SUMMARY - Real Happiness_ The Power of Meditation - Sharon Salzberg

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Here's a summary:

  • Regular meditation can greatly benefit health and well-being. It is simple to learn but requires consistent practice.

  • Meditation increases awareness and insight, reduces negative emotions and stress, enhances focus and calmness, improves health and longevity.

  • Meditation leads to changes in the brain that strengthen areas involved in memory, empathy, sense of self, and stress regulation. It decreases activity in the amygdala, involved in anxiety and fear.

  • Meditation improves attention, learning, and decision making. It enhances coping skills and resilience in the face of difficulty. It fosters healthy relationships and habits.

  • Meditation connects us with our deepest values and true priorities in life. It helps limit conditioned beliefs and gaining acceptance of change. It develops trust, wisdom, kindness, and courage.

  • Meditation techniques include focused attention on the breath, bodily sensations, or mental repetition of a mantra or prayer. Open monitoring of thoughts and emotions without judgment. And cultivating compassion.

  • Many studies show the numerous benefits of meditation for both mind and body. Doctors, schools, and governments recommend meditation for wellness and as treatment. But benefits require consistent practice.

  • Living in the present moment, rather than being distracted by past and future concerns or digital devices, restores our mental energy and capacity for happiness. Meditation is a tool for regaining the ability to focus our attention.

  • Anyone can meditate to reduce stress and negative emotions, gain insight and inner calm, improve health and cognition, strengthen relationships, and find greater meaning and purpose. Meditation leads to profound and lifelong shifts in perspective and being.

That covers the key points on the benefits and practices of meditation according to the summaries provided. Please let me know if you would like me to clarify or expand on any part of this summary.

Here is a summary:

Meditation helps cultivate awareness and concentration, reducing feelings of being overwhelmed, stressed and unfulfilled that come from constant multitasking and distraction. It leads to a sense of wholeness and balance.

To prepare to meditate:

  • Choose a quiet, distraction-free place to sit comfortably. Use a cushion, chair or couch. Decorate the space if desired.

  • Wear comfortable clothes. Your outfit does not matter.

  • Pick a regular time to meditate and stick to it. Start with 20 minutes a day, 3 times a week and build up. Use guided meditations.

  • Commit to meditating regularly. Write it in your schedule. This will make it a habit and priority.

The benefits of meditation are reclaiming your energy, gaining a sense of wholeness and living consciously in the present moment. Reducing distraction leads to less stress and more well-being and creativity.

The basic elements of posture for meditation are:

• Sit with legs crossed, kneel or sit in a chair with feet flat. Knees lower than hips.

• Sit up straight but not rigid. Envision a stack of coins. Relax your jaw and keep mouth slightly open.

• Place hands on thighs, palms down. Or clasp hands in front, palms up.

• Look slightly down, not up. Keep head level and avoid dropping chin to chest.

• Gently close eyes or gaze softly at floor about six feet ahead. Soften eyes.

The core meditation focuses on your breath. Follow these steps:

  1. Sit comfortably and establish your posture. Close eyes or gaze softly forward.

  2. Take a few deep breaths to relax into your body. Let breath settle into natural rhythm.

  3. Notice where in your body you feel your breath most prominently. Gently rest attention there.

  4. Become aware of breath sensations in that area. Feel the breath moving in and out. Don’t control breath.

  5. Let attention rest on each breath as it happens. No need to name or judge sensations. Just feel them.

  6. When attention wanders to thoughts or distractions, gently bring it back to feeling your natural breath.

The key is starting simply. Sit, breathe and anchor awareness to your breath. Don’t worry about doing it right. Just begin again when your attention drifts. Regular practice strengthens concentration.


• Breathe naturally and focus on breath sensations.

• Notice thoughts/feelings, let them go and refocus on breath.

• Allow your natural breathing rhythm. Don't control or change it.

• Use "in"/"out" or "rising"/"falling" to help focus on breath. But do this quietly.

• Gently acknowledge distractions, then refocus on breath. Don't chase or cling to distractions.

• Don't judge yourself for distractions. Gently return focus to breath.

• Noticing you've wandered and returning to breath is the essence of meditation. Do it with kindness and patience.

• If drowsy, sit up, take deep breaths. Then return to normal breathing.

• Consider extending meditation qualities (calm, presence, willingness to begin again) into daily life.

• Dedicate benefits of practice to others, offering goodwill and loving-kindness.

• When ending, appreciate caring for yourself. Gently open your eyes.

The key insight is that meditation involves continually letting go of distractions and returning focus to your breath. Success comes from self-acceptance, calm observation, and appreciating the present moment.

Here's a summary:

Humans experience a variety of emotions, sensations and thoughts in each moment. We tend add interpretations and stories onto these experiences that amplify them into something bigger than they actually are. Mindfulness allows us to see our experiences as transient and ever-changing.

The meditations this week use the body scan, walking meditation and focused attention on body sensations to cultivate mindfulness. They teach us to observe sensations and emotions without clinging to pleasant ones or avoiding unpleasant ones. We notice that all experiences are fleeting, including emotions and thoughts.

A good way to approach difficult emotions is with recognition, acceptance, investigation and non-identification. Recognize the emotion, accept it without judgment, explore how it feels in your body and how it changes, then realize you are not defined by that emotion. Emotions arise and pass away.

The main obstacles to mindfulness are desire, aversion, sloth, restlessness and doubt. These manifest in clinging to pleasant sensations, avoiding unpleasant ones, numbness, anxiety and indecision. Notice the feeling tone of the obstacles, not just the thoughts they generate. See how vulnerable and transitory they are.

Practice this week involves mindfulness of emotions, thoughts and the obstacles that arise. Notice how you add interpretations onto bare experiences and make them into stories. See thoughts and emotions as passing mind events, not as truths that define you. Develop the ability to recognize obstacles early and pause before reacting.

The key is frequent practice. Start again each time you notice you've slipped out of mindfulness. With regular practice of recognizing emotions and obstacles, accepting them, exploring them with interest and not identifying with them, you gain freedom from their grip. You can choose your responses instead of reacting habitually. Progress comes through practice, not through achieving an ideal state.

So the main points are: observe experiences without clinging or avoiding; see emotions and thoughts as transitory; recognize and explore obstacles; do not identify with sensations, emotions or thoughts; practice frequently and recommit each time you notice you've lost mindfulness. This leads to healthier responses and greater well-being.

Here is a summary:

The key message is that through mindfulness meditation we can gain insight into habitual patterns of thinking and reacting, and choose to respond differently. By observing our experience with compassion and without judgment, we realize that difficult thoughts and feelings are impermanent and not our true essence. We can let them go, rather than reacting habitually. This leads to greater clarity and peace.

Some important principles include:

•Practicing mindfulness meditation by focusing on our breath and bodily sensations. Start with just a few minutes a day and build up gradually.

•Noticing habitual thoughts and reactions, and naming them without judgment. For example, recognizing a tendency to feel like a “failure” based on small mistakes. Observing these mental “tapes” helps us realize they are transient.

•Approaching ourselves with patience, gentleness and compassion. Judging ourselves for what arises during meditation is counterproductive.

•Fully experiencing emotions as they arise, without clinging to or pushing them away. Note the feeling, locate it in your body, and return to your breath. Difficult feelings will lessen over time.

•Letting go of thoughts and feelings when we notice ourselves getting unbalanced or resentful. Follow your intuition.

•Doing complementary practices like walking, stretching or being in nature. A balanced approach uses multiple skillful means. Seek professional help for severe or persistent difficulties.

•Lovingkindness meditation focuses on cultivating positive feelings of warmth and friendliness for yourself and others. It helps overcome feelings of isolation and challenges an “us vs. them” view. Compassion, sympathetic joy and goodwill are aspects of lovingkindness.

•Creating space between feelings/thoughts and habitual reactions leads to informed choices and new understanding. Mindfulness allows making responses rather than just reacting habitually.

•Stories show how people used mindfulness to gain insight into habitual thoughts, change reactions, and help another gain perspective. Pausing to observe experience leads to understanding and choosing different responses.

The key lesson is that mindfulness meditation leads to a balanced, compassionate awareness of experience. Observe without clinging to habitual reactions. Let go when needed. This transforms perspective and supports informed choice. Difficult feelings and thoughts lessen over time, as we realize they are impermanent and not our essence. A balanced approach, patience and self-compassion are needed. Professional help can also support change.

Here is a summary:

• Lovingkindness meditation, also known as metta meditation, is a practice where one sends good wishes and compassion to others. It involves silently repeating phrases wishing happiness, health, and ease for self and others.

• The Dalai Lama says cultivating compassion for others increases one's own happiness because if one rejoices in the joy of billions of others, there are greater odds of finding joy. A metaphor is imagining being stuck together on a subway - we must support each other.

• Looking for the good in others helps overcome judgment and soften one's heart, though this does not mean ignoring bad behavior or harm. It helps one see others as interconnected rather than estranged or judgmental.

• Key steps in lovingkindness meditation:

  1. Sit comfortably, close eyes, notice breath.

  2. Notice a critical thought about self or others. Gently bring attention to it.

  3. Say "This is just one thought. It will pass." Breathe.

  4. Ask "What is the kindest response?" Create a supportive phrase.

  5. Repeat supportive phrase, notice if critical thought fades. Return to supportive phrase if critical thought returns.

  6. Notice other critical thoughts, create supportive phrases.

  7. Reflect on how it felt to meet inner critic with compassion. This is profound self-love.

  8. Extend compassion for any remaining self-judgment. Say "May I accept myself as I am."

  9. Journal about experiences. Reflection strengthens awareness and equanimity.

• Inconsistency in compassion is human. Lovingkindness strengthens the "compassion muscle." Over time, judgments may arise less and compassion expand. Don't judge lapses in compassion—extend compassion to yourself.

• Practicing for those who cause harm: start with yourself; see their humanity; focus on individuals; use different phrases; be patient; see interconnectedness. Go slowly, be gentle, follow readiness. Forcing compassion breeds aversion. With patience, hearts soften.

• Lovingkindness does not require strong emotion. Phrases work subtly. Don't force feelings or have unrealistic expectations. Compassion does not make one weak—one can say no with compassion. Feeling envy towards others' success comes from thinking happiness is limited. Wish others well freely without control or expectation. It's an experiment in attention. Changes brain function, strengthens empathy and positive connections.

• Research shows lovingkindness activates empathy, emotion regulation, and emotional processing areas of the brain, especially in expert meditators. It leads to greater activity in these areas compared to control groups. Regular practice enhances compassion.

Here's a summary in 10 points:

  1. Meditation leads to greater empathy, emotion regulation, and emotional processing.

  2. View kindness as a strength. Look for the good in yourself and others.

  3. Remember that everyone wants to be happy. Practice generosity. Listen attentively.

  4. Include those left out. Avoid speaking ill of others. Understand before judging.

  5. Practice daily, focus on one type per session. Be patient and compassionate. Find community.

  6. Read books on meditation. Reflect on benefits. Practice mindfulness daily.

  7. Meditation helps us remember we're perfect as we are. Experiences change; mindfulness remains.

  8. Don't judge "failures." Start over gently. Change takes time. Look at life, not sessions.

  9. Use ordinary moments to practice. Continue through challenges. Meet experiences with balance.

  10. Live according to insights. Success is transforming your mind through starting over with compassion.

The key themes are cultivating compassion, committing to practice, being patient with yourself, using life as practice, trusting in your inherent perfection, meeting whatever arises with mindfulness, and ensuring your life reflects your insights. Regular practice and community support help strengthen these qualities. Meditation develops awareness and the ability to pause, which leads to wisdom and ease.

The audio meditations correspond to the book Real Happiness. They provide interactive guidance in concentration, mindfulness of the body and emotions, and lovingkindness. The intention is that listeners actively practice along with the audio. The meditations aim to build the skills and qualities summarized above through direct experience.

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