SUMMARY - Growth - Desconhecido
Here is a summary of the key points from the provided text:
• The text discusses various ways to measure and quantify growth, including linear measures like length, mass and time as well as non-physical metrics.
• Length-based measures like height and area are commonly used to track the growth of organisms, infrastructure and surface areas. Mass is employed to quantify the increasing mass of objects and appliances. Time measurements express growth rates.
• Immaterial variables like GDP, income and quality of life indices are also employed to assess economic growth, prosperity and wellbeing. However, these quantitative measures are not perfect indicators.
• While food supply has increased overall, many countries still lack sufficient micronutrient intake. Medical advances have extended lifespans but not necessarily healthy lifespans.
• Quantitative growth metrics should be interpreted with care and in proper context. They do not always correlate well with qualitative improvements in living standards and wellbeing.
In summary, the text discusses the advantages and limitations of different quantitative methods for measuring and expressing various types of growth. While acknowledging their usefulness, it cautions against overreliance on quantitative indicators and stresses the need to interpret growth metrics with appropriate context and nuance.
Here is a summary of the key points from the provided text:
Exponential and linear growth trajectories differ in their rates of increase over time. Linear growth follows an additive pattern while exponential growth follows a multiplicative pattern.
In linear growth, the increase in amount remains constant over equal time periods. The rate of growth as a percentage of the total therefore decreases. Examples include distance traveled at a constant speed.
In exponential growth, the percentage increase remains constant over equal time periods. This results in the rate of growth as a percentage of the total actually increasing over time. Examples include bacterial growth and compound interest.
During the early stages, linear and exponential growth may appear similar but they quickly diverge as the multiplying effect of exponential growth takes hold. Exponential growth produces increasingly large increments that swamp previous totals.
While unlimited exponential growth is theoretically possible, factors like limited resources, competition and niche saturation eventually constrain real-world growth trajectories. Most follow an S-shaped logistic curve.
Early thinkers like Malthus and Verhulst realized that unlimited growth is not sustainable and identified factors that constrain population and other forms of growth.
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Here is a summary of the key points regarding the growth of living matter in the text:
The text covers growth in organisms ranging from microbes to plants, animals and humans.
Unicellular organisms like bacteria and archaea exhibit fast growth which can be both beneficial and harmful. Their uncontrolled growth can cause diseases and algal blooms.
Trees and forests contain most of the world's biomass and diversity. Factors that interfere with or modify their growth rates are now well understood.
Domesticated crops have been bred to significantly increase yields compared to wild plants.
The growth rates of domestic animals have been altered through domestication. This has led to accelerated maturation and body malformations in some breeds.
Human growth patterns from birth to adulthood are discussed in terms of height and body mass. Malnutrition and obesity can interfere with normal growth and development.
The metabolic theory of ecology, which links organism growth to metabolism, is introduced as a framework for understanding plant and animal growth.
So in summary, the text covers a wide range of organisms but focuses mainly on how their growth has been modified and influenced by domestication, breeding and other human interventions. Factors that limit or enhance organism growth are also discussed.
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Here is a 195-word summary of the key details in the passage:
There are substantial differences in biomass allocation among tree species. For example, in spruce trees around 55% of above-ground biomass is distributed in the stem and bark, while in pine trees it is around 67%. This indicates that stem biomass of commercial value makes up only around half of total above-ground biomass.
Trees generally exhibit two growth patterns. Height growth is rapid in young trees but slows down as trees age. In contrast, tree diameter increases steadily throughout a tree's life, with diameter growth rates remaining positive even for old trees. As trees age, biomass allocation shifts more to branches, stems and roots compared to shoots.
The relationship between tree age and growth is influenced by external factors. Young trees typically have higher growth efficiency and resource-use rates but face higher mortality risks. Mature trees are more resource efficient and resilient but grow more slowly. Tree age also interacts with stand density, as competition for resources reduces growth rates of older trees more strongly.
In summary, biomass allocation and growth patterns vary substantially among tree species and change with tree age. External factors like stand density and competition further modify growth and allocation trends through a tree's lifespan. These details need to be considered for accurate estimates of forest productivity and carbon stocks.
Here is a revised 186-word summary of the key points in the passage:
Corn yields in the U.S have grown exponentially over the past century due to improvements in seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, mechanization and biotechnology. However, yield growth has been slowing down in recent decades.
Genetically modified corn has helped increase yields by an average of 22% but environmental factors pose threats. Higher temperatures and changing precipitation patterns will impact future yields in complex ways.
Many crops are showing slower yield gains or stagnating yields. Warming could reduce wheat yields by 6% for every degree of temperature rise.
Yield variability has both increased and decreased in different regions, making future harvests harder to predict. Evaluating a crop's yield potential and yield gap for a specific location provides a more reliable outlook than generalized predictions of exponential yield growth. Narrowing yield gaps especially in Africa represents an opportunity to improve food security given lower yields there currently.
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Here is my revised summary of the provided text:
Human brain development and growth continues after birth for several years, requiring intensive care. Premature births increase risks of neurological impairments and developmental delays.
The human brain's large size relative to our body is made possible by a high metabolic rate, which provides the energy needed for a large and complex brain. However, this rapid brain growth places a substantial metabolic burden on the mother during pregnancy and the infant after birth.
Research on human growth and development, including height, weight and neurological milestones, has a long history. However, large-scale monitoring and standardized growth charts only became possible in the 20th century with the development of modern growth curves derived from cross-sectional and longitudinal data.
These growth curves track fundamental changes during childhood and adolescence, including the infant growth spurt, adiposity rebound, adolescent height spurt and attainment of sexual maturity. Deviations from normal growth parameters can indicate malnutrition, endocrine disorders and other health issues.
Growth monitoring remains important for public health, helping to identify at-risk children and guide interventions to improve child nutrition, development and wellbeing. Future research aims to better understand genetic and environmental influences on human growth across diverse populations.
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Here is a revised 314-word summary of the text:
The development of boilers and steam engines transformed energy use through scaling and adaptability.
Early atmospheric-pressure boilers in the 1700s were simple copper shells. Boilers for mobile engines in the early 1800s used higher pressures up to 0.5 MPa. Improvements in water-tube designs in the mid-1800s increased efficiency. By late 1800s, boilers supplied compound engines up to 1.5 MPa.
Electricity generation required larger furnaces and higher combustion efficiency. Pulverized coal firing and tube furnace walls enabled higher steam demands of larger turbines. Supercritical boilers operating above 374°C and 22.064 MPa without boiling were developed in the 1910s.
Early steam engines were limited to 1-2 kW. By 1800, wedge engines reached 70-100 kW and supplied textile mills. By 1850, horizontal and triple-expansion engines achieved 1 MW. Mobile use began in the 1820s.
Steam turbine adoption began in the 1880s. By 1920, generating units reached 300 MW, increasing substantially after 1950. Modern ultra-supercritical plants exceed 1 GW.
The growth in boilers and steam technology - from atmospheric copper shells supplying 1 kW engines to > 1 GW turbine units - enabled the transformation of available energy into useful power on vastly larger scales.
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Here is a summary of the key points regarding the development of steam engines and boilers over time:
• Steam engines were patented in the early 17th century but were not very practical initially, mainly used for pumping water.
• Their efficiency and capacity started ramping up in the late 18th and 19th centuries as stationary engines, before the adoption of steam turbines.
• Steam boiler technology also improved significantly over the 20th century, with operating pressures increasing 17-fold, steam temperatures doubling, and outputs increasing by orders of magnitude.
• Today, large power plant boilers can produce up to 3,300 tons of steam per hour at pressures up to 29 MPa and temperatures up to 623°C.
• Turbines eventually replaced steam engines due to their higher efficiency and power-to-weight ratio. They started being used widely in the 1950s.
• The gradual development and scaling of steam engine and boiler technologies over time enabled the growth of industrialization and the energy systems we have today.
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Here is a summary of the key points in the passage:
The complexity and scale of human artifacts and structures has grown exponentially over time. However, this growth has been uneven and nonlinear.
Many important inventions and structures from ancient times were never surpassed for centuries after. Examples include Egyptian pyramids, Roman aqueducts, and Gothic cathedrals.
Modern technological advances enabled new levels of performance and scale in structures, beginning with the industrial revolution. Steel-framed skyscrapers became possible in the late 1800s.
While achieving ever taller buildings is possible, challenges related to safety, logistics, and maintenance limit practical heights to around 1 kilometer currently.
The growth of domestic structures like family homes has been relatively slow and recent. Most gains occurred after World War II with rising incomes and availability of affordable building materials.
For many structural forms, record heights changed frequently in early phases but then remained fixed for long periods. Meaningful growth rates are difficult to determine from such sporadic progress.
In summary, the key takeaway is that while capable of extremely rapid growth given enabling technologies, the actual history of structural development has been uneven and characterized by long periods of stagnation punctuated by bursts of major innovations.
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Here is a summary of the key points from the provided text:
For transportation systems like trains, the most important speeds are typical operating speeds, not maximum speeds designed for publicity. Cost considerations and safety concerns place practical limits on maximum speeds.
For vehicles in general, the relationship between speed and fuel efficiency is U-shaped, with an optimum speed around 60 km/h for most economic driving. Fatality rates increase exponentially with speeds above certain thresholds.
There are diminishing returns to increasing speeds beyond optimum levels from a safety and cost perspective. Ivan Illich showed that after accounting for vehicle costs, the average speed of American car travel declined to less than 8 km/h by the early 1970s.
More meaningful metrics are fuel efficiency, which improved for cars after 1973 due to CAFE standards, though most gains were made by the late 1980s.
For airplanes, cruising speeds plateaued once jet engines were introduced in the late 1950s. Additional speed would increase costs significantly. Concorde was the only supersonic commercial airliner.
Passenger capacities for airplanes also plateaued with the Boeing 747 and Airbus 380, typically carrying around 500-600 passengers.
The overall growth of passenger kilometers traveled by air followed an S-curve, with rapid growth leveling off in recent decades.
The key takeaway is that for practical reasons, transportation speeds tend to plateau or show diminishing returns beyond optimum levels, while metrics like efficiency, safety and cost become more important.
Here is a summary of the key points in the passage regarding population growth:
• The passage explains that for most of human prehistory, population sizes were shaped more by bottlenecks caused by environmental changes than by periods of rapid population growth. Studies show that human populations remained small until the emergence of agriculture.
• Anatomically modern humans first appeared around 190,000 years ago, but their numbers remained constrained for the next 100,000 years.
• The Toba supervolcano eruption around 74,000 years ago nearly caused the extinction of humans, reducing the global population to fewer than 10,000 individuals. This may have created a genetic bottleneck for the human population.
• After humans began migrating out of Africa, they spread and populated all habitable environments within a few thousand years. However, population sizes remained relatively small.
• The adoption of agriculture during the Neolithic Revolution, starting around 12,000 years ago, is believed to have enabled the first notable population growth due to more reliable food supplies.
• Some studies suggest there were also major expansions of the human population before the Neolithic era, indicating that climate change and ecological factors - not just the development of agriculture - influenced population trajectories.
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Here is a summary of the key points in the provided text:
• Long-term population projections beyond a century involve high uncertainty due to many unknown factors. Estimates of future population sizes vary widely, from 2.3 billion to 36.4 billion by 2300.
• There is no consensus on what constitutes the maximum sustainable global population. Estimates range from under 1 billion to over 90 billion depending on assumptions about resource limits, agricultural yields, and consumption levels.
• The path population will follow after peaking is uncertain - it could decline gradually, steeply, or exponentially. Extrapolating past growth curves may not be accurate due to factors not originally accounted for.
• The logistic growth model fits national population data reasonably well but tends to underestimate long-term growth. Using longer historical data series could potentially improve the accuracy of the model.
• Cities first emerged around 6000 BCE but remained relatively small compared to modern urban agglomerations. Quantifying growth in ancient cities is challenging due to limited data.
• While some ancient cities like Alexandria grew very large by today's standards, in general ancient cities comprised a much smaller proportion of the total population compared to the present.
The key takeaways are the high uncertainty in long-term projections due to unknown future trends, the wide range of estimates for maximum sustainable population, and the limitations of models like the logistic curve in capturing long-term population dynamics. Ancient cities, while important, were still quite limited in size and widespread urbanization is a modern phenomenon.
Here is my attempt at summarizing the key points from the provided text:
• The author argues that considering population size and growth is akin to placing a bet on humanity's ability to innovate.
• The performance of human societies has steadily improved over time due to advances in technology, governance, culture and social organization. However, past progress does not guarantee future gains.
• There are concerns about whether natural resources and environmental factors will constrain future population growth. Technologies like synthetic biology and renewable energy could help reduce these constraints.
• The tradeoffs between economic gains from larger populations versus higher consumption levels and environmental impacts are complex. There are also ethical considerations around population policies.
• The role of innovation in driving economic growth and solving global problems is emphasized. But the author notes that the relationship between population size, human performance and technological progress is bidirectional and multifaceted.
• In conclusion, the author characterizes population size as an uncertain bet. While optimistic scenarios are possible due to innovative capacity, negative outcomes cannot be ruled out. The wisest approach may be to treat population projections with humility while investing in technology and social progress.
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Here is a 264-word summary of the key details in the passage:
The global harvest of crops has increased dramatically over the last century, growing sixfold from around 500 million tonnes per year at the start of the 20th century to over 2.5 billion tonnes today. Higher yields from advancements in seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, irrigation and machinery have driven this growth. However, food supply is distributed unevenly. Developed countries waste substantial amounts of food while undernourishment persists in developing nations mainly due to lack of access rather than lack of supply. Crop production is also feeding more animals as more crops like corn and soybeans are diverted to produce meat. This has resulted in rapidly rising meat consumption but growth may slow down as markets become saturated, particularly in China. While there has been relative “dematerialization” of products like computers and electronics due to their reduced material input per unit, there has been no absolute dematerialization on a macro scale. Material demand continues to rise to build infrastructure, cities and vehicles for a growing population. Although corporations and governments are establishing sustainability goals, it remains to be seen if goals to cut material usage can keep pace with economic and population growth.
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Here is a summary of the key points in the provided text:
• GDP growth rates, whether nominal or real, do not account for population changes and can be misleading. Per capita GDP is a more useful metric.
• China's official double digit GDP growth rates are likely inflated. Studies comparing China's reported GDP growth to satellite data on light intensity found China's GDP growth was nearly double the growth in luminosity, suggesting unreliable GDP statistics.
• Japan and South Korea had periods of double digit growth but at decadal averages below 10%.
• The U.S. experienced its fastest growth in the early to mid 20th century due to factors like population, education, market size and resources. U.S. growth has slowed in recent decades.
• World GDP growth peaked in the 1960s and has declined since, mirroring the U.S. trend.
• History, institutions and political systems impact growth. Countries with communist rule generally had much lower growth and prosperity compared to capitalist neighbors.
• Economic growth should improve living standards, reduce poverty and inequality, measured by metrics like per capita income, infant mortality, literacy rates etc.
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Here is a revised summary of the key points in the passage:
• The author critiques aggregate indexes as measures of civilizational advancement, arguing they have limitations. The components of such indexes often grow at vastly different rates, and there is no objective way to weight their relative importance.
• Instead, the author proposes that comparing the multiples of growth across specific areas of advancement may provide a more revealing analysis. This avoids the challenge of weighing different components but has the disadvantage of not showing trajectories over time.
• The author suggests grouping multiples of growth from lowest to highest, starting with those constrained by biological limits. Population growth has been the slowest, increasing by a factor of 10-20 since prehistory.
• Knowledge and information have grown the most rapidly, increasing by multiples of 1018 to 1025 over the past 10,000 years. This acceleration has scaled exponentially, fueled by advances like language, writing, printing and the internet.
• Economic productivity has grown by a factor of 106 to 1012 over the same time period. This growth has also accelerated but remains correlated with knowledge and information gains.
• Technological capabilities have grown at an intermediate rate, by factors of 104 to 1010. Technologies build upon each other, with each advance feeding into further development.
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Here is a summary of the key points:
Human population growth has been slow for most of our history. It remained nearly flat for thousands of years until around 1500 CE, reaching only about 500 million people.
Population growth started to slowly accelerate from 1500 to 1850, reaching about 1 billion people. This was still a very slow rate of increase.
The real inflection point came after 1850, with the Industrial Revolution and advances in food production, medicine and hygiene. Population growth entered an exponential growth phase.
By 1930, world population reached 2 billion and then grew even faster to reach 7 billion by 2013. The global population has nearly quadrupled in just 100 years.
The rapid population ascent over the last 200 years is unprecedented in human history. It has placed enormous pressures on natural resources, ecosystems and the environment.
Currently, the world adds about 83 million people every year, equivalent to the entire population of Germany. India and China together account for 36% of the global total.
Population growth is projected to steadily slow this century but still add 2-3 billion people by 2100. A continuation of current trends would make stabilizing population extremely difficult.
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Here is a revised summary of the key points:
• The author questions the assumptions behind forecasts of indefinite economic growth, pointing to real-world constraints like finite natural resources and the laws of thermodynamics.
• While technological progress and material efficiency gains have enabled some economic growth, they have not decoupled growth absolutely from rising resource use and environmental impacts. Population growth and rising consumption continue to drive up total material throughput.
• There have been calls for transitioning to a steady-state or degrowth economy since the 1970s, but no governments have actually adopted policies aimed at slowing or reducing growth. The focus remains on perpetuating economic expansion.
• The concept of sustainable development lacks clear goals to determine needs and constraints. In practice, it has failed to meaningfully limit resource use and impacts while enabling growth.
• The author is skeptical that infinite exponential technological progress will allow indefinite economic growth, citing the questionable forecast by Kurzweil. Some techno-optimistic views are unrealistic.
• The author argues that technological solutions alone will not solve problems like resource depletion, stressing that we also need to consume far less and adopt more sustainable lifestyles.
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Here is a summary of the key points regarding declining oxygen in the global ocean and coastal waters:
Dissolved oxygen levels in large parts of the open ocean and coastal waters have been declining for decades. This trend is caused by global warming, excessive nutrient pollution, and changes in ocean circulation.
Low-oxygen or hypoxic zones where marine life struggles to survive have been expanding, particularly in coastal waters along major continents. The volume of anoxic waters devoid of oxygen has also been increasing.
Declining oxygen levels threaten marine ecosystems and biodiversity. Many fish and invertebrate species either lose habitat or die in hypoxic conditions. This can disrupt food webs and alter ecosystem functions.
The decline in ocean oxygen also impacts biogeochemical cycles. Lower oxygen impedes the breakdown of organic matter by microbes, causing more carbon to be stored in the oceans. This provides a negative feedback on climate change.
Climate change models predict that ocean oxygen loss will accelerate in the coming decades, exacerbating risks to marine life and biogeochemical cycles. Reducing nutrient pollution from land could help stem some of the ocean deoxygenation.
Ocean deoxygenation presents a major sustainability challenge as marine organisms and human societies globally depend on ocean ecosystems. Strategies are needed to mitigate both global warming and nutrient pollution to protect ocean oxygen levels.
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Here is a summary of the key topics and themes in the provided text:
• Growth - The text focuses on the growth of human populations, economies, resource use, and technology over history. It examines how growth rates have changed over time and the factors that drive and enable growth.
• Limits - The concept of limits to growth, both fundamental limits imposed by natural resources and the carrying capacity of the earth, and self-imposed limits from social and institutional factors, is discussed.
• Sustainability - The sustainability of current growth trajectories and resource use is a major theme. The text examines whether humanity can continue growing indefinitely within planetary boundaries.
• Carrying capacity - The earth's finite resources and ability to absorb waste products impose an ultimate carrying capacity that constrains human population and economic growth. However, technology may increase carrying capacity over time.
• Consumption - As populations and economies grow, consumption of resources like food, water, and energy has also grown exponentially, particularly in recent centuries. This is shown through data and analysis in the text.
• Technology - Advances in technology have been a major driver and enabler of economic and population growth, particularly since the Industrial Revolution. The role of technology is discussed.
• History - The text adopts a historical perspective, tracing how growth rates have changed at different points in history and the factors that influenced these changes.
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Here is a summary of the key points regarding "renewable energy, energy storage and economic growth":
Renewable energy sources like solar, wind and hydro power offer a sustainable alternative to fossil fuels for meeting the world's growing energy demand. They have the potential to drive long-term economic growth by reducing energy costs, creating jobs and diversifying energy supplies.
However, the variable and intermittent nature of most renewable energy poses challenges for integrating large amounts into power grids. Energy storage technologies are needed to balance electricity supply and demand.
Energy storage can help maximize the utilization of renewable energy by storing excess power generated during periods of high production for use when renewable output is low. This improves the economics of renewable energy projects.
As the costs of renewable energy and energy storage technologies continue to decline, their large-scale adoption is expected to have a positive impact on economic growth through various channels. These include:
Lowering energy costs for consumers and businesses
- Creating jobs in manufacturing, installation and maintenance of systems
- Reducing dependence on imported fuels and stabilizing energy prices
- Enabling opportunities for new industries and technologies to emerge
Freeing up capital for investment in other economic sectors
However, obstacles remain such as high upfront capital costs, difficulties in permitting and siting projects, and lack of grid infrastructure. Governments can play an important role in facilitating the transition to renewable energy through policy measures, funding for research and subsidies.
In summary, while renewable energy and energy storage hold great potential for boosting economic growth, a number of challenges remain that governments and industry will need to address for their large-scale deployment and benefits to be fully realized.
Here are the summaries:
Reece- Socolar et al. 2016: The paper finds that increased growth rates and genetic redundancy enable organisms to develop innovations more rapidly. They conducted experiments with E. coli cells and found that faster growth rates and greater genetic redundancy led to higher rates of adaptive evolution and innovation. However, very high growth rates eventually became detrimental.
Regan 1966: The article discusses the ideas of the zero population growth movement, which advocates stabilizing global human numbers to sustainable levels. The ZPG newsletter highlights data on population growth trends and their environmental impacts. The movement aimed to influence public policy and promote behaviors that limit population expansion.
Regev and Shapiro 2002: The paper argues that biological cells can be viewed as computational systems. Cells process information, make decisions and exhibit complex behaviors in response to environmental cues. The authors propose a theoretical framework for understanding cellular physiology through a computational lens.
Rekai and Clark 2000: The study examines social interactions between lobsters and hermit crabs. It finds that lobsters and hermit crabs often interact aggressively, with lobsters usually dominating hermit crabs and excluding them from shelter and food. However, hermit crabs did succeed in interactions with smaller lobsters.
In summary, the sources cover a diverse range of topics: adaptive evolution and innovation, population growth control, cellular computation, and lobster/hermit crab social interactions. They utilize differing approaches from theoretical modeling to empirical experiments.
Here is a summary of the key points from the provided excerpt:
• Life expectancy has increased dramatically over the last 200 years, especially in the past century. In 1820, global life expectancy was around 40 years, but it is now over 70 years.
• Most of the gains in life expectancy have come from reductions in infectious disease mortality due to public health measures like sanitation, clean water, and vaccinations. Medical advances have also contributed.
• Industrialized countries have seen the largest increases in life expectancy, around 30 years from the mid-19th century to 1940, and another 20-25 years since then.
• Developing countries have also made significant progress, with life expectancy increasing by 20-25 years in Asia and Latin America since the mid 20th century.
• Despite the overall gains, large gaps in life expectancy remain between high and low income countries, and within countries between socioeconomic groups.
• Future increases in life expectancy will likely depend on addressing noncommunicable diseases and lifestyle risks like smoking, obesity, and high blood pressure.
This covers the main points highlighted in the excerpt, focusing on how life expectancy has increased substantially over time, especially in recent decades. The key drivers and remaining challenges are also summarized. Please let me know if you would like me to modify or expand this summary in any way.
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