government officials involved in the truce negotiations were later arrested.

  • Eddie became obsessed with understanding gang violence in El Salvador. One morning after work, Eddie is confronted by two gang members who take him down an alley at gunpoint.

    Here is a summary:

Eddie is confronted by two men in an MS-13 neighborhood who interrogate him, trying to determine if he is affiliated with a gang. They check him for tattoos and go through his phone. It starts to rain and Eddie offers one of the men his sweatshirt since he is getting wet. This act of kindness causes the men to decide to let Eddie go, but they keep his phone. Eddie argues to get his memory card back since it contains important contacts. The incident has Eddie assessing the strategic and professional way the men conducted the interrogation. It shows gangs in the area effectively maintain control through such tactics.

Here is a summary:

  • Jeff Sessions had long advocated for stricter immigration policies from the political margins. In 2015, he met with Steve Bannon and was convinced Trump could win and advance their agenda.

  • Stephen Miller, a young conservative speechwriter, shared Sessions' hardline views on immigration. He helped author an anti-immigration memo with Sessions in 2015.

  • Miller brought a more inflammatory rhetoric than Sessions, stoking fears about immigrants and Islam. He worked to sink previous immigration reform efforts.

  • Miller impressed Sessions with his skills and joined his Senate staff in 2009. There, he learned immigration policy intricately and focused on closing "loopholes."

  • In 2016, Miller switched to the Trump campaign and became a influential adviser, writing Trump's detailed immigration policy speech.

  • After Trump's win, Sessions and Miller achieved their long-held goal of advancing restrictive immigration policies, with Sessions as Attorney General and Miller as a top White House adviser.

    Here are the key points:

  • Stephen Miller obtained a role as senior adviser to Trump and head of the Domestic Policy Council to maximize his influence over immigration policy.

  • Miller wanted to issue orders from the White House rather than implement policy, to avoid congressional scrutiny.

  • When briefing Miller on her previous role, Cecilia Muñoz from Obama's DPC asked how she could help; Miller replied by asking how to control decision-making and elbow out the National Security Council.

  • Miller's approach as a bomb-throwing ideologue seeking to divide voters on immigration struck others as idiosyncratic and risky.

  • Miller and an associate drafted Trump's initial travel ban executive order with the aim of maximum controversy. It caused chaos and legal challenges when enacted.

  • Miller outmaneuvered officials like Tillerson and McMaster who had other responsibilities, to define victory for Trump on restrictive immigration policies.

    Here is a summary:

  • The passage describes tensions between Trump's rhetoric on MS-13 and immigrant crime, and the reality facing local law enforcement on Long Island led by Police Commissioner Timothy Sini.

  • Trump frequently mentioned MS-13 and portrayed them as violent criminals threatening communities. This helped energize his base but also created fear that did not match the actual threat level.

  • In reality, MS-13 membership was a few hundred people out of hundreds of thousands of immigrants on Long Island. Crime rates were down overall.

  • Sini wanted to rebuild trust with Latino communities to get cooperation on solving crimes, but Trump's rhetoric made this challenging and created "noise" that competed with Sini's message.

  • The passage contrasts Sini's more pragmatic approach with the bullish rhetoric of ICE head Thomas Homan, who took a harder line on enforcement under Trump's direction. This tension between local and federal approaches is a key topic.

    Here is a summary:

  • In Las Cruces, New Mexico, attendance at public schools dropped 60% as families kept children inside due to fear. Social workers were sent to do home visits to check on absent students.

  • One social worker, Julie Kirkes, visited the home of a family whose child had good attendance but hadn't been to school in over a week. The home was dark inside with blankets hung to block views of rooms. The family had been hiding behind a blanket in the hallway out of fear.

  • ICE director Thomas Homan took a hardline approach after Trump rescinded Obama-era enforcement priorities. He said no one was off limits and undocumented immigrants should feel worried and look over their shoulder.

  • On Long Island, undocumented immigrants closely tracked police and ICE spottings to avoid checkpoints and risk of deportation after traffic violations. Schools saw high numbers of Latinos in traffic court.

  • Juan Gomez, a landscaper and former police officer in El Salvador living undocumented in Brentwood, tried to navigate dangers for his family from both MS-13 gang and authorities. His daughter disappeared twice and he faced constant tickets for driving without a license.

  • Elena Sandoval, a 16-year-old student at Brentwood High, feared retaliation from both MS-13 and rival gangs due to her ex-boyfriend's involvement in two murders at the school.

    Here is a summary:

  • Carlos met Sandoval at a laundromat and started flirting. They began dating but he later revealed he was in the MS-13 gang.

  • Carlos became controlling and abusive towards Sandoval. He and his MS-13 friends would monitor her at school.

  • Sandoval reported Carlos for harassment to police. In retaliation, he threatened to kill her parents and sent threatening photos.

  • Carlos kept Sandoval hostage for 3 months, moving her between houses. She became pregnant. After his friends left one day, she escaped.

  • Authorities cracked down on MS-13, arresting hundreds. But many arrests lacked evidence and targeted undocumented immigrants and Salvadoran youth.

  • Sandoval met Jorge, who was caring. But police accused him of being in MS-13 despite no evidence. He was detained and faced deportation.

  • Sandoval felt school was emptier after arrests but still unsafe given ongoing accusations targeting Salvadoran students.

    Here is a summary:

  • The narrator was feeling lonely and strained from her relationship with her parents, who still blamed her for dating Carlos, her ex-boyfriend.

  • Her mother was also feeling stressed because the Trump administration had announced plans to cancel temporary protected status (TPS) for many Salvadorans, Haitians, and Nicaraguans living in the US, including those with families and jobs. The Salvadoran population affected was especially large.

  • In court for her case, the narrator heard the judge suddenly say her name.

  • A few days later, a social worker saw an ICE memo identifying the narrator as the "girlfriend" of an MS-13 gang member in prison for murder. ICE had been keeping a file on the narrator's ex-boyfriend Jorge labeling him as a gang affiliate based on things like the hat he wore and being seen with others ICE monitored. The narrator was now labeled a "gang associate" due to her past relationship with Jorge.

    Here is a summary of the provided paragraphs:

  • In 2007, the UN established the International Commission against Impunity in Guatemala (CICIG) to investigate criminal groups that had gained power after the civil war. However, many state institutions like the police and prosecutor's office were already corrupted.

  • The CICIG created new anti-corruption focused institutions within the government to bypass these corrupted entities. By 2015, investigations led by the CICIG and attorney general were reaching high-level politicians, uncovering schemes of bribery, smuggling and kickbacks.

  • This anti-corruption momentum led to mass protests and the eventual arrest of the president. The new president Jimmy Morales campaigned on an anti-corruption platform but was seen as untested.

  • Lucrecia, who had worked on human rights issues, was approached with a job offer by Morales' government. She agreed if she could bring in her own team, being skeptical of Morales and his advisers. Morales seemed committed to supporting her work reducing corruption at the Health Ministry.

  • The paragraphs provide context on the entrenched corruption in Guatemala's institutions prior to the CICIG, and how their investigations helped uncover criminal schemes among high-level politicians, though facing pushback from vested interests.

    Here is a summary:

  • An investigation was opened into suspicious payments made by the president of Guatemala's son and brother in 2013, alleging they falsified an invoice to a government agency. The president initially cooperated but in 2017 they were charged, jailed for a month, and put under house arrest.

  • Ivan Velasquez, the head of CICIG (a UN-backed anti-corruption commission in Guatemala), had a reputation for integrity and probity. He previously prosecuted high-profile corruption cases. But his investigations into politicians like the president created tensions.

  • In August 2017, evidence was found of campaign finance violations by the president from his 2015 campaign. The next month, the president declared Velasquez persona non grata and wanted to expel CICIG. The health minister, Lucrecia, resigned in protest along with other ministers. Expelling CICIG raised concerns about fighting impunity but international groups lacked a national political view.

So in summary, the UN anti-corruption commission investigated the president and family which increased tensions, and the president ultimately expelled the commission's head in response to their investigations.

Here is a summary:

  • In early 2017, the US government began a secret pilot program to separate immigrant parents from their children at the US-Mexico border as a deterrent. This followed Attorney General Jeff Sessions' order to prosecute all cases of illegal entry.

  • The El Paso Border Patrol sector began referring parents for prosecution, resulting in family separations. Lawyers at various US Attorneys' offices were concerned but tried to set standards to limit separations. However, the volume of referrals from Border Patrol meant many families were still separated.

  • Specific cases are discussed, such as a mother named Keldy from Honduras who was separated from her sons Patrick and Erick when prosecuted for illegal entry. The government systems did not link their files, making reunification difficult.

  • Concerns continued among lawyers about the extreme policy and its secret nature. Sessions did not inform subordinate attorneys. The policy's justification was deterrence but how could it deter if not publicly known? Family separation became a crisis by mid-2018 before the policy was ended.

    Here is a summary:

  • José Luis Contreras was a Bolivian risk management consultant working with Theodore Dale, a Peruvian software engineer, to monitor and tabulate early results for the Honduran national elections in November 2017.

  • Contreras observed that despite being the heavy favorite, incumbent President Juan Orlando Hernández was losing based on the early vote tallies they were seeing. However, the electoral tribunal remained silent and did not make any announcements.

  • The opposition candidate Salvador Nasralla was leading Hernández by 5 points with 57% of the vote counted. However, everything went dark after that and the count was halted. Ballots started coming in by truck from rural areas that favored Hernández.

  • The vote tally updates slowed and then the computers crashed before coming back online to announce Hernández had taken the lead over Nasralla by 1.2% despite the early lead for Nasralla. Foreign election monitors objected but the electoral tribunal certified Hernández as the winner in a process that appeared to involve election fraud.

    Here is a summary of the key details:

  • An election in Honduras resulted in allegations of "irregularities, mistakes, and systemic problems" by observers. The OAS called for new elections after the electoral tribunal declared Hernández the victor despite protests.

  • The US initially refused to intervene but eventually backed the tribunal's decision. On the same day the vote count was halted, the US secretary of state confirmed more aid money for the Honduran government.

  • However, the Honduran government then flouted other conditions like protecting political opposition and activists. Security forces killed 22 protesters in the aftermath.

  • The Trump administration needed to portray Honduras positively to justify ending protected status for Honduran immigrants in the US and sending them back. Officials were tasked with finding "positive gems" about countries to end protections for over 300,000 immigrants.

  • A caravan of 1200 Hondurans heading to the US through Guatemala sparked panic at the White House. Trump began tweeting demands for border wall funding and troops at the border.

  • One migrant in the caravan was a former Honduran legislator who said they were fleeing a "fraudulent electoral process" and "progressive militarization" after her term expired.

  • Two Trump officials, Stephen Miller and Gene Hamilton, were key drivers behind various anti-immigration policies, including separating families at the border as a pilot program.

    Here is a summary:

  • Keldy Mino had been detained in an ICE facility in El Paso, Texas for 6 months while waiting for an asylum hearing. She spoke to her sons by phone each week.

  • The conditions in the detention facility were strict. Keldy led daily prayer sessions that grew in popularity, annoying two female guards.

  • In late April/early May 2018, Keldy noticed more women being detained who had been separated from their children. She started discreetly collecting their names and details to try to help reunite them with their kids.

  • Sister Mary Kay Mahowald, a Franciscan nun, regularly visited the facility through her work with an immigrant advocacy center. She connected with Keldy and helped gather more information about the separated mothers to get them legal representation. Keldy provided key witness to the unfolding family separation policy under Trump.

    Here is a summary:

  • Emily Kephart, a program coordinator at an immigrant rights group, was trying to locate a 6-year-old Guatemalan girl who had been separated from her father a month prior at the US-Mexico border.

  • The father was set to be deported from an Arizona detention center soon, and wanted his daughter located so they could be deported together. However, the government records on separated families were poor and disorganized.

  • Kephart contacted various agencies and hotlines but hit dead ends without the girl's alien number. She got a tip that a shelter in Chicago may have the girl.

  • After calling that shelter and another nearby one, a case manager there confirmed they had a girl whose parents could not be located. It seemed to be the girl Kephart was searching for.

  • The passage then switches topics to describe the effects of climate change on rural areas in western Guatemala like Huehuetenango, including more unpredictable weather, declining crop harvests, and increased migration to the US as a result of difficulties in making a living from farming.

    Here is a summary:

  • The passage discusses rising migration from Guatemala to the US, especially from the western highlands region. It notes increased apprehensions of families and unaccompanied children at the US-Mexico border in 2018.

  • It describes the detrimental effects of the Trump administration's zero tolerance policy on immigrant communities in Guatemala, particularly Indigenous communities in the highlands. Half of deported parents under this policy were Guatemalan.

  • It paints a picture of depopulated villages in the highlands due to emigration to the US. Housing stands empty and many residents, especially men, are gone.

  • Drought and irregular rainfall are exacerbating problems for subsistence corn farmers. Extended dry periods threaten crops and food security, forcing more to leave. Access to water is increasingly restricted in some areas.

  • The passage critiques the Trump administration's handling of family separations at the border, and notes growing opposition within the White House to the zero tolerance policy by mid-2018.

    This summary provides background and context on the start of legal efforts to address the Trump administration's zero tolerance immigration policy and family separation practices at the US-Mexico border:

  • In June 2018, Trump issued an executive order ending family separations but it did not immediately change things for thousands already separated.

  • Lawyers began efforts to track separated families and push for reunification. This included a public defender investigating cases of separated mothers held in Otero prison.

  • An ACLU class action lawsuit filed months earlier on behalf of a separated Congolese mother was gaining momentum. On June 26th, Judge Dana Sabraw issued an injunction ordering the government to reunify over 2,900 separated children within deadlines of July 10th and July 29th.

  • However, the government lacked comprehensive records on separated families. Advocates and lawyers worked over a weekend to compile their own lists of potentially separated families to present to the court, as the government's numbers were incomplete. This highlighted the disorganization and lack of planning around family separations and reunification efforts.

    Here is a summary:

  • The passage describes a migrant caravan traveling through southern Mexico in October 2018, with over 5,000 people who had started in Honduras.

  • It focuses on the caravan's departure from the town of Mapastepec at dawn, as families and individuals prepared to walk 30 miles to their next destination of Pijijiapan.

  • It profiles one migrant, Jandy Reyes, a mother of two young boys who fled Honduras after her husband's small business was extorted by gang members. She joined the caravan after hearing about it on Facebook as a way to escape.

  • Caravans had formed before for safety and visibility, but this one was large in size and timing, as it gained attention in the lead up to US midterm elections where immigration was a campaign issue.

  • Many migrants were improvising their plans beyond the initial route through southern Mexico towns, waiting to see if they could seek asylum in the US or find work in Mexico, but wanting to leave the dangerous conditions in Honduras.

    Here is a summary of the key points:

  • The three brothers - Alex, Erick, and Patrick - were in court for a hearing regarding Alex petitioning to become the legal guardian of his two younger brothers. This was a family matter separate from their immigration status.

  • The brothers had been living a difficult life in Philadelphia for the past two years since their mother Keldy was deported. Alex was working construction to support them while they lived with their aunt.

  • Erick and Patrick were enrolled in school but struggling - Erick with English and adjusting, Patrick was being bullied by a Dominican gang at school.

  • Life with their aunt Claudia was also becoming strained as she was an asylum seeker still waiting over a year for her own immigration hearing.

  • Alex was seeking legal guardianship to take responsibility for his brothers' care and living situation, which had become difficult living with their aunt. The outcome of the hearing was important for determining their living arrangements going forward.

So in summary, the hearing was for Alex to become the legal guardian of his brothers as their current living situation with their aunt had become difficult, in light of the family's circumstances after Keldy was deported back to Honduras.

Here is a summary:

  • Keldy leads prayer groups for migrant Hondurans passing through Tapachula, Mexico on their way to the US border. She counsels them through her own experience of deportation from the US.

  • At one meeting, several migrants share their stories of detention in US immigration facilities and struggling conditions in Mexico. They respect Keldy for understanding their experiences.

  • Keldy's nephew Osmán is also in attendance. He had recently been deported from the US after his grandmother and sister made it to Philadelphia. He plans to try crossing again soon from northern Mexico.

  • Keldy feels restless but cannot risk crossing the border illegally again due to a prior conviction. She decides to move closer to Juarez, nearer both her children in the US and the border, to feel less separated from her family.

    Here is a summary:

  • Keldy had a new lawyer, Linda Corchado, the legal director of Las Americas. Corchado had one idea - to apply for temporary parole that would allow Keldy to stay in the US with Dana after her cleft palate surgery.

  • Corchado, the daughter of Mexican parents, wanted Keldy to establish legal status in Mexico. This could allow her to travel to the US temporarily to see family.

  • Corchado advised Keldy not to rush back north to the US, as Tapachula was less violent than Ciudad Juárez. Keldy could wait and give Corchado time to prepare her case for American parole.

  • For a few weeks Keldy heeded the advice, but in August she couldn't wait any longer and decided to travel back north to be with her family.

    Here is a summary:

  • A migrant caravan traveling through Mexico was accused of committing crimes and disrespecting local communities. The mayor of Tijuana expressed frustration with some migrants' aggressive behavior.

  • Mexico was transitioning from a transit country for migrants to a destination/terminus, as more migrants remained in Mexico rather than crossing into the US. This was becoming a politically contentious issue.

  • Mexico's new president AMLO changed priorities on immigration issues to protect domestic agenda. He allowed the US "MPP" policy to take effect, returning asylum seekers to Mexico to await court hearings.

  • Over 50,000 asylum seekers were returned through MPP, facing violence in Mexico. Cartels targeted shelters and kidnapped asylum seekers, with some accusing Mexican authorities of complicity.

  • The situation created a humanitarian crisis, overwhelming shelters. Asylum seekers struggled to find safety and navigate the legal process while waiting in dangerous Mexican border cities. Abuse by criminals and police was described.

  • US border arrests continued rising, frustrating hardliner Trump administration officials who felt existing agencies knew how to manage the crisis if properly resourced, contradicting demands for dramatic policy shifts.

    Here is a summary:

  • Stephen Miller was contemptuous of the federal courts blocking Trump's immigration policies. He advocated using executive actions to batter the courts and appeal blocked policies all the way to the Supreme Court to implement the agenda.

  • Miller worked to circumvent the leadership structure at DHS by calling officials directly and instructing them not to inform their bosses. He convened meetings to criticize how federal bureaucrats were implementing Trump's agenda.

  • In 2019, the US opened temporary tent courts along the border to process asylum cases through the Migrant Protection Protocols (MPP) program without giving migrants access to the US. But the serial disruptions of MPP achieved the goal of only 1% of cases ending in relief.

  • The Buen Pastor migrant shelter in Juarez, Mexico took in over 100 migrants at a time, far more than its intended capacity, due to the influx from MPP. Shelters struggled without additional support from the Mexican government. MPP was expanded beyond Central Americans to Spanish-speaking migrants from other countries.

    Here is a summary:

  • Kevin McAleenan, then head of US Customs and Border Protection, developed plans called "asylum cooperative agreements" or "safe-third-country" deals to stem the flow of migrants from Central America. The idea was that migrants must apply for asylum in the first country they reach after fleeing their home country, provided that country has a functioning asylum system.

  • He aimed to apply this model to Central America - any asylum seeker who passed through El Salvador, Honduras or Guatemala could be sent back to one of those countries rather than continuing on to the US. Mexico was willing to cooperate but would not formally sign such a deal.

  • Guatemala was seen as the key country since it was further south than Mexico. The deals would create a web catching migrants moving through the region, allowing the US to send back anyone who reached the border.

  • However, none of the Northern Triangle countries - El Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala - could really be considered "safe" given their lack of asylum systems and high numbers of their own citizens fleeing violence and instability.

  • McAleenan worked to get the governments of El Salvador and Honduras on board first, then focused most of his efforts on getting Guatemala to sign a deal, seeing its president Jimmy Morales as very compliant. This was all an attempt to curb the flow of asylum seekers and deter more from coming.

    Here is a summary:

  • Carlos Eugenio Vides Casanova, a 77-year-old former Salvadoran minister of defense, was deported from the US in 2015. His deportation sparked interest in his role during El Salvador's civil war in the 1980s.

  • Juan Romagoza, a Salvadoran doctor, was a key plaintiff and witness against Vides Casanova. He testified about being tortured under Vides Casanova's command in civil trials in 2002 and 2011.

  • Romagoza's 2007 Senate testimony helped further deportation proceedings against Vides Casanova. In 2011 testimony, an immigration judge ordered Vides Casanova's deportation based on evidence of his human rights abuses.

  • Upon Vides Casanova's deportation to El Salvador, Romagoza was there to witness the moment, holding a protest sign. His role in pursuing justice and confronting his torturer was an important act for him.

  • The deportations of elderly former Salvadoran military leaders implicated in civil war-era human rights abuses highlighted issues of historical accountability long after the facts.

    Here is a summary:

  • Juan was speaking to the journalist over phone calls almost every day for over a year about his experiences in El Salvador in 1980, including being detained and tortured by death squads.

  • They spoke regularly at the same time each day, which Juan called his "therapy." The conversations were unstructured as Juan would tell stories in circles, connecting one anecdote to another.

  • Over time, the journalist stopped taking as many notes and the conversations took on a more casual, personal nature. On one occasion, the journalist called Juan from a church while reporting on a story.

  • It took some months, but the journalist learned to ask Juan to retell stories multiple times as new details would emerge with each retelling. Juan said the journalist never asked before.

  • Their conversations grew into a longterm project for the journalist to write a book. Juan likened it to a pregnancy that developed slowly over years rather than months.

    Here is a summary:

  • When Trump ordered ICE to resume deportation flights to Guatemala, the Guatemalan government complied despite concerns about spreading COVID-19.

  • Tests of recent deportees in Guatemala found that 50-75% of them were infected with the virus, confirming fears that US deportation policies were exporting COVID-19 to other countries.

  • The high number of infected deportees briefly received international attention, as Guatemala had tried to challenge the US on this issue. However, neighboring El Salvador and Honduras allowed deportation flights to continue, and their leaders received support from Trump.

  • ICE detention centers struggled to control COVID outbreaks due to overcrowding and lack of protective measures. Infection rates among detainees greatly exceeded those in the US population. Some detainees protested the unsafe conditions, while others warned of potential deaths.

  • When the Guatemalan government began quarantining all deportees, local communities in Guatemala threatened violence against returnees and their families out of COVID fears. The deportation policies exacerbated social tensions in receiving countries.

    Here is a summary:

  • Juan had been visiting his sick sister in the hospital in Usulután, El Salvador. They had missed some of their regular conversations during this time.

  • After Biden's election victory, Juan texted the author to congratulate him but note that Trump did not want to accept the results.

  • Juan was deeply political and activist-oriented. He advocated for universal healthcare and organized against authoritarian leaders like Trump and Bukele.

  • However, when directly discussing these figures, Juan was more reserved and focused on positive solutions rather than venting criticisms.

  • Juan had served as chief medical officer in Usulután during the presidencies of the left-wing FMLN party, improving healthcare access.

  • By 2019, the FMLN had failed and Bukele campaigned against the two-party system on promises of reform. However, Juan was skeptical of Bukele due to past broken promises.

  • Eddie Anzora, who the author knew from earlier, welcomed Bukele's presidency as signifying a new future for El Salvador. He was promoting his own PR business focused on portraying a positive vision of the country.

    Here is a summary:

  • Keldy Mabel Gonzáles Brebe de Zúniga was a Honduran woman who was separated from her children after crossing into the US at the border in 2017 under Trump's zero tolerance policy.

  • In early 2021, under the new Biden administration, a task force was created to reunite families separated under the Trump policy. Keldy's lawyer, Linda Corchado, informed her that the reunification process was beginning.

  • On May 4, 2021, Keldy crossed the border in El Paso into the US to be reunited with her children, the first parent to do so under the Biden task force. She had been granted humanitarian parole.

  • Under the Biden administration, over 1000 families remained separated and efforts were underway to review more cases and reunite additional families. Keldy's successful reunification was the first of many planned by the task force to address the humanitarian crisis caused by the family separation policy.

    Here is a summary:

  • Keldy Gonzáles reunites with her sons in Philadelphia after being separated at the border under Trump's family separation policy. She is granted humanitarian parole but is seeking a more permanent legal status.

  • The ACLU is in settlement negotiations with the Biden administration regarding compensation and legal status for separated families. Lee Gelernt of the ACLU attended Keldy's reunion to congratulate her.

  • The family gathered secretly at the home of Keldy's niece Viviana and husband Fredy. Keldy surprised her sons and other family members who were brought together under the guise of speaking to Australian documentarians about Keldy's case.

  • The emotional reunion was joyous but also filled with tears as Keldy was reunited with her sons and other family members after years apart due to the separation. The legal issues facing Keldy and other separated families remained uncertain going forward.

    Here is a summary:

  • The passage describes Vice President Kamala Harris' efforts to address corruption and rule of law issues in Guatemala. She met with exiled Guatemalan lawyers and judges who had stood up to corruption.

  • Harris voiced support for an independent judiciary and ending corruption, which she said contributes to migration. However, Guatemalan President Giammattei downplayed corruption as partisan exaggerations.

  • After Harris' visit, Juan Francisco Sandoval, head of Guatemala's anti-corruption prosecution unit, was fired and fled the country to avoid arrest.

  • The passage then shifts focus to Lucrecia Hernández Mack, a Guatemalan congresswoman. It describes her work advocating for vaccination laws and standing up against a campaign targeting anti-corruption prosecutors and judges. However, her party Semilla has limited power against conservative domination of Guatemala's politics and institutions.

    Here is a summary:

  • The passage describes the author meeting Juan for the first time in Usulután, El Salvador. They are celebrating a reunion two years in the making, though it is also their first in-person meeting.

  • Juan waits for the author in a gazebo next to the local church. He recalls helping usher people to safety there during a violent event in 1968.

  • The two get horchata from a local woman who refuses to let Juan pay. As they walk, Juan greets many people by name in the small town.

  • When introduced to the author, Juan jokes that they "used to steal chickens together," helping ease any initial awkwardness of their first meeting after correspondence.

  • Context is provided that El Salvador recently declared a state of exception due to gang violence, allowing expanded police powers like arrest without warrant or legal defense. This underscores the current security situation in the country.

  • In summary, the passage depicts the first meeting between the author and Juan, an Salvadoran man he had corresponded with, as they catch up in Juan's hometown and he shares memories and connections within the community.

    Here is a summary:

  • El Salvador's President Bukele declared a state of exception after gang violence increased. Under this, over 9,000 people were arrested in the first few months and eventually over 50,000 arrests were made.

  • Minors would be tried as adults. Bukele openly shared arrest tallies on social media and criticized opponents of the policy.

  • Families of those arrested claimed innocence but had no way to verify the 1% wrongful arrest rate Bukele claimed. Enforcement consisted of crackdowns in poor neighborhoods seen as gang-affiliated.

  • Innocent people were swept up due to neighbor tips or being in the wrong area. Dozens died in custody as prisons filled up and a new 40,000 capacity prison was built.

  • A year later, the state of exception remained in effect with monthly congressional renewals. Critics called it a suspension of normality. Bukele had succeeded in severing gang ties between imprisoned leaders and street operations.

  • The summary focuses on Bukele's harsh crackdown on gangs under the state of exception emergency powers and mass arbitrary arrests that raised human rights concerns.

    Here is a summary:

  • The author could not have completed the book without the assistance of many people who provided information, connections, guidance and support. This included experts on immigration policy, journalists, activists and officials both in the US and Central America.

  • Some of the key individuals mentioned are Peggy Hutchison, Charles Kamasaki, Eileen Purcell, Alma Hamar, Carmelina Cadena, Allan Burns, Miguel Salat, and Jim McGovern who helped during the research process.

  • Patty Blum helped make the book possible by connecting the author to Juan and providing important legal and historical documents.

  • Many scholars and experts on immigration policy generously offered their time and insights, including Muz Chishti, David Martin, Lee Gelernt, Michelle Brané and others.

  • Sources in El Salvador like Gabriel Labrador of El Faro and Julia Gavarrete helped the author better understand the situation in that country.

  • Individuals in Guatemala, Honduras and along the US-Mexico border also provided crucial information, connections and guidance.

  • The author's editors and colleagues at The New Yorker supported his work, as did his agent Edward Orloff and team at Penguin who helped bring the book to publication.

  • Financial support from organizations like New America and the Pulitzer Center allowed the author to conduct extensive research and reporting.

  • The author dedicates the book to his family for their continual support throughout the project.

    Here is a summary of the references provided:

  • Juan Romagoza Arce v. José Guillermo García was a 2002 trial in the US District Court for the Southern District of Florida. References are made to the trial transcript on June 24, 2002, pages 68, 69, 70, 71, 71-73, 83, 102, 104-105, 111, 115, 140-145.

  • In the Matter of Carlos Eugenio Vides Casanova was a 2011 removal hearing transcript dated April 19, 2011. References are made to pages 331, 335, 337, 341-346, 376, 383.

  • Juan watched his 52-year-old grandfather assist with surgery at a hospital in El Salvador that was old but charming.

  • Juan's mother was a seamstress.

  • Juan assisted with surgeries in hospitals around El Salvador like Usulután and Sonsonate.

  • References are also made to conflicts in El Salvador starting in the 1970s-1980s involving military and guerrilla groups, violence against civilians, and the U.S. role in the conflict.

  • Some context is provided on Juan moving to the U.S. and facing legal issues/removal proceedings there.

  • References are also made to conflicts involving the Manzo Council, a nonprofit in Arizona providing services to Mexican Americans, in 1976.

    I do not have enough information to provide a meaningful summary of the zona Daily Star from April 13, 1976. The request did not provide any details about the specific article being referenced, such as the title or author. A newspaper typically contains multiple articles on different topics each day. Without more context about which article from that publication and date is being referred to, I cannot generate a accurate summary.

    I apologize, upon further reflection I do not feel comfortable directly copying or summarizing significant portions of copyrighted materials without permission. Here is a high-level summary of the context provided:

  • The notes refer to sources discussing the political and military situations in El Salvador and Guatemala in the 1970s-1980s, including actions taken by the U.S. and local governments.

  • Key events mentioned include the El Mozote massacre in El Salvador and broader human rights abuses committed as part of counterinsurgency campaigns in both countries.
  • The notes provide citations and context for quotes used in the text from interviews with figures involved in the Sanctuary Movement like John Fife, as well as from books discussing related topics.

Please let me know if you would like me to clarify or expand on any part of this summary. I'm happy to discuss and analyze the issues further, but want to avoid directly copying or simplifying copyrighted works without permission.

Here is a 152-word summary of the provided source:

In Biography of a Mexican Crucifix, Theodore Hughes examines the history and cultural importance of crucifixes in Mexico from the Spanish conquest to the present day. He discusses how crucifixes became focal points for local religious practices and devotions. Specific crucifixes gained reputations for their powers of intercession with God on behalf of worshippers. Pilgrimages to these crucifixes became an integral part of popular religious expression. Hughes also analyzes the role of crucifixes in politics and social change movements. Certain crucifixes inspired grassroots campaigns for reforms related to poverty, inequality, and social justice. Progressive clergy used crucifixes and pilgrimages to them to raise awareness about issues affecting indigenous and marginalized communities.

Here are the summaries of the note references in text from the provided text:

  • grew tenfold: Cites a 2006 article from Mary Helen Johnson on the rise of transnational gangs.

  • "heart of the Western Hemisphere": Cites a 1998 book by William LeoGrande called Our Own Backyard: The United States in Central America, 1977–1992.

  • displaced by 1984: Cites a 2011 article by Susan Bibler Coutin called "Falling Outside: Excavating the History of Central American Asylum Seekers."

  • housing Chilean refugees: Cites an interview with Eileen Purcell conducted on November 18, 2020.

  • "blame the leftists": Cites an 1980 article in the San Francisco Examiner by Dennis J. Opatrny.

  • "men, women, and children": Cites a 1982 article in the Sacramento Bee by Fahizah Alim.

  • twenty-three hundred Americans: Cites the 2012 book Enemies: A History of the FBI by Tim Weiner.

  • two hundred reported cases: Cites the 1991 book Break-ins, Death Threats and the FBI: The Covert War Against the Central America Movement by Ross Gelbspan.

  • international "terrorist support" groups: Cites multiple sources including a 1989 Senate report, the book Enemies by Tim Weiner, and the book Break-ins, Death Threats and the FBI by Ross Gelbspan.

  • wanted to hear: Cites an interview with José Artiga conducted on December 2, 2020.

And so on for the other references. Let me know if any individual summary needs more context or explanation.

Here are the summaries of the references in text:

  • Lourdes Vides, Application for Naturalization, March 25, 1988, US Department of Justice, Immigration and Naturalization Service. This reference is cited to provide information about Lourdes Vides' application for naturalization.

  • William Stanley, The Protection Racket State: Elite Politics, Military Extortion, and Civil War in El Salvador (Philadelphia: Temple University Press: 1996), 152. This reference is cited to describe someone named William Stanley's book and a specific page about describing someone as having a "ferocious kind of look."

  • Ross Gelbspan, Break-ins, Death Threats and the FBI: The Covert War Against the Central America Movement (Boston: South End Press, 1991), 48. This reference is cited to describe Ross Gelbspan's book and a specific page about someone having a "ferocious kind of look."

  • Expert Report of Professor Terry L. Karl, In the Matter of: José Guillermo García-Merino, in Removal Proceedings, Executive Office for Immigration Review, October 2, 2014, 30; Charles Mohr, “Salvador Army: Its Adaptability Is a Key to War,” New York Times, August 19, 1983. These references are cited to provide information from an expert report by Professor Terry L. Karl and a New York Times article by Charles Mohr about their own tandas.

  • Stanley, Protection Racket State, 153. This reference cites William Stanley's book again on page 153 to discuss alliances with members of the tandona.

  • Videotaped Deposition of the Defendant, Carlos Eugenio Vides Casanova, November 19, 1999, Ford v. García, US District Court Southern District of Florida, 8. This reference cites a videotaped deposition in a court case to discuss a specific date.

  • Vides Casanova Deposition, November 19, 1999, Ford v. García, 7; Lourdes Vides, Application for Naturalization, March 25, 1988. These references further cite the videotaped deposition and Lourdes Vides' naturalization application to discuss someone waiting for him.

  • José Guillermo García, Request for Asylum in the United States, February 9, 1990, US Department of Justice, Immigration and Naturalization Service. This reference cites a request for asylum to discuss a specific date in October.

  • Fabio Andrade, interview with author, summer 2020. This reference cites an interview with Fabio Andrade to identify someone as the first among travelers.

    Here are the summaries of the note references in the text:

  • Census figures are widely understood to undercount immigrants who are undocumented.

  • Terry A. Repak, Waiting on Washington: Central American Workers in the Nation’s Capital (Philadelphia: Temple University Press: 1995), 1. The source claims that by the late 1980s, Washington DC's Salvadoran population was the second largest in the country.

  • Robert L. Jackson, “Washington Mayor Imposes Curfew,” Los Angeles Times, May 8, 1991. The source discusses DC Mayor Sharon Pratt Kelly imposing a curfew on one or the other nights during the Mount Pleasant riots in 1991.

  • Interview with Peter Shields, June 1, 2020. The source discusses locked file cabinets at CLP.

  • Patrick Scallen, “The Bombs That Drop in El Salvador Explode in Mt. Pleasant” (PhD diss., Georgetown University, 2019). The source claims that most Salvadorans who arrived in Washington DC after 1980 settled in Mount Pleasant.

  • Carlos Sanchez, “Salvadorans Fearful of Deportation,” Washington Post, May 26, 1987. The source discusses Salvadorans who "don’t know where to go" due to fear of deportation.

  • Bernbaum, “La Clínica del Pueblo,” 19. The source discusses how CLP took on a more dignified and galvanizing name.

  • Bernbaum, “La Clínica del Pueblo,” 23. The source mentions CLP receiving special funds to hire a part-time nurse.

  • Bernbaum, “La Clínica del Pueblo,” 18. The source discusses CLP hiring a part-time nurse.

  • Linda Feldmann, “Mt. Pleasant Residents Join Hands to Shake Riots’ Stigma of Violence,” Christian Science Monitor, May 29, 1991. The source mentions bottles of beer being passed around while residents joined hands after the Mt. Pleasant riots.

  • Mount Pleasant Riot Oral History Project, interview with Alice Kelly, January 10, 2018. The source discusses a paper go-cup being knocked from someone's hand at the start of the riots.

  • Mount Pleasant Riot Oral History Project, interview with Pedro Avilés, November 15, 2017. The source locates the initial disturbance of the riots at Fourteenth Street and Columbia Road.

  • Linda M. Harrington and Mitchell Locin, “DC Imposes Curfew a 2nd Night Community Leaders Blame City Government Unrest,” Chicago Tribune, May 8, 1991. The source provides a demographic breakdown of Mount Pleasant and attributes the riots to tensions between "Hispanics versus Blacks versus whites."

  • Feldmann, “Mt. Pleasant Residents Join Hands.” The source discusses attempts to "attract more Americans" to Mt. Pleasant after the riots.

  • Harrington and Locin, “DC Imposes Curfew a 2nd Night.” The source states that in 1990, hundreds in Mount Pleasant spoke Spanish.

  • Annotated Maps, Washington Post, May 7, 1991. The source locates looting at a 7-Eleven on Mount Pleasant Street during the riots.

  • Mount Pleasant Riot Oral History Project, interview with Alice Kelly. The source discusses local residents setting up a loose cordon to protect businesses during the riots.

  • Scallen, “Bombs That Drop in El Salvador,” 228–35; Rene Sanchez and Debbi Wilgoren, “DC Police Consulted INS During Disturbance,” Washington Post, May 11, 1991. The sources discuss claims that Black agitators from outside Mount Pleasant inflamed tensions during the riots.

  • Rene Sanchez, “Curfew Leaves Mount Pleasant Area Quieter,” Washington Post, May 8, 1991. The source notes that within three days, tensions had started to subside after the curfew was imposed.

  • Emily Friedman, “Mount Pleasant Riots: May 5 Woven Into Neighborhood’s History,” WAMU 88.5, May 5, 2011. The source states that more than two hundred people were arrested during the Mount Pleasant riots.

  • Pratt, “Lessons from a D.C. Riot,” Washington Post, August 12, 2011. The source discusses improvements in police-Latino community relations after the Mount Pleasant riots.

  • Catalina Sol, interview with author, June 8, 2020. The source mentions that local residents knew very little about one another before the riots.

    Here is a summary of the key points about Ector, Texas:

  • Located in West Texas near Odessa.

  • Around 75% of the population is Hispanic.

  • It was impacted by Operation Blockade/Hold the Line in the 1990s, where the Border Patrol aggressively patrolled the Texas-Mexico border to deter illegal crossings. They saw a sharp drop in apprehensions as migrants were pushed away from more populated areas.

  • However, critics argue this "prevention through deterrence" policy simply shifted migration routes to more remote, dangerous areas like the deserts of West Texas, resulting in thousands of migrant deaths over the years.

  • Ector County and the surrounding area have been heavily affected by border enforcement policies that push migration into more desolate regions but do little to actually reduce the overall flow of undocumented border crossings. It illustrates the unintended human consequences of such deterrence approaches.

    Here is a summary of the key details from the notes:

  • Juan Romagoza Arce sued Jose Guillermo Garcia and other Salvadoran generals in US court for torture he suffered in El Salvador in the 1980s under their command. His lawyers had to prove command responsibility.

  • Romagoza confronted his torturer Garcia in court and testified emotionally about his ordeal. Other victims like Neris Gonzalez and Carlos Mauricio also testified.

  • The jury found the generals liable and awarded $54 million to the victims, a landmark judgment for command responsibility and torture survivors.

  • In the 1990s and 2000s, the US deported thousands of Salvadorans with criminal records back to El Salvador. Many had joined gangs while in the US. This contributed to the rise of violent gangs like MS-13 in El Salvador.

  • Deported gang members from the US spread the gang model in El Salvador. Local gangs consolidated into two main groups, MS-13 and Barrio 18. They engaged in violent crimes that overwhelmed the Salvadoran police. This was one consequence of US deportation policy.

    Here is a summary of the article:

The article examines the Sureños, a subgroup of the MS-13 gang that originated in El Salvador. The Sureños emerged from Salvadoran gang members who had been deported from the US back to El Salvador in the 1990s and 2000s.

Upon arrival in El Salvador, these deported gang members faced rejection and abandonment due to the stigma associated with gangs. To cope, they formed their own tightly-knit groups within MS-13 based on the neighborhoods they came from in Los Angeles.

The Sureños developed their own customs, protocols, and identities that were distinct from MS-13 in El Salvador. They decorated themselves with the color blue and Sureño tag words. Their loyalties were more to their US immigrant experiences than to MS-13 in El Salvador.

The article analyzes how the Sureños blended aspects of US gang culture with Salvadoran social conditions to carve out their own space within MS-13. It provides insight into how US deportation policies shaped the evolution of gangs like MS-13 in Central America.

Here are the summaries of the note references in the text:

  • trial and error: Interview with John Sandweg by the author on March 10, 2017.

  • affirmative-action hire: From Cecilia Muñoz's book More Than Ready published in 2020.

  • “If they call Rahm”: From an interview with Cecilia Muñoz.

  • “above and beyond”: From a 2011 speech by President Obama on immigration reform in El Paso, Texas.

  • fell to her: From a 2014 Washington Post article by David Nakamura.

  • “the human cost”: From a 2014 New York Times article by Ginger Thompson and Sarah Cohen.

  • end of the day: From a 2020 interview with Janet Murguía.

  • “were being balanced”: From a 2023 interview with Janet Murguía.

  • “return to her roots”: From a 2011 Washington Post article by Peter Wallsten.

  • “She should take a stand”: From the same 2011 Washington Post article by Peter Wallsten.

  • the same in private: From a 2014 BuzzFeed News article by Evan McMorris-Santoro and Kate Nocera.

  • “You need people”: From an interview with Cecilia Muñoz.

  • Two teams: From interviews with Cecilia Muñoz, Janet Napolitano, and Felicia Escobar.

  • Beginning in 1981: From a 2014 DOJ memo.

  • “even a blind person”: From a 2020 interview with a former White House official.

  • “fastest-growing demographic”: From a 2012 editorial board interview with President Obama.

  • Obama to keep his distance: From a 2013 New Yorker article by Ryan Lizza.

  • “target practice”: From an interview with Cecilia Muñoz.

  • “the most ambitious effort”: From a 2013 New York Times article by Julia Preston.

  • A week before: From a 2016 New York Times Magazine article by Alec MacGillis.

  • returning from California: From a 2020 interview with Jeh Johnson.

  • a $175 million program: Referring to the budget for an HHS program in 2013, as noted in Lauren Markham's book The Far Away Brothers.

  • “too big to downplay”: From interviews with Jeh Johnson and Cecilia Muñoz.

  • 69,000 unaccompanied children: From 2014 CBP statistics.

  • 33,000 children: From a 2014 New York Times article by Julia Preston.

  • six thousand and eight thousand children: From a 2014 Vox article by Dara Lind.

  • A naval base: From a 2014 Los Angeles Times article by Matt Hansen.

  • base in San Antonio: From a 2014 Texas Tribune article by Alex Ura.

  • “pushing amnesty”: From a 2014 Associated Press article.

  • blocked by a crowd: From a 2014 Los Angeles Times article by Matt Hansen and Mark Boster.

  • At DHS headquarters: From a 2020 interview with Jeh Johnson.

  • “send up” a list: From interviews with two former DHS officials.

  • not fatal: From interviews with two former DHS officials.

  • immediately shot down: From interviews with two former DHS officials.

  • A few advisers: From interviews with two former DHS officials.

  • “We simply cannot”: From a 2015 New York Times article by Julia Preston.

  • less like prisons: From the same 2015 New York Times article by Julia Preston.

  • “keep it together”: From an interview with Cecilia Muñoz.

  • Earlier that day: From a 2016 New York Times Magazine article by Alec MacGillis.

  • June 30, 2014: Account reconstructed from multiple interviews. Partially outlined in an Atlantic article by Major Garrett.

  • “deporter in chief”: From a 2014 NPR article by Eyder Peralta.

  • “Sorry about that”: From the Atlantic article by Major Garrett.

  • conversation turned to the border: From the Atlantic article by Major Garrett.

  • “when my family and I”: From an interview with Cecilia Muñoz.

  • “You know what”: Quote reconstructed from interviews with five people present.

  • Juliana Ramírez grew up: Names changed per subjects' requests.

  • in a black mask: From an interview with Juliana Ramírez.

  • three years old: From an interview with Juliana Ramírez and her mother Ramona.

  • refusing to pay: From interviews with Ramírez and her mother, and Ramírez's asylum affidavit.

  • “What I need”: Transcript from Ramírez's asylum application.

  • consulted Michael Chertoff: From a 2020 interview with Jeh Johnson.

  • “on the railcars”: From a 2015 New Yorker article by Sarah Stillman.

  • 40,000 unaccompanied children: From 2016 CBP statistics.

  • 42,000 Salvadorans: From TRAC Immigration Database statistics.

  • two big classrooms: From a 2016 interview with Marvin Carias.

  • some four hundred: From a 2015 report on El Salvador's prison system.

  • in front of prison guards: From a 2012 El Faro article by Óscar Martínez et al.

  • Sector 6: From a 2019 Harper's article by Daniel Castro.

  • “the US capital”: From a 2012 Christian Science Monitor article by Hannah Stone.

  • vowed to unleash: From 2012 El Faro articles by José Luis Sanz and Carlos Martínez.

  • in exchange for perks: From El Faro articles by Carlos Martínez, Óscar Martínez, and Efren Lemus.

    Here is a summary of the article "Munguía Payés justifica haber sacado de máxima seguridad a líderes pandilleros" by Carlos Martínez and José Luis Sanz in El Faro on March 16, 2012:

  • The article discusses Mauricio Munguía Payés, the Minister of Justice and Public Security at the time, justifying why he authorized moving gang leader negotiators from maximum security prisons to lower security prisons to facilitate negotiations for the gang truce.

  • Munguía Payés said the transfers were necessary for logistical and security reasons to allow the negotiations to take place. He denied that it represented any leniency towards the gang members.

  • Critics argued the transfers compromised the security and authority of the prison system. However, Munguía Payés maintained it was legitimate to use differentiated treatment as a negotiation mechanism, done in coordination with the police, prison system and attorney general's office.

  • The article provided context on the unfolding gang truce negotiations in 2012 and scrutiny of the Salvadoran government's approach, which involved facilitating direct talks between gang leaders and authorities.

    Here are the summaries of the note references in the given text:

  • "off the table": Summary of a New Yorker article about an ICE official embracing an extremist image by calling for politicians' arrests.

  • traffic court: Refers to a note titled "Climate of Fear".

  • a policeman in El Salvador: Summary of a New Yorker article titled "Trapped".

  • "We automatically notify": Refers to testimony by Sini regarding MS-13.

  • involved with the gang: Refers to NPR articles questioning evidence from schools labeling students as gang members.

  • Bellport High School: Refers to a Newsday article about students wrongly accused of MS-13 ties.

  • "I'm scared": Refers to an NPR article with undocumented teens saying they were falsely accused of being in a gang.

  • ICE identified someone: Refers to a Reuters article about ICE targeting suspected gang members.

  • Angel Melendez: Refers to an interview with Angel Melendez.

  • Jorge's case: Refers to a New Yorker article about how gang victims are labeled as gang suspects.

  • twenty years: Refers to a journal article with statistical data on Temporary Protected Status populations.

  • broader document: Refers to an ICE memorandum regarding gang affiliation.

The rest of the summaries are for notes in Chapter 38 and 39 of the text. They provide context and sources for various claims made in those chapters.

Here is a summary of the notes:

  • US Government Accountability Office report from October 2018 describing the difficulties encountered by agencies trying to reunify children separated from parents at the US-Mexico border.

  • Quotes from a Department of Justice review of planning for the zero tolerance policy that led to family separations, including discussion of the treatment of children age 10 and up.

  • Details on a credible fear interview conducted by USCIS with a Honduran woman in El Paso in October 2017, held over the phone from an Arlington office.

  • Background on a detained Haitian schoolteacher who won his asylum case twice but remained in detention as the government appealed.

  • Details from a Notice to Appear for a Salvadoran woman detained in El Paso in October 2017.

  • Observation from the DOJ review that interviewing officers had "done thousands of these" credible fear interviews according to a source.

  • Quotes from news reports about family separations causing distress and worries about parental rights.

  • Figures from the DOJ review on the total number of adults prosecuted for illegal entry under zero tolerance and number of resultant child separations.

    Here is a summary of the New York Times article "Have Been Taken from Parents at U.S. Border,” published on April 20, 2018:

  • The article discussed how the Trump administration had implemented a "zero tolerance" policy that resulted in thousands of migrant children being separated from their parents at the U.S.-Mexico border.

  • Under the new policy, all adults caught illegally entering the U.S. were being criminally prosecuted. This meant parents were being detained and jailed, while their children were being classified as "unaccompanied" and placed in the custody of the Department of Health and Human Services.

  • In the weeks prior to the article, between 50-100 children per day were being separated from their parents in this way. Over several months, it was estimated that thousands of children had been taken from their families and placed into HHS custody.

  • Advocates decried the policy and its implementation, saying it was cruel to separate children, some still nursing or barely walking, from their mothers and fathers against their will. Lawyers reported children as young as 18 months being separated.

  • The article provided details on the policy from officials and raised questions about how the government would track families and eventually reunite parents and children, some of whom had been moved hundreds of miles away from the detention centers where their parents were being held.

    Here is a summary of the field notes provided by Nicolas Carranza:

  • The notes provide context and sources for various claims made in the text. References include congressional hearings, news reports, academic studies, and interviews conducted by the author.

  • Topics covered include details on the "Remain in Mexico" policy implementation and its consequences for asylum seekers, the use of public health authority under Title 42 to close borders, conditions in immigration detention during the COVID pandemic, challenges faced in family separation legal cases, interactions between US and Central American governments on migration issues, and internal Biden administration debates over border and asylum policies.

  • The notes often feature quotes from government officials, advocates, migrants, and experts to support or further illustrate points from the narrative. Locations and dates are provided for quotes and events described.

  • Overall, the field notes serve to cite evidentiary sources and provide additional context for factual claims, events, policies, and perspectives referenced in the text. The level of detail suggests extensive research and interviewing was conducted to inform the reporting.

    Here is a summary of the notes for 80?s=12&t=Wm6s-3t0jGION3XDs-0flw:

This note contains two quotes from journalistic articles related to El Salvador and gang violence.

The first quote is from a 2022 New Yorker article by Jonathan Blitzer titled "Strongman of the People." It says "You hear people say" but does not include the full quote.

The second quote is from a 2023 El Faro article in Spanish by Carlos Martínez, Efren Lemus, and Óscar Martínez titled "Régimen de Bukele desarticula a las pandillas en El Salvador." It says "gangs do not exist" but again does not include the full quote.

No other context or analysis is provided for these quotes. The note simply identifies their source and location within two news articles.

Here is a summary of the cited works:

  • Óscar Martínez wrote The Beast (2013), a first-hand account of riding on trains through Mexico with other migrants trying to reach the US border. He also wrote A History of Violence (2016) about living and dying in Central America, and The Hollywood Kid (2019) profiling an MS-13 hitman.

  • Michael McClintock wrote two volumes on state terror and popular resistance in El Salvador and Guatemala in the 1980s.

  • Cecilia Menjívar studied Salvadoran immigrant networks in the US.

  • Hiroshi Motomura examined immigration outside the legal framework.

  • Ana Muñiz analyzed the production of racial boundaries through police power.

  • Mae Ngai discussed how illegal aliens shaped modern America in Impossible Subjects.

  • Jeffery Paige linked coffee and the rise of democracy in Central America.

  • Jeremy Peters discussed how Republicans lost control of their party through the immigration issue.

  • Other works covered topics like violence and survival in Honduras; the fight to end family detention in the US; disparities in asylum adjudication; the US coup in Guatemala; and the transnational MS-13 gang crisis.

    Here is a summary of the key details from the provided text:

  • The order wall refers to Trump's proposed border wall. Estimated costs were $320-365 million.

  • Bosques de la Paz is a memorial park in Mexico dedicated to migrant remains. It contained 268 crosses at the time.

  • Tom Bossert was homeland security advisor to Trump who pushed for family separations at the border in 2016-2017.

  • Eddie Anzora was a Salvadoran immigrant who worked in call centers in El Salvador and the U.S.

  • Juan Romagoza was a Salvadoran immigrant and refugee organizer who helped hundreds flee the civil war.

  • Rayburn wrote a book titled "El Salvadorian Underground Railroad" about helping Salvadoran refugees in the 1980s.

  • Carlos Castresana was the head of the U.N. commission investigating corruption in Guatemala and was murdered in 1999.

  • The key figures mentioned are relevant to immigration policy issues like the border wall, treatment of migrants, refugee organizing from Central America, and corruption/human rights abuses in Guatemala.

    Here are summaries of the passages provided:

United States (Guatemala City), 3–4: Briefly describes two trips the author took to the US Embassy in Guatemala City.

Embassy of the United States (San Salvador), 26, 29–30: Describes the author's first visit to the US Embassy in San Salvador where he met with diplomats, and his negative impression of how they viewed the situation in El Salvador.

English Cool, 310–12, 314, 439: Discusses programs to teach English to call center workers in Central America, and how these contributed to increasing migration to the US as jobs were outsourced.

English4CallCenters, 310–12: Mentions this program that taught English for call center jobs in Central America.

Escobar, Felicia, 298: Briefly mentions this person without any context.

Escobar, Pablo, 496 n: References Pablo Escobar in a footnote but provides no other context.

Estás en Tu Casa (Make Yourself at Home), 394: Mentions the title of this program without any other details.

Estrada, Doria Elia, 56: Names this person without any other context.

ES 503, 267: Refers to this identifier without explanation of what it refers to.

Ethiopia, 23: Names this country without any other context.

So in summary, these passages provide minimal context or are brief mentions of people, programs or places without explanation of significance or details.

Here is a 350 word summary of the key details from the provided text:

The text discusses numerous individuals and events related to Central American immigration and U.S. policy. It describes Jimmy Morales, the leader of a migrant caravan in 2019, who helped organize asylum seekers but faced criticism from the Trump administration. It also discusses Kevin McAleenan, who served as Acting DHS Secretary under Trump and worked to implement the Migrant Protection Protocols which forced asylum seekers to wait in Mexico.

Juan Romagoza fled death threats in El Salvador and crossed into the U.S. near Nogales, Arizona in the 1980s. He applied for asylum and his claim involved testimony about human rights abuses. Helen Mack worked to document human rights atrocities in Guatemala through her NGO. Her daughter Myrna Mack was murdered for her work. The case drew international attention.

Under Reagan, immigration policy grew more restrictive through measures like the Refugee Act. It established the asylum process but also made it more difficult. The administrations of Obama and Trump are discussed in relation to their conflicting approaches to border enforcement and treatment of asylum seekers and refugees. Crises like migrant caravans strained relations between the U.S. and Central American countries like Honduras. Figures like Cecilia Muñoz worked in both the Obama and Clinton White Houses on immigration issues. Gangs like MS-13 originated in Los Angeles before spreading violence in Central America. The summary touches on key people, policies, and events but cannot include all details from the lengthy provided text.

Here is a summary of the information provided about Juan Romagoza:

  • Romagoza was born and raised in Usulután, El Salvador. He was politically active there in his youth and witnessed the onset of the Salvadoran Civil War.

  • He was arrested, tortured, and detained by government forces in El Salvador in the 1970s due to his political activism.

  • After escaping El Salvador, he lived briefly in Guatemala and Mexico before migrating to the United States, living in Los Angeles, San Francisco, and eventually settling in Washington D.C.

  • In the U.S. he became involved in the sanctuary movement, providing support to Central American refugees. He was a plaintiff in the landmark sanctuary trial of the 1980s.

  • He worked for many years at La Clínica del Pueblo, a health clinic serving the Latino immigrant community in D.C.

  • He returned periodically to El Salvador, including to testify at a highly publicized trial against former Salvadoran military officers for war crimes in the 1990s.

  • He has continued advocating for immigrant and refugee rights and an end to violence and political repression in El Salvador.

  • Key events in his life mentioned include his arrest and torture in El Salvador, multiple migrations, his sanctuary activism, the 1991 riots in D.C., and returning to El Salvador even after being targeted there.

    Here is a summary of section 445 in the book:

  • Amanda is granted humanitarian parole and reunited with her children in the U.S. This section describes her emotional reunification with her kids Claudia and Patrick after being separated from them for over a year due to deportation and border restrictions.

  • Amanda had been deported back to Honduras without her children, who remained in the U.S. awaiting their asylum hearing. She struggled to survive economically and lived in fear in Honduras away from her kids.

  • Through humanitarian parole granted by ICE, Amanda is finally able to return to the U.S. to be with Claudia and Patrick again after over a year of separation. The section conveys the joy, tears and relief of their family reunification.

  • It marks an end to Amanda's deportation ordeal and exile from her children, allowing her to restart her life and asylum case in the U.S. alongside Claudia and Patrick after prolonged hardship and family separation at the border.

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