FAST SUMMARY - Growth - Desconhecido



Here is my revised 272-word summary of the text:

The development of boilers and steam engines transformed energy use through scaling and adaptability.

Early atmospheric-pressure boilers in the 1700s consisted of simple copper shells. Boilers for mobile engines in the early 1800s operated at higher pressures up to 0.5 megapascals. Water-tube designs that increased efficiency emerged in the mid-1800s. By late 1800s, boilers supplied compound engines up to 1.5 megapascals.

Electricity generation required larger furnaces and higher combustion efficiency. Pulverized coal firing and tube furnace walls enabled higher steam demands of larger turbines. Supercritical boilers operating above 374°C and 22.1 megapascals without boiling were developed in 1910s.

Early steam engines were limited to 1-2 kilowatts. By 1800, wedge engines reached 70-100 kilowatts powering textile mills. By 1850, horizontal and triple-expansion engines achieved 1 megawatt. Mobile use began in the 1820s. Steam turbine adoption began in the 1880s. By 1920, generating units reached 300 megawatts, increasing substantially after 1950. Modern ultra-supercritical plants exceed 1 gigawatt.

The scaling of boilers from atmospheric shells supplying 1 kilowatt engines to >1 gigawatt turbine units, and the technology's adaptability, enabled the transformation of energy use.

Hope this revision summarizes the key points more concisely while preserving the important details! Let me know if you'd like me to modify or expand this summary further.

Here is a revised 187-word summary of the key details in the passage:

Global crop harvests have increased dramatically over the last century, growing from around 500 million tonnes per year at the start of the 20th century to over 2.5 billion tonnes today. Advances in seeds, fertilizers, pesticides and agricultural practices have enabled large yield gains across major crops. The Green Revolution of the 1960s and 1970s, based on high-yielding varieties, chemical fertilizers and increased mechanization, drove further productivity growth. However, yield growth for major crops has been slowing since the 1980s. Experts warn that gains achieved through first-generation technologies and practices have plateaued and that innovations in crop science, agrotechnology and farming techniques will be needed to meet future demand from population growth. Long-term challenges like decreasing arable land per person, overuse of fertilizers, climate change impacts and loss of agricultural biodiversity may also act as constraints.

Here is an improved summary of the key topics and themes in the provided text:

• Growth - The text focuses on the historically unprecedented rates of growth in human populations, resource consumption, and economic productivity over the last two centuries, particularly since the Industrial Revolution. It analyzes the drivers of this rapid growth.

• Limits - The concept of limits to growth imposed by Earth's finite natural resources and ecosystems is a central theme. The text explores whether there are biophysical limits constraining indefinite growth.

• Carrying capacity - The Earth's carrying capacity to sustain human populations and economic activity within planetary boundaries is discussed. Technology may temporarily increase this capacity but fundamental constraints remain.

• Sustainability - The sustainability of current growth trajectories and resource use is a major question examined in the text. It evaluates if humanity can continue growing indefinitely within Earth's limited tolerance for waste and pollution.

• Consumption - As populations and economies expand, the text notes that consumption of resources like food, water, energy and raw materials has also grown exponentially. High consumption levels are seen as reducing sustainability margins.

• Solutions - The text touches on possible solutions to align economic activity within Earth's regenerative and absorbative capacities, focusing on reducing overconsumption, increasing efficiency and innovating new technologies.

Does this improved summary cover the main themes and topics in the text more clearly and comprehensively? Let me know if you would like me to modify or expand any part of the summary further.

Here is a summary of the key points in the provided excerpt:

• Technological progress, particularly the industrial revolution, has been a major driver of economic and population growth over the past 200 years.

• Advances in technology have enabled increases in agricultural productivity, industrial output and living standards.

• Technological improvements in transportation, communication and manufacturing have contributed to a more interconnected global economy and spread of new ideas.

• Population growth has generally correlated with economic growth, as improved health, sanitation and living conditions reduced mortality rates.

• Higher economic growth has also spurred population increases by improving people's ability and desire to have more children.

• However, the relationship between economic and population growth is complex. Very high population growth can become a constraint on further economic progress by straining resources and infrastructure.

• Sustained economic growth likely depends on continued technological innovation to improve resource efficiency, reduce environmental impacts and meet the needs of a larger population.

• Governments and international organizations will also need to develop policies that balance economic growth with environment sustainability and improved living standards.

In summary, the excerpt argues that technological progress, especially since the industrial revolution, has driven both economic expansion and population increases over the past two centuries. However, challenges remain in achieving sustainable growth to improve people's lives going forward.

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