FAST SUMMARY - Natural-born Cyborgs _ Minds, Technologies - Clark, Andy_

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Here is a summary:

• Human cognition depends profoundly on external tools, resources and scaffolding, especially language and culture. There is no fixed “human nature” separate from the environment. Our brains are highly plastic and adapt to the world they develop in.

• Our sense of self and location depends on our potential for action and engagement with the world. Technologies that change how we act and perceive the world can alter our sense of self and location. Examples are telepresence technologies.

• Telepresence requires multisensory feedback, low latency, and interactivity - the ability to actively explore and interact with the remote environment. This generates a sense of presence, not just passive viewing. Links between perception and action are key.

• Telerobotics allows controlling a robot over distance and can provide telepresence. Directly controlling all details is not required. Even giving high-level commands to an intelligent robot, the operator can feel in control and present, like controlling their own body.

• The visual system has separate systems for motor control and conscious perception. In teleoperation or telepresence, automatic motor control interacts with conscious control like a “zombie within” or semi-autonomous robot. Close coupling of commands, actions and feedback activates the body image and telepresence.

• Our sense of presence depends on correlations between intentions, actions and feedback. Disrupting these undermines presence. Emulators that predict feedback and varying control levels can overcome this. Advanced telepresence could connect “knots in space” but does not require perfectly replicating normal experience.

• In summary, human cognition emerges from interaction between biology, culture, and technology. It depends profoundly on the external world, not just internal processing. Our brains readily incorporate external information and tools, using them as external memory to support thought and experience. New technologies may alter how we think and experience the world in fundamental ways.

Here is a summary of key terms:

  • Change blindness: Failure to notice changes in scenes. Shows perception depends on attention and expectation.

  • Connectionism: Views mind as emerging from interactions of simple processing units. Proposed by Rumelhart and Smolensky.

  • Soft assembly: Spontaneous emergence of structure and function from interactions. Enables flexibility and adaptation.

  • Spatial structures: Patterns of connectivity in neural networks that represent information.

  • Quantum entanglement or “spooky action at a distance”: Linked properties of quantum particles. Suggests holism in physics that could apply to cognition.

  • Statistica: Data mining software that finds patterns in large datasets. An example of tools enabling distributed cognition.

  • Steels, Sterling, Stevens, Strogatz: Researchers referenced in the summary. Work on AI, networks, biology, physics, mathematics.

  • Subcortical structures: Parts of brain below cortex involved in arousal, motivation, and homeostatic functions. Shape our experience and development.

  • Supervenience: Dependence of higher-level properties on lower-level properties and interactions. The mind "supervenes" on the brain and body.

  • Swarm intelligence: Distributed problem-solving emerging from self-organization of simple agents. An example of soft assembly and spatial structures.

  • Symbiosis: Mutually beneficial relationship. Humans and technology have a symbiotic co-evolution and co-development.

  • Symbolic: Using arbitrary tokens to represent meaning. Language and mathematics are symbolic systems we incorporate into thinking.

  • Synaptic plasticity: Changes in connection strength between neurons. Enables learning, adaptation and soft assembly in the brain.

  • Capgras' and Cotard's syndromes: Disorders showing how perception and belief depend on interactions between brain and environment.

  • Systems operators or “Sysops”: Maintain and develop the software, platforms, and networks that enable distributed information systems. A role in future cognitive ecosystems.

The summary outlines how concepts from connectionism, physics, biology, mathematics, and cybernetics point to the deeply interactive nature of mind, perception, and cognition.They suggest why technology and environment are intrinsic to human thinking and identity rather than separate from it. An interdisciplinary perspective helps envision future cognitive partnerships between humans and machines.

Here is a summary of the bulletin board systems and other items you listed:

  • Tenenbaum and Terrace: Researchers mentioned in the passage. No further details given.

  • TMS: Transcranial magnetic stimulation. Uses magnetic fields to stimulate the brain in a non-invasive manner.

  • Tooby: Evolutionary psychologist mentioned in the passage. No further details given.

  • Transactional databases: Store data related to business transactions. Help track the details of commercial interactions.

  • Transhuman: Related to transcending human limitations, especially through technology. Those who identify as transhuman believe humans can evolve beyond their current physical and mental state using science and technology.

  • Tumor mentioned causes Gage-like personality changes: A tumor is mentioned as potentially causing changes in personality similar to those experienced by Phineas Gage after his accident.

  • Turkle and Turner: Researchers mentioned in the passage. No further details given.

  • Turing mentioned in passing: Alan Turing is briefly mentioned but no further details are given.

  • Van Egeren and Van Essen: Researchers mentioned in the passage. No further details given.

  • Ventriloquism effect: The tendency to perceive speech as coming from a dummy or puppet's mouth rather than the actual source. An example of the brain associating a voice and source that aren't actually connected.

  • Verbeek: Researcher mentioned in the passage. No further details given.

  • Vertical market: Focuses on a specific industry, profession, or consumer group. Tailored to the specific needs and interests of that market.

  • Virtual office assistant and virtual reality: Mentioned briefly with no further details.

  • Vitality of pneumatic signaling: Unclear reference with no details provided.

  • Vygotsky: Theorist mentioned in the passage. No further details given.

  • Warren and Weick: Researchers mentioned in the passage. No further details given.

  • Welter and Whitehead: Researchers mentioned in the passage. No further details given.

  • Wiener: Cyberneticist mentioned in the passage. No further details given.

  • Winograd: Researcher mentioned in the passage. No further details given.

  • Wittgenstein: Philosopher mentioned in the passage. No further details given.

  • Woolley: Researcher mentioned in the passage. No further details given.

  • World Wide Web and Wright: Mentioned briefly with no further details.

  • Wozencroft: Researcher mentioned in the passage. No further details given.

  • WU-CRL: Unclear reference with no details provided.

  • WYSIWYG: Acronym for "what you see is what you get." Used to describe a user interface that allows you to visualize what the end result will be.

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