SUMMARY - How to Stay Smart in a Smart World - Gerd Gigerenzer
A.I. has achieved superhuman capability in chess and Go with strict, unchanging rules. However, it must work on more ambiguous real-world situations like choosing a romantic partner.
The stable-world principle explains this difference. The stable-world guide explains this difference - algorithms thrive with consistent rules. Many data are available, but human intelligence has evolved to handle uncertainty and unpredictable situations.
Herbert Simon, an A.I. pioneer, believed chess represented the peak of human intellect and that computers matching it would achieve general human-level intelligence.
However, chess has fixed rules and no uncertainty about the position. Dating involves ambiguity and incomplete information about the other person. So being good at chess does not mean being good at dating.
A.I. excels in stable situations like games, forecasting planet motions, and analyzing data. However, it struggles in unstable worlds like hiring employees or predicting human behavior where there is insufficient theory or unreliable data.
While A.I. will continue to improve in stable situations, its limitations dealing with uncertainty mean human intelligence remains indispensable in many critical real-world problems.
Neural networks can be easily fooled in ways humans are not, such as mistaking a stop sign for a speed limit sign. This demonstrates a fundamental difference from human intelligence.
Neural networks lack an intuitive understanding of the world. They rely on statistical relationships between pixels or features rather than conceptual representations.
This makes it difficult to interpret their internal representations and correct errors. Unlike human cognition, small changes to inputs can cause bizarre misclassifications.
Traditional computer vision uses defined features like edges and colors. However, deep neural networks function more collectively, so what individual units detect needs to be clarified.
Neural networks can solve specific narrow tasks beyond human capability. But they also fail in non-intuitive ways unlike human errors.
The complexity of deep neural networks prevents easy debugging. Removing categories is insufficient to fix biases like racial discrimination.
To develop human-like intelligence, neural networks must move beyond pattern recognition to incorporate causal reasoning, conceptual understanding, and common sense. Their statistical approach has inherent limitations.
Karl Pearson pioneered statistical correlation but warned against overreliance without considering causation. Yet big data enthusiasts now claim correlation supersedes causation.
Blindly, data mining produces spurious correlations like the number of Nicolas Cage movies correlating with drowning deaths. Other examples demonstrate correlations can be meaningless.
With large datasets, one can always find some meaningless correlations. The combination of overvaluing correlations and having vast data has led to nonsense correlations being treated as insightful.
True insights come from understanding causes and mechanisms behind patterns, not just mining for correlations. Spurious correlations in big data can lead to wasted efforts and poor decisions if not recognized.
Pearson was right to develop correlation as a tool but warned against believing correlation equals causation or is sufficient. His warnings remain relevant in the age of big data when correlations are easy to compute, but causation remains elusive.
Here are summary points about the critical issues raised regarding transparency, accountability, and ethics in A.I. systems:
Black box algorithms used in criminal justice lack transparency, making testing for bias or unfairness challenging. Simpler, more interpretable models like transparent decision lists can perform just as well.
Predictive policing algorithms have largely failed to reduce crime as promised while raising issues of bias and eroding public trust. More transparency and accountability are needed.
Biased data and lack of diversity among A.I. developers can lead systems to perpetuate discrimination against women, minorities, and other groups. Transparency and testing for fairness are critical.
Excessive faith in complex algorithms leads to their use even when unadorned; transparent models would suffice. Researchers should test if exemplary models can match black boxes.
Issues like the privacy paradox and surveillance capitalism reveal tensions between individual privacy and corporate/government interests. People may need more education on valuing privacy.
Social credit systems that restrict freedoms based on opaque scoring systems raise ethical concerns about oversight and unintended consequences. Safeguarding rights is vital.
Overall, more transparency, accountability, and focus on social impact are required in A.I. systems to uphold ethics. Retaining human oversight remains essential.
Surveillance capitalism utilized by companies like Google and Facebook relies on invading user privacy and collecting personal data to enable targeted advertising. This was enabled post-9/11 when security fears overshadowed privacy concerns.
Mass surveillance makes little money for users, only pennies per day, while greatly profiting the tech companies. An alternative model would be paying a small monthly fee to use platforms instead of giving up personal data.
Governments and corporations are increasingly using behavioral control techniques like operant conditioning. China's social credit system is an overt example. More subtle nudging methods are also used in democracies.
B.F. Skinner believed behavior was entirely shaped by external reinforcement rather than internal free will. His operant conditioning techniques to modify behavior are similar to big data nudging efforts today.
Social media companies utilize persuasive psychology techniques like intermittent variable rewards to get users hooked and spend more time on their platforms. People feel in control but are influenced more than they realize.
As surveillance and behavioral control techniques advance and spread, concerns have been raised over compromising privacy, freedom, human dignity, and democratic ideals. However, many may willingly cede liberties for promises of efficiency and convenience.
Digital literacy and the ability to assess online information is critical but lacking in many education systems. Finland has been a leader in this area.
The internet has enabled the spread of disinformation on an unprecedented scale. False information is easy and cheap to produce and share digitally.
However, the internet also provides tools to evaluate sources, like quickly searching for information about a site's backers. However, many professionals still need to gain the skills to leverage these tools effectively.
Traditional checklists for evaluating sources fall short online. Sophisticated misinformation can mimic credible sources in appearance.
Effective strategies include lateral reading - leaving a site to research its backers, exercising click restraint, revisiting pages after research, and ignoring superficial site features.
Critical thinking and reasoning skills are as important as digital literacy tools. Both need greater emphasis in education to create a more discerning public.
Here is a summary of the key points made in the various references:
Social media algorithms can promote misinformation and echo chambers, as people are more likely to engage with content that aligns with their existing views. This can polarize discourse.
Studies find correlations between social media use and mental health issues like anxiety and depression, particularly in youth. However, causality remains unclear.
Smartphones and internet use have been linked to attention issues, cognitive overload, and declines in memory and critical thinking skills. But impacts likely depend on how the technologies are used.
AI and automation are transforming the job landscape, which could worsen economic inequality if displaced workers lack retraining opportunities. More human-centric design of technology is called for.
Facial recognition, predictive policing algorithms, and other A.I. systems can perpetuate racial and gender biases if biased or unrepresentative training data. Audits and oversight are needed.
Online dating provides expanded romantic options but can lead to deception, harassment, and discouragement. The algorithms involved need more transparency.
Targeted social media ads and search engine manipulation enable tech firms and malicious actors to influence user beliefs and behaviors at scale covertly. This raises ethical issues around consent and manipulation.
In summary, while modern technology provides many conveniences and capabilities, it also poses risks related to disinformation, mental health, distraction, inequality, bias, transparency, and consent. Thoughtful oversight and design is required to maximize benefits and minimize harms.
Lack of transparency and oversight in data collection and algorithmic systems enables manipulation and harm. More accountability is needed.
Surveillance capitalism invades privacy and erodes autonomy for profit. Data is collected and analyzed without consent.
Biased algorithms perpetuate discrimination and injustice. They reflect and amplify existing societal biases.
Addictive A.I. exploits vulnerabilities in human psychology for business goals like engagement and consumption.
Deceptive bots and misinformation spread lies at scale. They distort public discourse and manipulate opinion.
Automated decisions need more nuance and context. Oversimplified scoring systems determine access to opportunities.
Predatory corporations and governments abuse A.I. for social control and unethical ends. Stronger regulation is required to prevent harm.
Overall, while AI has many benefits, its misuse of power, profit, and manipulation raises profound concerns. Protecting human values and dignity requires vigilance, ethics, and oversight in the future.
Here is a summary of the key points about learning and psychological A.I. from the book Last Days of Socrates:
The book does not directly discuss artificial intelligence or machine learning. It focuses on the teachings and trials of the ancient Greek philosopher Socrates.
Socrates emphasized the importance of self-knowledge, wisdom, and virtue. He believed philosophy should aim to improve moral character, not just acquire knowledge.
He used a questioning method to get people to reflect critically on their beliefs and values. The "Socratic method" aims to reveal contradictions and encourage deeper thinking.
At his trial in 399 BC, Socrates was accused of "corrupting the youth" with his challenging questions. He refused to apologize and was sentenced to death by poisoning.
Socrates accepted the verdict calmly, arguing that a virtuous person should not fear death. He died surrounded by his followers and students.
His death raised questions about the relationship between truth, virtue, and the law. The book examines his teachings and how different students interpreted them after his execution.
Overall, the book does not directly discuss modern A.I. It examines Socrates' life, trial, and philosophical views on ethics and knowledge. Let me know if you want me to summarize anything from the book.
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