DEEP SUMMARY - Writing Without Bullshit_ Boost Your Career by Saying What You Mean - Josh Bernoff



Here is a summary of the key points from the dedication and disclaimer:

  • The dedication is to the author's father, who taught him to be bold, clear, and honest.

  • The disclaimer warns readers that applying the advice in a blunt or tactless way could get them in trouble. While the author hopes the book helps careers, readers are responsible for any positive or negative consequences.

  • The book aims to teach readers how to communicate directly and without "bullshit" in a way that can boost their careers. However, doing so requires judgment and timing to avoid potential issues.

In short, the dedication cites the author's motivation for promoting direct communication, while the disclaimer acknowledges this approach requires prudence and acknowledges the reader's agency in applying the lessons. The goal is empowering readers with clear writing skills while also recognizing potential risks if not applied appropriately.

Here is a summary of the benefits of big data and large-scale analytics to point-of-care:

  • Big data and analytics can provide more insight and knowledge into large amounts of health data than previously possible. Analyzing trends in data can help improve care options and reduce costs.

  • Applying the knowledge gained from large-scale data analysis can help identify gaps in care, quality, and data integrity. Things like inconsistencies, underutilized treatments, unnecessary variations, and compliance issues can be spotted.

  • Hospitals, doctors, insurance payers, and patients can all benefit from the insights revealed through big data analytics. It allows organizations to target areas for improvement.

  • Unique capabilities for collecting and analyzing huge amounts of patient data can help address gaps and resolve issues in care delivery, treatment protocols, and the overall healthcare system. Data-driven insights can potentially lead to better outcomes and experiences for all stakeholders.

In summary, big data and large-scale analytics provide unprecedented insight into healthcare that can help improve care, reduce costs, enhance compliance and quality, and identify and address gaps - benefiting hospitals, providers, insurers and patients through a more effective, data-driven healthcare system.

Here is a summary of the key points:

  • The passage discusses the proliferation of poorly written material that people must read online every day for work. This includes emails, social media posts, marketing content, and more.

  • It attributes the rise in unclear or "bullshit" writing to three main factors: people spend all day reading on screens, which is harder to focus on than print; much of what people read is unedited; and writers today are poorly trained for writing in a digital context.

  • Reading on screens impairs concentration and attention spans are very short, around 30 seconds on average for news articles. This means writing must be concise and compelling to engage readers.

  • There is far less editing happening as content production has increased exponentially to feed the constant demand for things to read online. Writers are often untrained and their work is un vetted by editors.

  • In the past, most work reading was printed material that went through professional editors and copywriters. This ensured a higher standard that is missing from much digital/online content today.

    Here is a summary:

The passage discusses how writing has changed in the modern workplace due to technology. Executives used to have secretaries that would type up memos and act as editors, catching any mistakes or stupid statements. Now, anyone can type and distribute content widely with no editorial process.

This results in a lot more "bullshit" communication that wastes the reader's time by failing to be clear and accurate. Even traditionally edited media now contains more user-generated and native advertising content with less scrutiny. Media outlets and books also have less rigorous editing standards.

Marketers fill many communication channels with content, much of which is created by inexperienced writers with little oversight. Inside companies as well, people communicate directly in emails and reports with no mediation.

This endless supply of unedited content floods people's screens due to high demand. However, the way most people were taught to write in school, through formulaic five-paragraph essays, does not prepare them well for the read-on-screen environment of the modern workplace. The passage advocates for reforms to writing education to better train students.

It argues that in this environment of widespread bullshit, standing out with clear, concise writing is an opportunity. However, overcoming fear is necessary to change one's writing style and uphold integrity. The psychology of fear and its effects on workplace writing must be acknowledged and addressed.

Here is a summary:

The trick is to write boldly even when you are afraid. Taking responsibility and directly communicating problems shows integrity and respects the reader's time. Leaders should be upfront about issues instead of hiding behind vague language or passive wording. Women sometimes face additional challenges speaking boldly, as their words could be perceived as hostile when a man may not face the same reaction. But direct, clear writing demonstrates competence and builds trust, even in difficult situations. Facing fears of negative reactions and qualifications, and instead saying what is meant shows courage and sets a good example for transparent communication.

Here is a summary:

  • There is a societal pressure for women to speak softly and defer to men, while men are encouraged to speak up boldly. This stems from different treatment of girls and boys from a young age.

  • As a result, women, especially newer professionals, tend to apologize, hedge their language, and soften their opinions more than men. There are fewer bold, assertive women in the workplace.

  • This pressure exists not just in speaking but also in writing. However, biases are weaker in writing, and good ideas expressed clearly will be credited regardless of gender.

  • By writing more directly and factually, editing out unnecessary apologies or qualifiers, women can reduce this career disadvantage and boost their visibility. Author Amber Naslund found speaking and writing directly benefited her career.

  • The book then provides strategies for writing more boldly and directly, such as using fewer words, getting to the point quickly, tightening organization, pruning unnecessary sections, and removing vague or weak language. Editing writing to be concise, clear and factual can help women's ideas shine through.

    Here are the key tips from the passage:

  • Front-load your writing by putting the conclusion or main point up front. This includes subject lines for emails, titles for documents/blog posts, and executive summaries for reports.

  • Use opening sentences or "ledes" to immediately deliver the main idea in as few words as possible.

  • Invert the traditional reasoning structure - start with bold statements and conclusions, then provide reasoning and details to back it up.

  • Front-loading engages readers from the start and lets them know where you're headed, making them more willing to keep reading.

  • For reports meant to be skimmed, focus on clearly communicating the most important conclusions up front.

  • When learning this approach, write longer pieces, remove warm-ups/introductions, and insert conclusions at the beginning to train yourself. With practice it will become a habit.

  • Front-loading strategies apply to emails, documents/blog posts, and short text messages for effective business communication. Get straight to the point in the subject, title, or opening.

In summary, front-load your key messages and conclusions to immediately engage readers and communicate what's most important, given short attention spans in today's digital age of communication.

Here is a summary of the key points:

  • Passive voice weakens writing by obscuring who is performing the action. It creates uneasiness in readers by not stating the actor.

  • To fix a passive voice habit, the writer should follow the five Rs: recognize passive voice, raise awareness of where it appears, reconsider sentences to identify the actor, rewrite in active voice, and retrain writing habits.

  • Examples are given of passive voice constructions in sentences from an Olympic Games cost report. Using passive voice obscures who is responsible for monitoring issues, estimating costs, developing land, using insurance, and funding permanent construction.

  • Passive voice is common in academic writing and sources people consume, so writers must raise their awareness of where it creeps into their own writing.

  • While not everything can be entirely in active voice, the goal is to minimize passive constructions by thinking about who the actor is in each sentence and putting that at the front. This improves clarity, directness and engagement for readers.

So in summary, the article advocates recognizing, acknowledging and then reworking passive voice in writing in order to state actors and actions more directly through active sentence constructions for better communication.

Here is a summary of the key points:

  • Passive voice and jargon are common problems in writing but fly under the radar for many writers. 32% of business writers saw passive voice as a frequent problem in others' writing, while 25% admitted it was a problem in their own.

  • The easiest way to identify passive voice is to have an editor highlight all passive sentences. One writer had to "slap" himself 30 times after an editor marked up his writing, helping him become more aware. Software tools can also detect passive voice.

  • Passive voice is used to distance the writer from responsibility, avoid stating who is performing an action, or hide lack of evidence to back up a claim. Rewriting in active voice requires identifying the actor.

  • Jargon makes writers seem sophisticated but alienates readers. It spreads through insider bias where writers assume expertise readers lack. Reasons for using jargon include wanting precision, efficiency through shortcuts, aligning with corporate strategies, and inflating importance.

  • Readers' time is more valuable than writers' convenience. Eliminating jargon requires translating terms into plain language most can understand. Both passive voice and jargon undermine readability and should be edited out of writing.

    Here is a summary of the key points:

  • Simon, the author of Message Not Received, reminds us of Albert Einstein's saying that "If you can't explain it simply, you don't understand it well enough." Readers appreciate clarity over sounding impressive.

  • The article provides tips on rewriting jargon and technical terms into plain English that a general audience can understand. It gives examples of rewriting overly complex strategy statements and job descriptions into simpler language.

  • When writing, it recommends visualizing your specific audience and aiming to explain concepts to an average reader, not the smartest ones you know. Write in short, direct statements to communicate effectively.

  • It acknowledges some technical terms are necessary but suggests only using jargon that your audience already understands, terms with specific legal definitions, or defining new terms up front if used repeatedly. Otherwise, replace jargon with simpler language.

  • The article critiques "weasel words" like qualifiers that weaken writing through lack of precision or certainty. It recommends pruning these words to write more directly and boldly without hedge terms like "generally" or "probably." Taking out qualifiers makes for stronger, more definitive arguments.

    Here are the key points about using direct language like "you" and "I" in business writing:

  • Using "you" directs your writing to a specific audience and makes it clear who the writing is for and what action you want the reader to take. This engages the reader more.

  • To write with "you" effectively, visualize your specific readers - who are they and what do you want them to do? Defining the audience is important.

  • Writing directly to subordinates or describing recommendations to bosses/colleagues can use "you," just be more respectful tone when addressing superiors.

  • Communication to customers almost requires "you" to provide direction about actions, decisions, etc.

  • Visualize your audience before writing to define who they are and what you want from them.

  • "I" is also important in business writing to make statements or recommendations authoritative from the writer's perspective/expertise. Don't overuse "I think" but do use "I" when appropriate.

  • Direct language engages the reader more, shows who writing is for and what you want them to do, and adds authority. This improves the effectiveness of the communication.

    Here is a summary:

The passage discusses the appropriate use of pronouns and numbers in academic writing. It advocates using first-person pronouns like "I" and "we" to take responsibility for claims and make writing more direct. Using vague pronouns like "one" should be avoided. Numbers should also be used carefully and context should be provided about where estimates come from. Made-up or unsourced statistics will undermine credibility. Overall, the key is to clearly identify who is making claims or recommendations ("I"/"we") and who they are intended for ("you") to improve clarity and effectiveness in academic writing. Transparency about sources and appropriate precision are important when including numerical information. The goal is to communicate ideas faithfully while maintaining integrity.

Here are the key points about providing context for numbers in summaries:

  • Without context, a single number has little meaningful impact. Context allows readers to understand the significance.

  • It's important to compare numbers to something familiar to give them reference, like incomes for spending amounts.

  • Historical context through comparisons over time, like year-over-year changes, further elucidates numbers.

  • Growth rates mean little without knowing the baseline values. Both the before and after amounts are needed.

  • Sources should be carefully evaluated for potential bias when making causal claims from numeric correlations. Multiple factors often interact to influence outcomes.

  • Precision in reported numbers should not exceed the precision of the underlying data or analysis. Avoid a false sense of accuracy by only presenting as many significant digits as warranted.

The overall message is that numbers alone do not tell a complete story. Thoughtful context, comparisons, and acknowledgment of uncertainties can help readers appropriately gauge importance and draw reasonable conclusions from quantitative information.

Here is a summary of the key points:

  • When citing percentages or growth rates, be precise about whether you are referring to a percentage point change or a percentage rate of change. Both may be correct ways to state something but they mean different things.

  • Be cautious of biases in polls and data based on the source and how questions were framed. Outlets like Fox News and Breitbart may highlight conservative-leaning results while Alternet favors progressive views.

  • Within companies, confirmation bias can lead people to only present data that supports their pre-existing views rather than seeking out contradictory evidence.

  • Carefully scrutinize the methodology behind any numbers or statistics you cite. Consider the sample size, whether the source and date are provided, and if the methods seem sound. Small or outdated samples may not be meaningful.

  • When citing numbers, provide the source and date if possible. Include sample sizes if from a study. Link to sources so readers can evaluate the data themselves.

  • Be skeptical of quotes or statistics that lack transparency about their origins or methodology. Numbers without clear sourcing or from questionable studies may not be reliable.

    Here is a summary of the passage with headings, bullets and lists:

Organizing Content with Structure

Structure makes content easier to navigate and understand. Break content into logical sections and use headings, lists and other tools to showcase that structure.

Using Headings

Headings create clear section breaks and act as a table of contents. Limit headings to one or two levels deep for clarity.

Employing Lists

Lists enable easy scanning of items. Use bullet lists for descriptions and numbered lists for sequential steps. bold list leads act as signposts.

Incorporating Visual Elements

Graphics, tables, quotes and links enhance understanding and credibility when used strategically.

Adding Graphics

Graphics complement text to convey complex ideas visually. Keep graphics simple so meaning is clear with a few seconds of viewing.

Exploiting Tables

Tables concisely present detailed information within a small space. Screenshot tables as images due to formatting issues when copying to web.

Quotes and links within text make important points stand out and allow reference to credible external sources. Links enhance reference and bring in relevant related information.

The Spirit of Structured Writing

While structure and organization are important, the ultimate goal is clear, direct communication. Follow best practices of structure but maintain a human, accessible spirit in writing.

Here is a summary:

The passage discusses the importance of changing not just what you write, but how you write, in order to progress to the next stage of writing in a consistent, high-quality manner.

It introduces a three-part process for writing major projects without "bullshit": Prepare, Draft, and Revise. In the Prepare stage, the goal is to "be paranoid early" by nailing down objectives, ensuring you have enough research/content, taking a creative approach, and developing a thorough outline. Drafting focuses on writing a complete first draft efficiently. Finally, Revising aims to "manage reviews effectively" through careful collaboration and editing to maintain clarity while improving the work.

Front-loading key elements like the title, summary, and introduction is also emphasized. Overall, the passage argues for adopting a disciplined, multiphase process with equal focus on preparation, drafting, and revision in order to write quality work consistently under deadline pressures. The ROAM framework is also introduced to help define the readers, objectives, desired actions, and impressions for any given writing project.

Here is a summary of the key points:

  • When writing for different audiences, it's important to consider how the content should be tailored for that specific readership. Content aimed at senior managers, for example, should be more concise than content aimed at staff or students.

  • To write effectively for an audience, it's crucial to have a clear conception of who that audience is. The author recommends literally envisioning a specific person from the target readership in order to understand what will appeal to them.

  • Applying the ROAM framework at the start of a writing project can help ensure the content is focused on the right objective, audience, desired action, and impression. Going through this analysis will provide guidance on what topics to cover and how to approach the writing.

  • The ROAM framework should be revisited as projects evolve, to check if any adjustments need to be made based on new information or changing priorities. Explicitly acknowledging shifts keeps the writing aligned with its goals.

  • When first beginning a long-form writing project without having done research yet, starting with a title, opening paragraph, research plan, and outline can help make progress and keep procrastination at bay until content is ready to be drafted.

    Here is a summary:

The passage explains the importance of planning and preparation before starting to write. It discusses putting together a research plan, including tracking research contacts and questions in a spreadsheet. Key tips are to send individualized emails to contacts and come prepared with questions.

It then covers making a "fat outline" which includes actual content examples and descriptions, rather than just headings. This provides more context for the writer and anyone reviewing it. An example fat outline is given for the opening chapters.

The importance of revising the plan as work progresses is stressed. This includes revisiting the title, opening, research tracking, and fat outline periodically as new insights are gained from research. The goal is to keep refining the plan until the writing stage. Then, creativity can be unleashed to make the writing stand out, as will be discussed in the next chapter. Overall, the passage emphasizes planning as crucial for successful writing.

Here is a summary of the key points:

  • Creativity is not just for fiction - interesting nonfiction can also be very creative. Business writing like reports, blog posts and press releases could also benefit from being more creative and fascinating.

  • The author used to think of themselves as a problem solver rather than creative. After getting an award for creativity from their employer, they decided to embrace being creative.

  • Some tips for being creative include embracing frustration, turning problems into opportunities, turning your world upside down to get new perspectives, getting perspectives from different ages/backgrounds, and taking breaks to let ideas come.

  • Ideas need to be developed, not just generated. Deadlines and focused idea "fuel" help ideas simmer and connect to other concepts. Turning concepts into ideas with a hook is key. Pulling together supporting content shapes ideas into prose. Idea development makes creativity useful.

  • Concentration is important for writing well but modern distractions make it hard to focus for more than 20 seconds. Flow and focus are needed for good writing.

    Here is a summary of the key points about maintaining concentration from the provided text:

  • Flow or being in the zone requires focused, uninterrupted concentration over long periods of time (60-90 minutes). This allows writers to get into a productive state where time seems to disappear.

  • To achieve flow, distractions must be eliminated. This means finding a quiet space free from interruptions, turning off devices, and avoiding multitasking. Some ways to do this are working from home, using headphones, or going to a coffee shop.

  • Writers need to prepare adequately beforehand by doing research, outlining, collecting content so they have what they need close at hand without interruptions.

  • Taking breaks every 30-60 minutes and walking or exercising helps the mind keep working on problems unconsciously. This spaced repetition allows insights to emerge.

  • If flow is not achieved, failures are part of the process. Relaxation occupies the conscious mind while the unconscious keeps working on solutions. Succeeding requires hard work, failure, relaxation and time.

  • Once flow is achieved, writers should preserve what worked during revisions by cutting unnecessary parts but keeping fluid elements intact. Major changes can disrupt the flow state.

    Here is a summary:

The passage discusses different types of people who can help and provide feedback during the writing process. An editor is the primary writing partner who helps with planning, reviewing drafts, and determining when the writing is complete. Researchers help find facts and content. Advisory reviewers provide feedback on ideas, structure, content, etc. Gatekeeping reviewers like legal must be carefully listened to since they can impact the final product or job. Copy editors check for grammar and usage errors at the end, and fact-checkers verify accuracy.

Collaboration tools like Google Drive, Dropbox, and Microsoft Word allow writers to efficiently share and collaborate on drafts with others in real-time. File naming conventions and organization help manage different versions. Tracking sheets in Google Sheets coordinate elements like chapters and deadlines between collaborators. Video calling and chat tools like Skype facilitate remote discussions. Expressing gratitude to reviewers is also important for maintaining good relationships throughout the process.

Here is a summary:

  • The passage discusses working with a coauthor on a writing project and provides tips for a successful collaboration.

  • Key steps include clearly defining the goals, target audience, and message upfront through a shared analysis. Agreeing on critical elements like the title is also important to avoid future disputes.

  • Tasks and responsibilities should be divided up, with one person designated as the lead for each element. The writing style and voice should be consistent.

  • An rigorous process for drafting, reviewing, and finalizing content needs to be established, including timelines and order of work. Roles for promotion and managing the project afterward should be determined.

  • Communication and accepting edits from the other person is crucial. Seeing suggestions as revealing ways to improve the work, rather than personal criticisms, helps make revisions a collaborative process.

  • The ideal number of coauthors is two to avoid complex group dynamics. Maintaining a respectful working relationship is paramount for success. Overall, open communication and dividing roles/responsibilities are emphasized.

    Here is a summary of the key events:

  • Ray, the CEO of a helicopter company, realizes he does not have a clear statement of purpose for the company. This causes him low morale.

  • He asks his leadership team to help develop a purpose statement. They critique his initial attempt as diluting the brand.

  • Ray then proposes "We make the greatest passenger helicopters in the world." The team responds positively to this and it improves morale.

  • However, the CMO notes the statement does not mention customers. There is a discussion about who the customers are - buyers, pilots, passengers.

  • Ray updates the statement to: "We make the greatest passenger helicopters in the world. For buyers, for pilots, and for passengers, the Ray’s Helicopter experience is the best you can get."

  • Everyone agrees on this purpose statement. Ray implements it widely in the company to boost and align around a shared sense of purpose and morale.

The key takeaways are that Ray realized the importance of having a clear and inspiring purpose statement for the company, took feedback from his team to develop it, and saw positive results from implementing the agreed upon statement. It helped resolve low morale issues.

Here is a summary of the key points:

  • The editor should ask the writer clarifying questions about what type of edit they want, what concerns they have, and deadlines.

  • Read the whole piece first to get an overall impression before focusing on specific problems.

  • Use the "criticism sandwich" method - start and end with praise, provide clear feedback on issues in the middle.

  • Suggestions should include rewriting passive voice to active, combining redundant points, cutting excess words, clarifying confusing language, providing context for numbers, and improving structure/skimmability.

  • The purpose is to help the writer improve through constructive feedback, not dictate changes or criticize the writer personally. Focus on insights from an objective reader's perspective.

  • Asking clarifying questions upfront ensures the editor focuses on what the writer needs most. Praise bookends make criticisms easier to hear. Specific rewriting suggestions model improvements. The overall aim is developing the writer's skills.

    Here are some key points about writing effective emails:

  • Be thoughtful about your purpose and audience. Not every issue warrants an email - consider calling or meeting in person for more complex topics.

  • Analyze the email with ROAM to define the readers, objective, desired action, and impression you want to leave. Have a clear target sentence in mind.

  • There are two types of emails - important ones that require planning, and unimportant ones that don't need to be sent at all. Save yourself and others' time by avoiding low-value emails.

  • Follow a simple structure: introduce yourself briefly, state the purpose concisely, provide any necessary context, and clearly articulate what action you want the recipient to take.

  • Keep it short and scannable. Front-load the most important information. Use bullet points and other formatting to make it easy to read on mobile.

  • Be thoughtful about the recipient list. Only include people who truly need to take action. Avoid copy/blind copying unless necessary.

  • Proofread carefully for clarity and correctness before sending. Respond promptly if any clarification is needed from the recipient.

The goal is to treat the recipient's time as valuable as your own. Well-planned, clearly structured emails that respect the reader will make the best impression. Consider alternatives to email when deeper discussion is needed.

Here is a summary of the key points to include in a marketing email:

  • Use a short, descriptive subject line that captures the recipient's interest. Focus on their needs or problems you can help solve.

  • Keep the text very brief - no more than 3-5 lines that can be viewed easily on a mobile device without scrolling.

  • Write in a personal, conversational tone as if from a person at your company directly addressing the recipient.

  • Include small, relevant graphics or images if they enhance the message. Avoid generic images.

  • Explain clearly how the recipient will benefit from opening the email. Give them a useful reason to be glad they opened it.

  • Don't over-contact recipients. One weekly email maximum unless they explicitly opt in for more.

  • Focus on helping the customer rather than just selling. Give value first to build trust and goodwill.

  • Include a clear call to action if you want them to click a link or make a purchase, along with a deadline if relevant.

  • Keep the design simple and easy to scan on any device. Avoid lengthy text blocks or cluttered layouts.

The goal is to respect the recipient's time and attention by being useful, relevant and briefly engaging in order to generate the desired action or response.

Here is a summary:

  • Busy working parents rely on daily meal kit emails to help them plan and shop for dinner each evening. The emails remind people of popular brands, and customers willingly sign up to receive them.

  • To write an effective managerial email, like one about layoffs or changes, be clear, concise, and get straight to the point. Don't bury the lead or use unnecessary jargon. Get feedback from someone who will be honest and point out any issues.

  • When composing email, stick to a business casual tone without slang, emojis, or excessive friendliness. Compose important emails on a computer, not a smartphone. Respect hierarchies by being clear and concise for bosses.

  • When responding to emails, read the most recent messages first to avoid duplicating replies. Only reply to the sender, not the entire thread. Reply briefly or call if a long response is needed. Don't reply if you have nothing to add.

    Here is a summary:

  • In 2008, many thought social media would usher in an era of conversational marketing and two-way communication between businesses and customers. However, this vision was not fully realized. While social media transformed experiences, marketers focused on one-way activities like ads rather than conversation.

  • Two-way communication tools like blogs, social media, and messaging present opportunities for meaningful conversation. If used correctly, these can spread organically and reach wider audiences than advertising alone.

  • To advance your career, you must master conversational tools like blogs, social media, messaging, and internal social platforms. The article then provides tips on effectively using blogs and social media to start meaningful conversations, spread ideas, and boost your career and business. While opportunities for conversation were missed, these tools still hold promise if used in an engaging, customer-centric way.

    Here is a summary:

Social networks, friends, and followers on social media can help spread your message by sharing your posts. This builds your following. To encourage sharing, posts should be useful and short, with a hook up front and a link or graphic. Post regularly but don't over-promote yourself.

Different social networks have different audiences. Facebook has the largest potential reach but an unpredictable algorithm. Twitter works best for popular accounts sharing brief content. LinkedIn is for professional networks. Tumblr and Instagram are good for visual content and reaching younger audiences.

Messaging privately on social networks or workplace apps like Slack requires brevity and clarity. Message colleagues horizontally or below in seniority. Be direct about your purpose and get to the point quickly. Links and media can add context but avoid long messages. Thank the person and yield the conversation promptly once your purpose is fulfilled. Messaging unfamiliar people on networks like LinkedIn is okay for very brief introductions or requests if they can easily ignore or decline.

Here is a summary:

  • Corporate social networks are becoming more common tools for internal communication and collaboration within companies. Facebook is launching a version specifically for businesses.

  • While these could be dismissed as time-wasting social apps, they should instead be seen as productivity tools if used properly.

  • Some guidelines for using these networks effectively include being positive, professional, brief (keep questions/answers short), and sharing longer details via files rather than long posts.

  • People should only create new groups/spaces if they are willing and able to actively manage and maintain them over time, rather than starting things and abandoning them.

  • In summary, these internal social platforms can enhance work if employees focus on being productive, keeping content concise, and appropriately using the tools for professional collaboration rather than casual socializing.

    Here is a summary of the key points:

  • Traditional press releases are becoming less effective at generating coverage as journalists are inundated with releases and most just get ignored. Press releases are also poorly targeted by going to thousands of people.

  • Companies are moving away from the "spray and pray" approach of broadcasting press releases and more towards targeted communications through owned media like blogs and influencer marketing.

  • While press releases still serve internal purposes for large companies to communicate announcements, they are no longer the best way to influence journalists.

  • Companies like Coca-Cola are moving to eliminate traditional press releases altogether in favor of blog-style posts on their owned websites.

  • For press releases to be effective now, they need to have a direct, human voice; target readers beyond just journalists; aim to spread the message on social media; and establish the company as a valuable information source.

  • Examples from Google and Tesla show how releasing information directly from the CEO's perspective as a blog-style post, with facts and no fluff, can be more effective than a standard press release.

    Here is a summary of the key points from the passage in a factual, conversational tone:

We're excited to share some important updates from OurCompany. Thanks to the hard work of our team, we've had another great quarter of growth.

Customer needs were changing, so we developed a new AI-powered analytics tool that has already helped over 1000 companies improve their operations. This tool analyzes huge datasets and surfaces valuable insights to save customers time. Early feedback shows it's helping identify over 20% more opportunities each month.

To strengthen our data science team, we recently acquired DataCo. This rapidly growing startup brings some top talent and groundbreaking research that will help us better serve sectors like healthcare and transportation. With their team on board, we'll be able to tackle even bigger challenges for customers.

Promoting Sarah Jackson to Chief Marketing Officer was a no-brainer. In her previous role overseeing marketing initiatives, she helped increase our customer base by 30% last year. Her leadership and expertise will be a huge asset as we look to reach even more customers with our solutions.

Thanks for reading - let me know if any part of our progress is interesting to you or helpful for your work. I'm always happy to chat more and share how OurCompany is helping organizations solve problems and capture new opportunities.

Here is a summary of the key points:

  • Summaries are crucial as most people only read the summary and decide if they want to read the full report based on it. A poor summary can kill interest in the full report.

  • The right executive summary tells the same story as the full report but in a brief, intriguing way by including examples, statistics, and metaphors. It should be written like answering a reader's question about the coolest parts of the report.

  • Summaries should be written for each draft while ideas are still fresh, and rewritten from scratch each time to improve.

  • The body of the report sets up the problem, reveals research findings, makes observations and analyzes consequences to take the story as far as possible.

  • Reports should be skimmable using headings, bullets, lists, tables, graphics, case studies and sidebars to tell the story in multiple ways.

  • Conclusions and recommendations justify reading the full report by tying everything together and telling the reader what to do with the findings.

  • End matter includes details like footnotes that don't interrupt the core story but allow readers to explore more.

  • Effective processes include research/writing balance, outlines, collaboration, and graphic development in parallel with text.

  • Individuals can work to change an organization's communication culture by focusing efforts, proving ROI, building support, and building on successes.

    Here is a summary of the acknowledgments section:

The author thanks a number of individuals who provided feedback and advice for the book. This includes Jeremiah Owyang, Nate Elliott, Shar VanBoskirk, and others who refined the writing. Merlina McGovern is thanked for her copy editing work. The author's agents and editors at HarperBusiness are acknowledged for their roles in bringing the book to publication. Finally, the author expresses gratitude to family members for their belief and support.

Here are the key points from summarizing the sources provided:

  • Bernie Sanders' 2016 presidential campaign website discussed racial justice issues and advocated reforming the criminal justice system.

  • Matt Pakes responded to an article by Hank Green on Medium, with a typical sentence expressing his viewpoint clearly.

  • Avaya's corporate website provides a straightforward company overview without unnecessary details.

  • Google's philosophy page directly lists their top priority as organizing the world's information to be universally accessible and useful.

  • Statistical examples discussed the challenges of using numbers to influence opinions, such as on child pornography prevention efforts and economic growth rates under different presidents.

  • Studies cited looked at email writing trends, including optimal length and factors affecting response rates.

  • Articles profiled the emerging career path of corporate social media strategists and approaches for intelligently promoting organizations online through avenues like press releases.

  • Sources referenced tips from experts on social media engagement, the declining role of press releases, and Google CEO Larry Page's views on communicating straightforwardly.

    Unfortunately I do not have access to the specific sources referenced in the instructions, so I cannot fully summarize or explain them. Here are a few key points about writing styles based on best practices:

  • Use short, clear sentences and paragraphs. Active voice is usually clearer than passive.

  • Define any technical terms or jargon on first use.

  • Put the main point or conclusion up front (lede/thesis). Subsequent paragraphs should support/expand on this.

  • Use topic sentences in paragraphs to orient the reader.

  • Maintain a consistent point of view (first person, third person limited, etc.).

  • Check for bias, vague language ("weasel words"), and bullshit. Provide context and consider different perspectives.

  • Use formatting like headings, lists, and white space for readability. Include an executive summary.

  • Consider the needs/knowledge of the intended audience when determining depth, examples, etc.

  • Edit thoroughly for clarity, concision, logical flow, consistent style, and correctness. Get feedback from others.

Please let me know if you would like me to clarify or expand on any part of this high-level summary. While I cannot analyze or report on the specific sources mentioned, I hope these generalized best practices are still somewhat helpful for your purpose.

Here is a summary of the key points about the author:

  • The author has over 35 years of experience as a writer across many genres including software documentation, online help, press releases, articles, web copy, and 4 books.

  • Their first book Groundswell was a BusinessWeek bestseller and praised as the best book on marketing and media by the editor of Advertising Age.

  • They spent 20 years as a principal analyst and SVP at Forrester Research, a top tech analyst firm, where they invented a widely used consumer segmentation and analyzed major industries.

  • Prior to Forrester they worked for startups including the company that invented the spreadsheet. They have a PhD in mathematics from MIT.

  • Currently they are the CEO of a nonprofit focused on wellness and write a popular blog on writing without bullshit which generated over 1M views in its first year.

  • They reside in the Boston area with their family and enjoy public speaking and recreational cycling.

    Here is a summary:

This is an introduction to the book "Writing Without Bullshit" by Josh Bernoff. He writes a weekly blog about writing, current events, politics, nutrition and other topics he is working on. Readers can follow him on Facebook or Twitter @jbernoff. He looks forward to feedback from readers.

The book outlines writing techniques without unnecessary filler or fluff. It draws from Bernoff's experience running the blog Groundswell and writing other books. Copyright and publishing details are provided. Bernoff invites readers to connect with him online or provide comments.

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