SUMMARY - Divided - Tim Marshall

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Here are the key points:

  • The passage briefly mentions Mexico's immigration policies in the 19th century that tried to encourage settlement by Americans and Europeans to counter U.S. expansionism.

  • However, these policies backfired as they ended up bringing more Americans into Mexico than Mexicans into the U.S. This contributed to tensions and fueled U.S. ambitions to control more territory.

  • It's used as a hypothetical example to show how immigration policies can sometimes have unintended consequences. The passage suggests Mexico's policies strengthened U.S. desires to control more land rather than weakening them.

  • No serious proposal is made to base NAFTA immigration laws on Mexico's historical ones. It's brought up merely as a what-if example of how immigration policies don't always work as intended geopolitically.

  • The key point is that countries often pursue immigration policies for political reasons, but the results are unpredictable and can feed tensions rather than reducing them as intended in some cases.

So in summary, Mexico's 19th century policies are only briefly mentioned as a hypothetical example of unintended immigration consequences, not as a real reform suggestion for modern NAFTA policies. The focus is on the geopolitical impacts and unpredictability of immigration decisions.

Here is a summary of the key points:

  • Small concrete barriers and walls have proliferated in capital cities across the Middle East in response to high levels of terrorist violence plaguing the region.

  • Over 150 terrorist attacks have hit the region this century, driving the use of physical barriers for protection.

  • The template was Baghdad's fortified "Green Zone" built after 2003 to shield Iraq's government. It helped reduce explosions heard inside but came at great monetary and strategic costs to construct and maintain.

  • Roads into the Green Zone featured giant concrete slabs similar to Israel's West Bank barrier, nicknamed after US states due to their size. While saving lives, barriers were not foolproof against sophisticated bombs.

  • Other capitals like Damascus, Amman, Sana'a and Cairo also erected walls around sensitive sites as terrorism increased. Barriers provided some security but at significant expense and without stopping all attacks.

  • In summary, Middle Eastern cities have responded to frequent terrorism with small concrete barriers, though complete protection comes with formidable monetary and strategic downsides.

    Here are the key points from the provided information:

  • Several Middle Eastern countries have constructed border fences and barriers in recent years due to regional instability, conflicts, and security threats stemming from issues like the Syrian civil war and sectarian divisions.

  • Countries that have built fences include Jordan along Syria, Saudi Arabia along Iraq and Yemen, and Turkey along Syria. Kuwait also maintains a barrier with Iraq. These are aimed at controlling borders and cross-border movement of people and threats.

  • The Kurdish people are divided between countries in the region like Iraq, where they faced oppression, contributing to issues. Colonial borders that ignored cultural divisions and lack of unity have also been hindrances.

  • Factors holding back development include authoritarianism, censorship, low women's rights, and lack of freedom and new ideas. Solutions tried with limited success involve nationalism, socialism, and different political systems. Deep religious and ethnic divides persist.

  • India has erected fences on its Bangladesh border to curb illegal immigration, though many continue to cross for economic reasons, with human costs. Borders cut through communities and prejudice divides religious/ethnic groups in the region.

  • Migration from Bangladesh to India stems from poverty, natural disasters, and lack of opportunity. Assam state faces challenges from this while also balancing humanitarian and national security concerns.

  • Bangladesh is densely populated and faces risks from climate change impacts. Future mass displacement could exacerbate tensions with India over accepting refugees and maintaining balances.

  • Conflicts in Myanmar have led to Rohingya refugees fleeing to Bangladesh, while the divided Naga people face issues along the India-Myanmar border. India aims to enhance border security through fences but risks further inflaming disputes.

  • Disputes persist along the India-Pakistan, India-Bangladesh borders with violations of agreements and cross-border actions common. The Afghanistan-Pakistan border also divides communities and facilitates militant activities. Regional cooperation goals face challenges from these border tensions.

  • Morocco built a sand wall up to 7 feet high with landmines through Western Sahara, referred to as the "Wall of Shame", to keep out Sahrawi rebels from areas it controls, dividing the land and people.

    Here is a summary of the key points:

  • The EU ideal of borderless movement of people has faced challenges as the 2015 migrant crisis overwhelmed some countries. Over a million refugees arrived in Europe that year.

  • While initially welcoming, public attitudes hardened against immigration due to fears over terrorism, strains on welfare systems, and perceptions of unfairness. Less educated citizens tended to oppose immigration more.

  • EU nations began reasserting border controls to stem flows and regain control over immigration levels. Hungary was one of the first to erect border fences.

  • This rise in border protectionism threatens the open border principle of the EU. It has also left asylum seekers stranded and strained relations between member states with differing views on immigration.

  • However, some argue Europe needs migrants due to aging populations and low birth rates. Balancing national security concerns with EU cooperation on immigration will likely continue to be difficult for European leaders.

    Here are the key points summarized:

  • Orwell observed that many English intellectuals feel ashamed of nationalist pride and institutions like the monarchy. This provides context for some pro-Brexit voters who value national identity.

  • The UK has overcome past divisions through shared experiences that built a coherent society. Brexit is again testing social cohesion.

  • Divisions like Northern Ireland's peace walls show further progress is needed to overcome societal rifts. Balancing community concerns is important.

  • The essay warns against communities retreating into separate enclaves, weakening overall society. Competing narratives must be reconciled through a shared national identity.

  • Buffer zones and walls are contested or controlled spaces created by conflicts. Stepping into them can feel unsettling as sides monitor each other.

  • Divided areas like Cyprus, Gaza illustrate tensions but also benefits of temporary separation. However, walls don't resolve underlying issues.

  • Mass migration due to global issues will likely continue. While open borders are advocated, wealthy nations will still use walls for perceived security despite other consequences.

    Here is a summary:

This summary references topics related to Iraq and conflicts involving Iraq. It mentions the Iran-Iraq War from 1980-1988 where Iran and Iraq fought against each other. It also discusses the 2003 Iraq War where a US-led coalition invaded Iraq to depose Saddam Hussein, lasting from 2003-2011. Additionally, it notes the autonomous Iraqi Kurdish region in northern Iraq known as the Iraqi Kurdistan. Numbers listed may correspond to page numbers where these topics are discussed further. Overall, the summary outlines some of the major wars and political situations involving Iraq that are potentially analyzed within the source material.

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